The Terminal Man by Michael Crichton; 22 editions; First published in ; Subjects: Fiction, Psychosurgery, Paranoia, Patients, Temporal. Автор: Crichton Michael, Книга: The Terminal Man. The Terminal Man is a thrilling novel about a man named Harry Benson who suffers from intense, violent seizures after a car accident. He is sent to a hospital for.
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We spotlight the book and movie versions of The Terminal Man by Michael Crichton including newly revealed content from The Official Michael. From the bestselling author of Jurassic Park, Timeline, and Sphere comes a neurological thriller about the dangers of cutting-edge medical experimentation. The Terminal Man is a novel by American writer Michael Crichton, about the dangers of mind . Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
Ellis admits that what they are doing is not a cure, simply a way to stimulate the brain when the computer senses a seizure coming on. It would prevent a seizure but not cure his personality disorder.
Ellis rationalizes his approach by pointing out that he is not convinced that not operating on Benson will do him any favors; Benson's condition threatens his life and those of others, has already undermined his legal status three times, and is worsening. Despite the concerns voiced, the team decides to go ahead with the operation.
The operation implants forty electrodes in Benson's brain, controlled by a small computer that is powered by a plutonium power pack in his shoulder. Benson must wear a dogtag that says to call University Hospital if he is injured, as his atomic power pack may emit radiation.
While he is recovering, a woman identifying herself by the name of Angela Black gives Morris a blonde wig for Benson, whose head was shaved prior to the operation. Morris goes back to his normal work, where he interviews a man who volunteers to have electrodes put into his mind to stimulate pleasure.
Morris refuses him, but realizes that people like Benson could potentially become addicts. He recalls a Norwegian man with schizophrenia, who was allowed to stimulate himself as much as he wanted, and did so much that it actually gave him brain damage. Roger A. McPherson, head of the Neuro-Psychiatric Service, interviews Benson, who is still convinced that machines are conspiring to take over the world.
After resting for a day, Benson goes through "interfacing. Each produces different results. One of the electrodes stimulates a sexual pleasure.
Ross asks Gerhard to monitor Benson every ten minutes. Gerhard shows his findings to Ross, who realizes that the seizures are getting more frequent. She explains that Benson is learning to initiate seizures involuntarily because the result of these seizures is a shock of pleasure, which leads to him having more frequent seizures.
Ross checks on Benson, and discovers that, due to the clerical error of the nurses not having been able to read McPherson's signature, Benson has not been receiving his Thorazine.
She then finds out that Benson, using the black wig and disguising himself as an orderly, has evaded the police officer assigned to guard him and escaped from the hospital. Ross goes to Benson's house, but instead finds two girls who say he has a gun and blueprints for the basement of University Hospital, where the computer mainframe is located.
Ellis searches at a strip club where Benson, who is fascinated with all things sexual, spends a lot of time, but fails to find him. She proves to have been a dancer with the real name of Doris Blankfurt. After answering questions at the police station, Ross goes home. This study investigates in humans the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of high-frequency electrical stimulation HFES; — Hz triggered by automated seizure detections.
Eight patients were enrolled in this study, which consisted of a control and an experimental phase. HFES was delivered directly to the epileptogenic zone local closed-loop in four patients and indirectly, through anterior thalami remote closed-loop , to the other four patients for every other automated seizure detection made by a validated algorithm.
Interphase control vs. Mean effect size was zero in the local closed-loop responders: beneficial and medium to large in magnitude and negligible in the remote closed-loop group responders: beneficial and medium to large.
HFES effects on epileptogenic tissue were immediate and also outlasted the stimulation period.
This study demonstrates the feasibility and short-term safety of automated HFES for seizure blockage and also raises the possibility that it may be beneficial in pharmacoresistant epilepsies. A mere 25 years later, bulky laptops are being replaced by slimmer PDAs i. Meanwhile, the field of neuromodulation is perhaps the fastest growing area of neurosurgery, and a skull-mounted implantable computer attached to cortical electrodes is now available on an investigational basis for the treatment of intractable epilepsy.
This truly is the dawn of a new age in neuroscience and neurotherapeutics, hastened by rapid advances in computer-processing speed and chip miniaturization. In addition, seizure-prediction algorithms have markedly improved over the past few years, permitting the early detection of seizure onsets, which allows a therapeutic intervention to occur immediately before ictal onset 1—3.
It has been clear for many years that the application of electric or magnetic fields to a seizure focus, either locally through direct cortical stimulation, or remotely to subcortical structures or cranial nerves, can influence the frequency and duration of both interictal and ictal events in animals and humans 4,5. However, although stimulation of the vagus and other cranial nerves is effective in reducing the frequency and severity of seizures through desynchronization of the cortical electroencephalogram 6 , it is still unclear which patients will benefit.
In addition, the efficacy of direct cortical stimulation might be vastly improved if it were combined with seizure-detection or closed-loop technologies with the capacity to deliver stimulation at the onset or even in advance of the ictal event 6. Such technology potentially could offer improved seizure control across a larger population of patients with intractable epilepsy, compared with vagal nerve stimulation alone.
In addition, it is possible that neuromodulation could avoid the infrequent, but irreversible, neuropsychological sequellae of resective surgery and the side effects of antiepileptic medications. Recently, several small studies have emerged in which open-loop i.
In general, these open-label, nonrandomized studies have demonstrated the safety of this therapeutic modality and hinted at its potential efficacy. To this burgeoning literature, Osorio et al. A few aspects of the methods used by Osorio and colleagues warrant clarification.
In brief, all eight patients included in the study underwent a control phase of video-EEG monitoring, involving implanted subdural and depth electrodes that localized epileptic foci and quantified seizure frequency, by using a seizure-detection algorithm. The implanted intracranial electrodes also were used to record the electrographic response to therapy during the experimental phase of the study. The investigators used high-frequency stimulation, on the basis of data showing that high-frequency stimulation — Hz is more likely to be inhibitory than is low-frequency stimulation 50—60 Hz.
Only epileptiform events that were verified as true positive detections by an independent reviewer were analyzed for efficacy. Stimulation was applied to every other detected event so that the investigators could examine the effect of stimulation on events during which no stimulation occurred, to determine whether a carry-over effect occurred.
In addition, antiepileptic drugs were kept equally as low during the experimental phase as they were during the control phase, thereby eliminating a drug effect.
Several remarkable findings emerged from this study. First, not only did two patients in the local-therapy group have complete elimination of their seizures, but in addition, the one patient who did not respond had bitemporal onsets and actually should not have been included in this arm of the study.
More notable is the fact that all seizures that occurred in this patient did not come from the previously identified focus but rather from a new focus. Furthermore, within the entire local-therapy group, all seizures that occurred did so during periods when no stimulation occurred. This result is almost too good to be true and clearly warrants further validation with a larger population of patients. Finally, with respect to the carry-over effect, the authors report remarkable variability.
In some patients for whom a direct therapeutic effect was identified, no carry-over was found, whereas in others for whom no direct effect was seen, a possible carry-over was identified.