Psychological Assessment SAGE Benchmarks in Psychology Edited by Gregory J Boyle Bond University, Queensland, Donald H Saklofske University of Calgary . - Seventh edition, Global edition. [Matching item] Psychological testing: history, principles, and applications / Robert J. Gregory ; editor in chief, Ashley Dodge. - Seventh edition, Pearson global edition. Psychological Testing: History, Principles and Applications eBook PDF, Global Edition, 7/E. View larger cover. Robert J. Gregory, Wheaton College.
|Language:||English, Spanish, French|
|Genre:||Politics & Laws|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
Psychological Testing: Principles and Applications 6th Edition Size Report. DOWNLOAD PDF Psychological Testing: Principles, Applications, and Issues. Overview of the Book 9 Principles of Psychological Testing 10 Applications of alertness to the environment and alertness to cultural opportunities (Gregory. Psychological Testing: History, Principles and Applications, Books a la Carte (7th Edition) Robert J. (7th Edition) by Robert J. Gregory ebook PDF download.
The instructor can test several students with a hypothetical examination. By alternating demeanor between friendly and harsh, the effect of rapport can be demonstrated quite effectively.
Divide the class in half. Have both groups develop a simple and benign test that they can administer in class i. Once they have created a test, instruct them to test each member in their group and record scores to create a standardized sample. Then have each group administer their test to members of the opposite group and record where each individual falls in relation the standardized sample.
They can chart the results on the blackboard. This is an interactive way to familiarize students with the basic features of norm-referenced tests. Outline the characteristics of a test. Using a hypothetical test of your own invention, provide evidence that it is truly a test as defined in the textbook. Discuss the potential uses of psychological tests. Define and differentiate norm-referenced testing and criterion-referenced testing.
What is behavioral assessment? Cite a new example of a behavioral assessment procedure. Define test anxiety and summarize the research findings with respect to its correlates. Describe desirable procedures for the administration of group tests.
Describe how a correction for guessing can be used in test scoring. For example, with a item multiple choice test that has four options per question, what should be the corrected score for an individual who answered 35 items correctly, answered 9 items incorrectly, and left 6 items blank?
Clarify your answer. Name two mild disabilities that are frequently overlooked in testing. Identify some signs that will help the examiner detect these impairments and describe adjustments they should make when testing these individuals. Why is comprehensive training in test administration critical to proper utilization of tests, and how has this been shown to be insufficient in past studies?
The test is a multivariate assessment of heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflex irritability, and color in newborns. Reflex b. Apgar d. Alpha 2. A specialist in psychology or education who develops and evaluates psychological tests: a. Which of the following could be a test, according to the definition offered in the textbook? Which of the following is NOT a typical characteristic of psychological tests? Tests that use a well-defined population of persons for their interpretive framework are referred to as: a.
Uniformity of administration procedures is the definition of a. Which of the following is an essential step in the standardization of a test? Where is the most reliable source to get directions and instructions for administering specific psychological tests?
Why are tests merely a sample of behavior? Suppose that answering true to the question I drink a lot of water happens to help predict depression. Would it be wise to include this item on a test used to identify depression?
Which of the following is NOT true in relation to psychological tests: a. The norm group is referred to as the a.
The purpose of norms is to a. In a n test, the objective is to determine where the examinee stands with respect to very tightly defined educational objectives.
Which is the most comprehensive term? The term was invented during World War II to describe a program to select men for secret service assignment in the Office of Strategic Services. An important advantage of tests is that the examiner can gauge the level of motivation of the examinee.
Most intelligence tests use a assortment of test items. Intelligence b. Aptitude d. Achievement Personality c. Measures of emphasize novelty and originality in the solution of fuzzy problems or the production of artistic works. Putting forth a variety of answers to a complex or fuzzy problem is an example of thinking.
Checklists, inventories, and projective techniques are all examples of tests. Intelligence tests b.
Personality inventories c. Behavioral procedures What subspecialty of psychology uses specialized tests on people to make inferences about the locus, extent, and consequences of brain damage?
Neurology b. Cognitive Psychology c. Neuropsychology 9 16 Placement, screening, certification, and selection are all examples of a. A neuropsychologist investigating the hypothesis that low-level lead absorption causes behavior deficits in children would be an example of using psychological testing for.
In general, Head Start children show immediate gains in a. In a n test, the performance of each examinee is interpreted in reference to a relevant standardization sample. A psychometrician is best understood as a. Appraising or estimating the magnitude of one or more attributes in a person is referred to as a. Suppose a tester asks What is a sofa? In general, is it acceptable for the tester to rephrase the question, asking What is a couch?
Yes, because valid testing requires the development of rapport. Yes, because the two questions are equivalent. No, because the tester should never deviate from standardized procedure. No, because the rephrased question is easier and therefore not comparable. In most cases, if a test question asks What shape is a ball? The necessary prerequisite s to administering a new test are: a. Which age group is most prone to periodic accumulation of fluid in the middle ear during intervals of mild illness?
Which of the following is a possible sign of hearing loss? Owing to the special nature of this kind of impairment, subjects may receive less credit on a test item than is due.
When testing a person with a mild motor handicap, examiners may wish to omit a. According to the text, which kind of test generally requires the greatest vigilance from the examiner? Undoubtedly the single greatest source of error in group test administration is: a.
In general, how do test manuals for group standardized tests handle the issue of guessing? Suppose a young girl answers correctly on 37 questions from a item test but answers erroneously on 9 questions, leaving 2 questions blank.
Suppose their are four alternatives per question. Using established principles of probability, what would be her corrected score? Which of the examiner characteristics listed below has been found to make a consistent and significant difference in the outcome of individual test results? In one study reported in the text Terrell, et al. What is the relationship between test anxiety and school achievement?
Test-anxious students have study habits that are those of other students. Suppose subjects are matched on overall IQ. On timed subtests from an intelligence scale such as the WAIS, the performance of low-anxious subjects that of high-anxious subjects.
In a item multiple choice test with four choices per item, what would be the corrected score for an examinee who answered 32 items correctly, answered 9 items incorrectly, and left 9 items blank? The original low score was a result of a. The test item writer s aim is to make all or nearly all considered guesses guesses. A common form of error made by graduate students in studies of practice administrations of IQ and achievement tests would be: a. Discuss each of the broad ethical principles that apply to testing, asking students to cite hypothetical examples where these principles might be violated.
The principles are: assessment should be in the best interests of the client; practitioners have a primary obligation to protect the confidentiality of test results; the psychologist must possess the expertise needed to evaluate the tests that are chosen for an assessment, the test user must obtain informed consent from the test taker or a legal representative; the examiner must be knowledgeable about individual differences; and, the psychologist must respect the current standards of care.
How does culture affect the validity of standard tests? By this time, the idea of intelligence testing had swept across the world. By , L. It also characterizes one of the most important trends in testing—the drive toward better tests. The standardization sample was increased to include people, original items were revised, and many new items were added. However, the Binet test was an individual test.
Shortly after the United States became actively involved in World War I, the army requested the assistance of Robert Yerkes, who was then the president of the American Psychological Association see Yerkes, Yerkes headed a committee of distinguished psychologists who soon developed two structured group tests of human abilities: the Army Alpha and the Army Beta.
The Army Alpha required reading ability, whereas the Army Beta measured the intelligence of illiterate adults. World War I fueled the widespread development of group tests. About this time, the scope of testing also broadened to include tests of achievement, aptitude, interest, and personality. Because achievement, aptitude, and intelligence tests overlapped considerably, the distinctions proved to be more illusory than real.
Even so, the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale had appeared at a time of strong demand and high optimism for the potential of measuring human behavior through tests.
World War I and the creation of group tests had then added momentum to the testing movement. Shortly after the appearance of the Stanford-Binet Intelligence Scale and the Army Alpha test, schools, colleges, and industry began using tests. It appeared to many that this new phenomenon, the psychological test, held the key to solving the problems emerging from the rapid growth of population and technology.
Achievement Tests Among the most important developments following World War I was the development of standardized achievement tests. Standardized achievement tests caught on quickly because of the relative ease of administration and scoring and the lack of subjectivity or favoritism that can occur in essay or other written tests.
In school settings, standardized achievement tests allowed one to maintain identical testing conditions and scoring standards for a large number of children. In , the development of standardized achievement tests culminated in the publication of the Stanford Achievement Test by T.
Kelley, G. Ruch, and L. By the s, it was widely held that the objectivity and reliability of these new standardized tests made them superior to essay tests. Their use proliferated widely. It is interesting, as we shall discuss later in the book, that teachers of today appear to have come full circle.
Currently, many people favor written tests and work samples portfolios over standardized achievement tests as the best way to evaluate children Boerum, ; Harris, Rising to the Challenge For every movement there is a countermovement, and the testing movement in the United States in the s was no exception. Critics soon became vocal enough to dampen enthusiasm and to make even the most optimistic advocates of tests defensive.
Researchers, who demanded nothing short of the highest standards, noted the limitations and weaknesses of existing tests.
Near the end of the s, developers began to reestablish the respectability of tests. By , the Stanford-Binet had been revised again. Among the many improvements was the inclusion of a standardization sample of more than individuals.
The Wechsler-Bellevue scale contained several interesting innovations in intelligence testing. Among the various scores produced by the Wechsler test was the performance IQ. Performance tests do not require a verbal response; one can use them to evaluate intelligence in people who have few verbal or language skills.
The Stanford-Binet test had long been criticized because of its emphasis on language and verbal skills, making it inappropriate for many individuals, such as those who cannot speak or who cannot read.
In addition, few people believed that language or verbal skills play an exclusive role in human intelligence. In , the Binet test was drastically revised to include performance subtests. More recently, it was overhauled again in , as we shall see in Chapter 9.
Whereas intelligence tests measured ability or potential, personality tests measured presumably stable characteristics or traits that theoretically underlie behavior. Traits are relatively enduring dispositions tendencies to act, think, or feel in a certain manner in any given circumstance that distinguish one individual from another. For example, we say that some people are optimistic and some pessimistic.
Optimistic people tend to remain so regardless of whether or not things are going well. A pessimist, by contrast, tends to look at the negative side of things. Optimism and pessimism can thus be viewed as traits.
One of the basic goals of traditional personality tests is to measure traits. As you will learn, however, the notion of traits has important limitations. The earliest personality tests were structured paper-and-pencil group tests. These tests provided multiple-choice and true-false questions that could be administered to a large group. History indicates that tests such as the Binet and the Woodworth were created by necessity to meet unique challenges.
Interpretation of the Woodworth test depended on the now-discredited assumption that the content of an item could be accepted at face value.
I wet the bed. I drink a quart of whiskey each day. I am afraid of closed spaces. I believe I am being followed. People are out to get me. Sometimes I see or hear things that other people do not hear or see. It contains questions such as those shown here. Other problems with tests such as the Woodworth are discussed in Chapter However, researchers scrutinized, analyzed, and criticized the early structured personality tests, just as they had done with the ability tests.
Indeed, the criticism of tests that relied on face value alone became so intense that structured personality tests were nearly driven out of existence.