aridatta was a Brahmin who was very poor. He was a farmer but the piece of land he cultivated gave him very little to survive. One day, unable to stand the heat. Panchatantra, oldest collection of Indian fables and the most popular work of literature.» English Short Stories» Sanskrit Scripts» Original Pictures. THE PANCHATANTRA. CROWS AND OWLS. Nose told the story of . THE BRAHMAN, THE .. corvine provenience. There is a story that illustrates.
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Eighteen of the stories known in India are also found in Indonesia.6 The Sanskrit depictions of the Panchatantra tales that preceded those in manuscripts.8 An Qaisar, “An Introduction to the Anwar-i Suhaili and Its Illustrations,” in Art and. (For more than two and a half millennia, the Panchatantra tales have regaled Addressed to the king's children, the stories are primarily about statecraft and. fables are only illustrations in defence of it. The Panchatantra Tales is one of the best known classics of ancient India. Composed in Sanskrit about years.
Abhinav Publications, , Piotr Balcerowitz and Jerry Malinowski Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, , 33— It relates the story of two martyrs and is based on the life of the Buddha. It is suggested that these two aspects are not only interrelated but can be equally important as expressions of concepts, attitudes, and values instrumental to, and inspired by, the animal fables.
An excellent example of this approach, exemplified in relation to the present issues, is Finbarr B. Past interpretations, as he pointed out, have mostly been dependent on literary sources while ignoring or overlooking the semantic aspects of acculturation that artistic sources provide. The present study will offer an overview of the literary and artistic migrations of the Panchatantra, followed by focused discussions of particular fable illustrations, from their earliest known artistic origins in the art of India and Indonesia, through their Islamic transformations in Asia, until the late medieval and Renaissance renditions in Europe.
The emphasis will be on elements of continuity and change in visual interpretations, as related to the texts, as well as diverse cultural and artistic contexts. It will be demonstrated that in some cases visual formulas associated with the earliest images of the animal tales exhibited a rare tenacity and survived for centuries, despite linguistic and thematic transformations of texts, modified definitions, and recycling of visual materials in different cultural and intercultural contexts.
The fact that images of these fables were ubiquitous and were continually readopted over centuries prompts questions of interchange and transmission in the context of cultural diversity. How did the varied illustrations reflect differences in sociopolitical, religious, and ethical values, and what means were adopted to express and communicate in ways that would be both legible and engaging to the relevant public? These issues touch on theoretical questions related to cultural interaction as mediated by translation, in its broader sense.
Although scholars assume textual versions existed far earlier, oral transmission may also have preceded the written versions. It has been recognized that specific tales were taken over by artists from earlier literary sources, such as those of the Jatakas birth stories of the Buddha , some of which were sculpted on stupas from the second century BCE ,12 and the great Hindu epics, which were carved in stone from the Gupta period c.
By contrast, many of the illustrations appear to have had an independent history, copied by sculptors who did not necessarily know the literary text. Flood, Objects of Translation: Princeton University Press, Rhys-Davids, trans. Routledge, Images underwent endless repetitions and seem to have had a life of their own, regardless of whether they were iconic or narrative, religious or secular, purely decorative or didactic.
Obviously, the situation was different when these images were meant to illuminate and decorate the text in a manuscript. Owing to the rich variety of Persian and Arabic Kalila wa Dimna illustrations, the links between the text and illuminations have been studied in the light of cultural and political contexts, as formulated in their westward migration, through the Islamic world, to the Mediterranean area.
This compilation of moralizing fables, often described as embodying Machi- avellian-style immorality, is known as a book intended for instruction in wise human conduct, practical wisdom or statecraft respectively defined in Sanskrit as niti and artha based on a pragmatic philosophy of life.
These five frame stories and the additional tales they introduced were defined by theme headings: Tauris, , — The Gaining of Friends ; Kakolukiyam 3. Crows and Owls or War and Peace ; Labdhapranasam 4.
Loss of Gains ; and Aparikshitakarakam 5. Ill-Considered Action or Rash Deeds. The first translation from the original Sanskrit text was that of a Persian court physician named Borzui Burzuyeh or Burzoe, — Borzui was a prominent physician who was also knowledgeable in languages, including Sanskrit, a skill that allowed him to translate the original Sanskrit into Pahlavi Middle Persian. His translation, which he named Karataka and Damanaka, has been lost but is known through its descendants and offshoots.
A second Syriac translation of the tenth or eleventh century was made from the Arabic.
The story, which probably served as an autobiographic prologue, tells that the king sent Borzui to India to find an elixir rasayana , extracted from herbs in the Himalayas, that was capable of reviving the dead.
But when it turned out to be ineffective, a philosopher explained that the elixir was in truth a book and interpreted the allegory as follows: A slightly different version was related in the eleventh-century Persian Shahnameh by Firdousi Firdawsi, d. Ernst J.
Grube Bombay: Chandra Rajan London: Penquin Books, , xvii—xviii; Edger- ton The Panchatantra Reconstructed , 40—47 claimed that his translation included all but three of the original stories but omitted the introduction. Denham, See also Abu al-Qasim al-Firdawsi, al-Shahnameh, trans. Al-Fath b. He was known for his love of the sciences and was one of the great patrons of the translation project of literary and scientific works from Sanskrit to Persian. The Kalilah wa Dimnah, translated by Ibn al-Muqaffa d.
After committing the text to memory, he wrote it out in Pahlavi and sent it to the king, requesting only that his name be mentioned in the copy of the Kalila wa Dimna. The original Arabic version of Kalila wa Dimna included four prefaces or introductory chapters and fifteen chapters of tales, several of which were added by the tenth century.
The second chapter describes the transmission of the book to the Sassanian kingdom and the translation by Borzui. The third chapter, written by Abdallah ibn al-Muqaffa, a Zoroastrian convert to Islam — c. The fourth chapter conveys praise for Borzui, with episodes of his life. It relates the story of his voyage to India, sent by the Sassanian king in order to obtain the Kalila wa Dimna, a treasure hidden by the Indian kings that contained the secrets of their wise rule.
The fourteen chapters of animal tales were valued as wise instructions for ruling the kingdom and its subjects. He also added five new chapters. The illustrations in some of the early Arabic and Persian Kalila and Dimna manuscripts will be discussed below.
Smithsonian Institution Press, , 9—16, 61— Ibn al Nadim, an Arabic writer of the tenth century, wrote of sev- enteen or eighteen chapters, claiming that he personally saw two chapters added; The Fihrist of al-Nadim: Bayard Dodge New York: Rida Tehran: Dar al-Masirah, , , The Kalila wa Dimna edition of Beirut, published in , includes sixteen chapters in addition to four introductions: Ibn al-Muqaffa, Kalilah wa-Dimnah, ed.
Dar al-Andalus, The Cairo edition of contains fifteen chapters and four introductions, with illustrations by the contemporary artist Roman Strekalovsky, executed according to Islamic artistic traditon: Ibn al- Muqaffa, Kalilah wa-Dimnah, ed.
Arabic manuscripts: Persian manuscripts: Patil listed sculptures, depicting fifty stories, which have survived in India, Bangladesh, and Indonesia. The placement of specific themes in Indian temple architecture and in that of Southeast Asia was dictated by well-defined rules and tradition. Secular, moralistic themes and narratives of a didactic nature were allocated to the lowest architectural registers.
He was a Brahmin minister of the western Chalukya king Jayasimha, who ruled in Karnataka — Wall paintings were another early source of related iconography. The assimilation of Indian literature and art in Sogdian culture was mediated by Buddhist communities, and Hindu deities were identified with those of the local pagan and Iranian pantheon.
Bibliotheca Persica Press, , esp. This is the case of the scenes from the Panchatantra and Mahabharatha which are considered to be represented at Penjikent.
He assumed that manuscript illustra- tions were the source of the Sogdian murals or that the murals were based on Indian models. Marshak was convinced of the existence in Sogdiana of illustrated manuscripts and sketchbooks that local artists used for their paintings.
In his discussion of an Indian ceramic fragment 2nd— 3rd century CE , excavated at Sri Lanka, that depicts the monkey riding on the crocodile, he neglected to mention that the story originates in Jataka tales. Although we can reconstruct the chronolgy and development of the fable imagery in Indian and Javanese sculpture up to the eleventh and twelfth centuries, assuming there was a chronological overlap between the tradition of sculpted imagery and illustrations in manuscripts, concrete evidence of contacts and correlations has yet to be revealed.
Harvard University Press, ; Hertel, ed. In his preface Ibn al-Muqaffa stated that the text should be illustrated, and there is evidence that illustrated manuscripts of this kind already existed at that time. He who peruses this book should know that its intentions is fourfold. Firstly it was put into the mouths of dumb animals so that light-hearted youths might flock to read it and their hearts be captivated by the rare uses of animals.
Secondly, it was intended to show the images of the animals in varieties of paints and colors so as to delight the hearts of princes, increase their pleasure, and also the degree of care which they would bestow on the work. Thirdly, it was intended that the book should be such that kings and common folk should not cease to acquire it; that it might be repeatedly copied and recreated in the course of time thus giving work to the painter and copyist.
The fourth purpose of the work concerns the philosophers in particular i. In his defense, the prince claimed to have inherited from his father a book of etiquette and decorous behavior from the Persian tradition, and accused the judge Qadi for keeping a similar book in his collection, namely, an illustrated copy of the Kalila wa Dimna that, he claimed, did not defy strictures of the Muslim religion.
This passage already appears in the earliest surviving Arabic illustrated manuscript: Paris, BnF, MS , fol.
Brill, ; Beirut: Its ninety-eight illustrations there are eight later additions , considered to be original work of an anonymous artist, were important models for later illuminators. Some of fourteenth-century Persian manuscripts include lavish illustrations depicting the original Panchatantra tales with additional animal stories.
How was it possible for these didactic fables, originating in the Buddhist and Hindu literature of India and diffused in temple iconography, to cross cultural, religious, and linguistic borders? The first stage of cultural transmission was part of a translation movement and seems to have initially been promoted by the political ambitions of Muslim rulers and court politics.
The Persian and Arabic beast fables also came to be valued for their literary style and rhetoric as well as their pragmatic ethical wisdom and didactic guidance. Brill, , 86— Waley and Norah M. It can help the policy of the kings in bringing order into their kingdoms, and people of middle status in preserving their possessions.
Although they employed Hindu and Muslim artists of local Indian schools, such as those of Rajasthan, Gwalior, Gujarat, and Kashmir, the Mughals were also influenced by manuscripts and paintings of their Timurid ancestors and those made for the Safavids and the Shaybani Uzbeks who succeeded the Timurids in Iran and Central Asia.
Trans- cultural Experiences in the Premodern World, ed. Albrecht Classen Berlin: De Gruyter, , — Mujtaba Minuvi Tehran: It is dedicated to Amir Suhayli, who commissioned Kashifi to rewrite the stories of Kalila wa Dimna in up-to-date language. The Iyar-i-Danish, a new version of the Timurid work, was commissioned by the Mughal emperor Akbar — Ralph H.
Pinder-Wilson Oxford: Oxford University Press, , 48— Modifications in the relationship between text and image and functions of the illustrations were examined by John Seyller, who stated: Artists documented the animals and plants that Jahangir found or received as gifts from other countries. In his huge aviary and large zoo he kept records of every specimen and organized experiments.
The Arabic and Persian illustrations were repeatedly copied in manuscripts, as late as the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, in India, Persia, and the Middle East. Wilkinson, The Lights of Canopus: Anwar-i Suhaili London: Channabasappa S.
Directorate of Archaeology and Museums, , fig. Detail of fig. Johann Zainer, Seville: Conrad Flyner, , fol. Bernard Salomon Lyon: Lean de Tournes et Guillaume Gazeau, Fig. This manuscript contains numerous illuminations, most of which do not derive from the original Kalila wa Dimna fables, although some of the classical illustrations were faithfully repeated in an uninspired provincial style.
This was part of his program to promote Castilian translations of literary, historical, legal, philosophical, 59 Flood, Objects of Translation, 6—8. The literature on Hebrew translations of Arabic texts in Spain is extensive; see, e. University Press of Maryland, , — The linear illustrations in a Castilian manuscript originally in El Escorial, now Madrid, Biblioteca nacional, MS h-III -9 , attributed to the first third of the fifteenth century, represent the work of several hands.
Some of those depicting the animal fables can be related to specific Arabic precedents in terms of style and iconography. A possible connection between bestiaries and the Calila e Digna has also been considered in regard to Iberian animal depictions. The popularity of Hebrew illuminated manuscripts, in general, and of those including animal depictions, in particular, provides further evidence of this tradition in the fifteenth century. That of Symeon Seth dates to about , but there is no evidence that its earliest recension gen- 64 David A.
Linker and John E. Keller, eds. Keller and Richard P. Ediciones Universal, Textual variations, presumably resulting from erroneous translations of the Arabic source, are mirrored in the miniatures.
The question of a direct Oriental influence has been debated by scholars. Raby concluded that some of the Morgan miniatures relied on an Arabic prototype, with or without modifications, and only a few were designed expressly for the Greek text. Literary evi- dence indicates that Arabic and Persian copies of the Kalila wa Dimna existed as early as the ninth and tenth centuries.
It is also significant that Panchatantra scenes were painted in frescoes in Sogdian Pen- jikent at the time Ibn al-Muqaffa was writing mid-8th century. Itzkowski, — Firmin-Didot, —99; repr. Franklin, , In accordance with its title, the Liber regius The Royal Book , a full-page portrait of the royal family appears on fol.
From the very first lines, Raymond underlined the orthodox Christian nature of his work and promoted the illustration of religious themes with his translation BnF, lat.
His opening dedication reads: To Lord Philip, blessed be he, fortified by the divine providence of God, to the kingdom of France, to the illustrious king. The anonymous illuminator of lat. Furthermore, the illuminator seems to have been oblivious of the line drawings that embellished the Castilian text, which supposedly was the source of this Latin translation.
Nevertheless, as will be demonstrated below, several of the traditional animal tales depicted in lat.
Reale and R. Sternglanz Donington, UK: Shaun Tyas, , — Dovehouse Editions, , appendix IV, , —79, nos. III Three of these versions were issued in and another in , with slight modifications of the text. Different stylistic approaches represented in this collection of woodcuts numbering between and in the various German versions represent the work of several artists and the use of different models.
Those illustrations depicting human participants retained the Germanic Gothic narrative compositions, with landscapes, architecture, and details of contemporary attire and manners.
By contrast, several of the traditional animal compositions assumed the form of framed emblematic images, depicting essentials in a minimalistic manner. By there were twenty-two editions of the Buch der Weisheit.
B53 with an incomplete set of woodcuts. Enguita, special issue, Archivio de Filologia Aragonesa 59—60, no. The appeal of these editions probably lay in the perception of the fables as a form of the moralizing topos that was particularly popular in the sixteenth century.
The fables were modified and adapted by Firenzuola to suit his Italian public. It is surprising, however, that the Discorsi degli animali was considered a purely literary work that needed no illustrations.
The subsequent vernacular translation by the Florentine polygraph Anton Francesco Doni — was called La moral filosophia del Doni Venice: Marcolini, , a somewhat pretentious title that reflects the distancing of the book, not only nominally, from its traditional sources.
Emblematic personifications of abstract concepts, such as Truth, Hatred, Melancholy, Destiny, Ignorance, Misfor- tune, and Trickery, with the addition of moralizing comments by Doni, were inserted into the animal fables of La moral filosophia. How do we explain the independent role of these images and their tenuous relation to the narratives?
It has been assumed that the practice of recycling images by Doni and Marcolini, in line with other polygraphs of the mid-cinquecento, was initially due to the high cost of producing illustrated books. Suprisingly, it has recently been established that the Accademia Pellegrini never existed but was a fabrication of Doni and Marcolini.
In reversing the order, by first presenting the moral principle and then illustrating it with a fable, he explicitly clarified the didactic message for the reader. Early medieval rhetoricians had begun to insert fable titles as promythia text that precedes the story based on the implicit moral topoi, initially to index them for quick location. This is salient in vernacular bestiaries, which were associated in medieval libraries with texts on virtues, vices, penance, and heresy, combinations that reflected their uses by preachers in the preparation of sermons.
Paolo Procaccioli and Angelo Romano Rome: Vecchiarelli, , 45—85, http: Its importance increased in the Renaissance, as a medium for moral culture in grammar schools, providing exempla for sermons, and appealing to a broad general public as well as politicians, scholars, and humanist intellectuals. Like the moralistic bestiaries, the texts underwent modifications that would eventually influence the nature of their illustrations.
He stated that they were intended for moral teaching. In his index, fables are arranged by subtitles, and the fable promythia that replaced the traditional epimythia morals appended to the end of a story were summarized by a proverb or phrase. The moral in the epimythium states: The earliest printed editions were those of Parma, , , and Venice, , , , , , , and Published for the Library of Congess by E.
Stern, , onlinebooks. Dover Publications, , 2: Boydell Press, , 98—, esp. Gilbert Tournoy Leuven: Leuven University Press, , 1— Ernst Thiele; M. See also Reinhard Dithmar, ed. Wissenschaft- liche Buchgesellschaft, It is assumed that the Greek and Latin manuscript known as the Medici Aesop was commissioned for the study of Greek by Angelo Poliziano c.
More than one hundred miniatures, depicting animals in Florentine domestic surroundings, were designed to appeal to a child. Other woodcuts, including the title pages, were executed in Antwerp. North viewed the fable as a didactic medium, where allegorical illustrations suggested several levels of meaning. Consequently, there are scant remnants of the iconographic tradition that enriched and enlivened the fables for nearly a millennium.
This was not the situation in the East. Illustrations of animal fables from the Panchatantra and Kalila wa Dimna traditions would survive in manuscripts, in both India and the Islamic world, throughout the eighteenth and ninteenth centuries.
This format derives from the literary system of augmenting the frame tale with a nested tale, a practice inspired by the Mahabharata and developed in the Sanskrit Panchatantra and its Pahlavi version,99 that was notably developed in the Arabic and Castilian trans- lations of Kalila wa Dimna.
Everett Fahy, trans.
Bernard McTigue New York: New York Public Library, As a landscape within a landscape, the mag- nificent relief 30 meters long by 12 meters high is carved into the natural outcrop and depicts gods, demigods, gandharvas nature spirits , ganas attendants of Shiva , kinnaras hybrid celestial musicians , sages, mendicants, and numerous animals.
The penitent figure stands on one leg, with arms raised, to the left of the cleft that represents the river and becomes a waterfall during the monsoon fig. The juxtaposition of the two figures, the human penitent and the feline imposter, demonstrates the discursive function of this moralizing satire fig.
The story of a cat posing as an ascetic in front of mice was related in the Mahabharata 5. A few of these texts migrated to Laos, Thailand, and Tibet. In the Kangyur version the old and failing cat, named Agnija, took to performing fictitious acts of penance in order to convince the mice that ran to and fro that he had given up his sinful life. Thus he succeeded in devouring a mouse each day. In the Penance panel the Pallavas might have been referring to the Mahabharata version of the tale, where the cat stands with paws upraised on the bank of the Ganges.
The insertion of this tale into the Penance relief to emphasize a moral message was not fortuitous. The Pallava king Mahendravarman I — , who introduced the rock-carved temples at Mahabalipuram, was also a playwright, poet, and musician. His one-act play Mattavilasam Prahasana was a satire on the Arthur W. Ryder, trans. University of Chicago Press, ; repr. Oxford University Press, , Ralston, trans.
Routledge, , The analogy between the literary construction of the frame story and the nested tale, on the one hand, and the thematic com- position of the Mahabalipuram sculpture, on the other, should be emphasized. The analogy between these visual and literary structures is the key to interpreting the interrelation of seemingly unconnected narratives.
The adoption of this structure in a visual format was facilitated by the panoramic dimensions of the sculptural complex but was not repeated in the miniature fable depictions of temple architecture. He is characterized by attributes of the Hindu ascetic — the rosary and fly whisk, and by the shaivite trishula trident. Scholars have identified the two Javanese chandi as Buddhist monuments and therefore assumed that the reliefs represent a Jataka tale, but Klokke noted that they convey morals characteristic of the Panchatantra texts.
It is noteworthy, therefore, that the characterization of the cat as a Hindu ascetic serves as a Buddhist critique of Hindu impiety or fraud. Vishnu Bhat Tambaram, Madras: Madras Christian College; Chennai: Christian Library Society, ; David N. David Gordon White Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, , 81— It was performed in temples by the Kutiyattam Sanskrit theater of Kerala.
Indira Menon, Rhythms in Stone: Ambi Knowledge Resources, , 11—18; Philip B. Zarrelli et al. An Introduction New York: Routledge, , pt. Cambridge Scholars Publish- ing, , 66— And he took up his stand near their home with his face to the sun, snuffing up the wind, and standing on one leg. Seeing this when out on his road in quest of food, the Bodhisattva conceived the jackal to be a saintly being, and went up and asked his name. Robert Chalmers Cambridge: University Press, A Parody on the Guru?
Essays Offered to Dr. Hinzler Leiden: Brill, , 38— Klokke sees the chandi version as an allegorical reference to the historical figure of Kumbhayoni, a Central Javanese shaivite king, styled as a sage, who intended to overrule the rival Buddhist dynasty. Here it appears as a metaphor of religious deceit, in much the same spirit as the sculptures of Mahabalipuram and the Javanese Buddhist chandi.
Manuscripts executed for the Mughal court in India during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries included Arabic and Persian translations of the Panchatantra or Kalila wa Dimna tales under different titles, such as the Anvar-i Suhayli, executed for Akbar c.
In a nineteenth-century Persian man- uscript of the Anvar-i Suhayli in Baltimore, the Hypocritical Cat is again depicted standing on its hind legs, as at Mahabalipuram, and it holds a pole, presumably to attack his victims. As this example demonstrates, the Hypocritical Cat was continually illustrated in Eastern manuscripts until the nineteenth century. He promises them that he will take them safely to a bigger lake, with lots of water; but instead carries them to a rock where he kills and eats them.
However, he soon meets his match in the form of the crab. Read it here. Another story that teaches the importance of choosing the right friends and also the importance of the presence of mind. Kids will love the crab that turns a hero for all the fish in the tank by killing the bad stork.
When the mongoose sees a snake coming to bite the infant, he attacks and kills the viper. She kills the mongoose in a fit of anger, only to realize her mistake later. The message is conveyed in a brutal yet effective manner. Although kids rarely think before they act, it never harms to start teaching them this habit early. Building castles in the air never gets you anywhere. Once a poor Brahmin pious man is gifted a pot of flour. He returns home and daydreams about all that he will achieve with a pot of flour.
Only to wake up in the end, and find himself surrounded by broken pieces of the earthen pot and covered in flour! Here is the complete tale. The story is full of actions and sounds; enact it to your kids and they will love it. On a serious note, it will remind kids that hard work is more important than day-dreaming. Long ago, there lived a flock of pigeons in a dense forest. How did they get out? By being united of course.
Flap, flap your wings and fly away! This story is as much for adults as for kids, serving as a reminder that the greatest obstacles can be overcome by staying united. Kids at this age have their first encounter with the outside world.
You can stress how important it is to stay together and not discriminate. A partridge and a rabbit get into an argument. They decide to find a third person to settle their argument and come across a praying cat…Read this story to find out what happened next Hint: Once a tiger promises a brahmin to set him free from his cage, promising him no harm.
But once free, the tiger tells the brahmin that he is hungry and would he should prepare for death. The brahmin asks a tree, a buffalo and a jackal. Find what happens next.