Measurement & instrumentation ebook


Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation eBook & Notes - Download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online. Introduction. The purpose of Measurement, Instrumentation, and Sensors Handbook CRCnetBase is to provide a reference that is both concise and useful. download Measurement and Instrumentation - 2nd Edition. eBook ISBN: . Calibration of Measuring Sensors and Instruments.

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Measurement & Instrumentation Ebook

Read "Measurement and Instrumentation Theory and Application" by Alan S Morris available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first. Electronic Measurement & Instrumentation - Kindle edition by R S Sedha. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets. Electronic Instrumentation and Measurement - Kindle edition by Rohit Khurana. Download it once and read it on your Kindle device, PC, phones or tablets.

Measurement and Instrumentation: Theory and Application, Second Edition, introduces undergraduate engineering students to measurement principles and the range of sensors and instruments used for measuring physical variables. This updated edition provides new coverage of the latest developments in measurement technologies, including smart sensors, intelligent instruments, microsensors, digital recorders, displays, and interfaces, also featuring chapters on data acquisition and signal processing with LabVIEW from Dr. Reza Langari. Written clearly and comprehensively, this text provides students and recently graduated engineers with the knowledge and tools to design and build measurement systems for virtually any engineering application. Junior and senior undergraduate engineering students taking measurement and instrumentation courses primarily in mechanical and aerospace engineering departments. He has taught the undergraduate course in measurement and instrumentation for nearly 30 years, as well as undergraduate courses in robot technology, engineering design and laboratory skills, and graduate level courses in robot control, modeling and measurement for quality assurance. He is the author of eight books and more than research papers in the fields of measurement and instrumentation and robot control. He earned bachelor's, master's and doctoral degrees from the University of California, Berkeley. Air Force Research Laboratory. Langari's expertise is in the area of computational intelligence with application to mechatronic systems and industrial automation. He has played a significant role in the development of theoretical foundations of fuzzy logic control and its applications to problems in mechanical engineering. His work on stability of fuzzy control systems is widely recognized as pioneering the use of nonlinear systems analysis techniques to fuzzy logic.

View on ScienceDirect. Alan S Morris Reza Langari. Paperback ISBN: Academic Press. Published Date: Page Count: Sorry, this product is currently out of stock. Flexible - Read on multiple operating systems and devices. Easily read eBooks on smart phones, computers, or any eBook readers, including Kindle. When you read an eBook on VitalSource Bookshelf, enjoy such features as: Access online or offline, on mobile or desktop devices Bookmarks, highlights and notes sync across all your devices Smart study tools such as note sharing and subscription, review mode, and Microsoft OneNote integration Search and navigate content across your entire Bookshelf library Interactive notebook and read-aloud functionality Look up additional information online by highlighting a word or phrase.

Institutional Subscription. Instructor Ancillary Support Materials. Free Shipping Free global shipping No minimum order. Preface Acknowledgement Chapter 1. Fundamentals of Measurement Systems 1. Introduction 1. Measurement Units 1. Measurement System Design 1. Measurement System Applications 1. Summary 1. Problems Chapter 2. Instrument Types and Performance Characteristics 2.

Introduction 2. Review of Instrument Types 2. Static Characteristics of Instruments 2. Dynamic Characteristics of Instruments 2. Necessity for Calibration 2. Summary 2. Problems Chapter 3. Measurement Uncertainty 3. Introduction 3. Sources of Systematic Error 3. Reduction of Systematic Errors 3. Quantification of Systematic Errors 3. Sources and Treatment of Random Errors 3.

Measurement and instrumentation : theory and application

Induced Measurement Noise 3. Techniques for Reducing Induced Measurement Noise 3. Summary 3. Problems Chapter 4. Introduction 4. Mean and Median Values 4. Standard Deviation and Variance 4. Gaussian Normal Distribution 4. Standard Error of the Mean 4.

Estimation of Random Error in a Single Measurement 4. Distribution of Manufacturing Tolerances 4. Goodness of Fit to a Gaussian Distribution 4. Rogue Data Points Data Outliers 4.

Student t -Distribution 4. Aggregation of Measurement System Errors 4. Summary 4. Problems Chapter 5. Calibration of Measuring Sensors and Instruments 5. Introduction 5. Principles of Calibration 5. Control of Calibration Environment 5.

Calibration Chain and Traceability 5. Calibration Records 5. Summary 5. Problems Chapter 6. Data Acquisition and Signal Processing 6. Introduction 6. Preliminary Definitions 6. Sensor Signal Characteristics 6. Aliasing 6. Quantization 6. Analog Signal Processing 6. Passive Filters 6. Active Filters Using Op-Amps 6. Signal Amplification 6. Digital Filters 6. Summary 6. Exercises 6. Appendix Chapter 7. Variable Conversion 7.

Introduction 7. Bridge Circuits 7. Resistance Measurement 7. The linear deflection or sweep of the beam horizontally is accomplished by use of a sweep generator that is incorporated in the oscilloscope circuitry.

The voltage output of such a generator is that of a sawtooth wave as shown in Fig. Application of one cycle of this voltage difference, which increases linearly with time, to the horizontal plates causes the. When the voltage suddenly falls to zero, as at points a b c , etc The horizontal deflection of the beam is repeated periodically, the frequency of this periodicity is adjustable by external controls. To obtain steady traces on the tube face, an internal number of cycles of the unknown signal that is applied to the vertical plates must be associated with each cycle of the sweep generator.

Thus, with such a matching of synchronization of the two deflections, the pattern on the tube face repeats itself and hence appears to remain stationary. The persistance of vision in the human eye and of the glow of the fluorescent screen aids in producing a stationary pattern.

In addition, the electron beam is cut off blanked during flyback so that the retrace sweep is not observed. CRO Operation: A simplified block diagram of a typical oscilloscope is shown in Fig. In general, the instrument is operated in the following manner. The signal to be displayed is amplified by the vertical amplifier and applied to the verical deflection plates of the CRT.

A portion of the signal in the vertical amplifier is applied to the sweep trigger as a triggering signal. The sweep trigger then generates a pulse coincident with a selected point in the cycle of the triggering signal. This pulse turns on the sweep generator, initiating the sawtooth wave form. The sawtooth wave is amplified by the horizontal amplifier and applied to the horizontal deflection plates.

Usually, additional provisions signal are made for appliying an external triggering signal or utilizing the 60 Hz line for triggering. Also the sweep generator may be bypassed and an external signal applied directly to the horizontal amplifier. CRO Controls: The controls available on most oscilloscopes provide a wide range of operating conditions and thus make the instrument especially versatile.

Since many of these controls are common to most oscilloscopes a brief description of them follows. Turns instrument on and controls illumination of the graticule.

Focus the spot or trace on the screen. Regulates the brightness of the spot or trace. Controls vertical positioning of oscilloscope display. Selects the sensitivity of the vertical amplifier in calibrated steps. Variable Sensitivity: Provides a continuous range of sensitivities between the calibrated steps. Normally the sensitivity is calibrated only when the variable knob is in the fully clockwise position. Selects desired coupling ac or dc for incoming signal applied to vertical amplifier, or grounds the amplifier input.

Selecting dc couples the input directly to the amplifier; selecting ac send the signal through a capacitor before going to the amplifier thus blocking any constant component. Selects desired sweep rate from calibrated steps or admits external signal to horizontal amplifier. Provides continuously variable sweep rates.

Calibrated position is fully clockwise. Controls horizontal position of trace on screen. Horizontal Variable: Controls the attenuation reduction of signal applied to horizontal aplifier through Ext.

Selects whether triggering occurs at a specific dc or ac level. Selects the source of the triggering signal. LINE - 60 cycle triger Level: Selects the voltage point on the triggering signal at which sweep is triggered.

It also allows automatic auto triggering of allows sweep to run free free run. A pair of jacks for connecting the signal under study to the Y or vertical amplifier. The lower jack is grounded to the case. Horizontal Input: A pair of jacks for connecting an external signal to the horizontal amplifier. The lower terminal is graounted to the case of the oscilloscope.

External Tigger Input: Input connector for external trigger signal. Provides amplitude calibrated square waves of 25 and millivolts for use in calibrating the gain of the amplifiers. Sensitivity is variable. Range of sweep is variable. Operating Instructions: Before plugging the oscilloscope into a wall receptacle, set the controls as follows: Plug line cord into a standard ac wall recepticle nominally V.

Turn power on. Do not advance the Intensity Control. Allow the scope to warm up for approximately two minutes, then turn the Intensity Control until the beam is visible on the screen. Set the signal generator to a frequency of cycles per second. Connect the output from the gererator to the vertical input of the oscilloscope. Establish a steady trace of this input signal on the scope. Adjust play with all of the scope and signal generator controls until you become familiar with the functionof each.

The purpose fo such "playing" is to allow the student to become so familiar with the oscilloscope that it becomes an aid tool in making measurements in other experiments and not as a formidable obstacle. If the vertical gain is set too low, it may not be possible to obtain a steady trace. Measurements of Voltage: Consider the circuit in Fig. The signal generator is used to produce a hertz sine wave. The AC voltmeter and the leads to the verticle input of the oscilloscope are connected across the generator's output.

The trace represents a plot of voltage vs. To determine the size of the voltage signal appearing at the output of terminals of the signal generator, an AC Alternating Current voltmeter is connected in parallel across these terminals Fig. The AC voltmeter is designed to read the dc "effective value" of the voltage. The peak or maximum voltage seen on the scope face Fig. Agreement is expected between the voltage reading of the multimeter and that of the oscilloscope.

In this position, the trace is no longer calibrated so that you can not just read the size of the signal by counting the number of divisions and multiplying by the scale factor.

However, you can figure out what the new calibration is an use it as long as the variable control remains unchanged. The mathematical prescription given for RMS signals is valid only for sinusoidal signals.

The meter will not indicate the correct voltage when used to measure non-sinusoidal signals. Frequency Measurements: When the horizontal sweep voltage is applied, voltage measurements can still be taken from the vertical deflection. Moreover, the signal is displayed as a function of time. If the time base i. Frequencies can then be determined as reciprocal of the periods.

Set the oscillator to Hz. Display the signal on the CRO and measure the period of the oscillations. Use the horizontal distance between two points such as C to D in Fig. Set the horizontal gain so that only one complete wave form is displayed.

Then reset the horizontal until 5 waves are seen. Keep the time base control in a calibrated position. Measure the distance and hence time for 5 complete cycles and calculate the frequency from this measurement. Compare you result with the value determined above. Repeat your measurements for other frequencies of Hz, 5 kHz, 50 kHz as set on the signal generator. Lissajous Figures: These stationary patterns are known as Lissajous figures and can be used for comparison measurement of frequencies.

Use two oscillators to generate some simple Lissajous figures like those shown in Fig. You will find it difficult to maintain the Lissajous figures in a fixed configuration because the two oscillators are not phase and frequency locked. Their frequencies and phase drift slowly causing the two different signals to change slightly with respect to each other. Testing what you have learned: Your instructor will provide you with a small oscillator circuit.

Examine the input to the circuit and output of the circuit using your oscilloscope. Measure such quantities as the voltage and frequence of the signals.

Specify if they are sinusoidal or of some other wave character. If square wave, measure the frequency of the wave. Also, for square waves, measure the on time when the voltage is high and off time when it is low. Q meter: For many years, the Q meter has been an essential piece of equipment for laboratories engaged in the testing of radio frequency circuits. In modem laboratories, the Q meter has been largely replaced by more exotic and more expensive impedance measuring devices and today, it is difficult to find a manufacturer who still makes a Q meter.

For the radio amateur, the Q meter is still a very useful piece of test equipment and the writer has given some thought to how a simple Q meter could be made for the radio shack.

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For those who are unfamiliar with this type of instrument, a few introductory notes on the definition of Q and the measurement of Q, are included. The Q factor or quality factor of an inductance is commonly expressed as the ratio of its series reactance to its series resistance. We can also express the Q factor of a capacitance as the ratio of its series reactance to its series resistance although capacitors are generally specified by the D or dissipation factor which is the reciprocal of Q.

A tuned circuit, at resonance, is considered to have a Q factor. In this case, Q is equal to the ratio of either the inductive reactance, or the capacitive reactance, to the total series loss resistance in the tuned circuit. The greater the loss resistance and the lower the Q, the greater the power lost on each cycle of oscillation in the tuned circuit and hence the greater the power needed to maintain oscillation.

Another way to derive Q is as follows: Sometimes we talk of loaded Q such as in transmitter tank circuits and, in this case, resistance for calculation of Q is the unloaded tuned circuit series resistance plus the additional loss resistance reflected in series into the circuit from its coupled load.

There are other ways of expressing Q factor. It can be expressed approximately as the ratio of equivalent shunt resistance to either the inductive or the capacitive reactance. Series loss resistance can be converted to an equivalent shunt resistance using the following formula: To measure Q factor, Q meters make use of this principle. A basic Q meter is shown in Figure 1. Terminals are provided to connect the inductance Lx to be measured and this is resonated by a variable tuning capacitor C.

Terminals are also provided to add capacitance Cx , if required. The tuned circuit is excited from a tunable signal source which develops voltage across a resistor in series with the tuned circuit. The resistor must have a resistance small compared to the loss resistance of the components to be measured so that its value can be ignored. A resistance of a mere fraction of an ohm is necessary.

Metering is provided to measure the AC injection voltage across the series resistor and the AC output voltage across the terminals of the tuning capacitor. The output measurement must be a high input impedance circuit to prevent loading of the tuned circuit by the metering circuit. Q factor is calculated as the ratio of. In practice, the signal source level is generally set for a calibrate point on the meter which measures injected voltage and Q is directly read from calibration on the meter which measures output voltage.

Some of the uses of Q Meter: The Q meter can be used for many purposes. As the name implies, it can measure Q and is generally used to check the Q factor of inductors.

As the internal tuning capacitor has an air dielectric its loss resistance is negligible compared to that of any inductor and hence the Q measured is that of the inductor. The value of Q varies considerable with different types of inductors used over different ranges of frequency. Miniature commercial inductors, such as the Siemens B types or the Lenox-Fugal Nanored types, made on ferrite cores and operated at frequencies up to 1 MHz, have typical Q factors in the region of 50 to Air wound inductors with spaced turns, such as found in transmitter tank circuits and operating at frequencies above 10 MHz, can be expected to have Q factors of around to Some inductors have Q factors as low as five or 10 at some frequencies and such inductors are generally unsuitable for use in selective circuits or in sharp filters.

The Q meter is very useful to check these out. The tuning capacitor C of the Q meter has a calibrated dial marked in pico-farads so that, in conjunction with the calibration of the oscillator source, the value of inductance Lx can be derived. Providing the capacitor to be tested is smaller than the tuning range of the internal tuning capacitor, the test sample can be easily measured.

Firstly, the capacitor sample is resonated with a selected inductor by adjusting the source frequency and using the tuning capacitor set to a low value on its calibrated scale. The sample is then disconnected and using the same frequency as before, the tuning capacitor is reset to again obtain resonance.

The difference in tuning capacitor calibration read for the two tests is equal to the capacitance of the sample. Larger values of capacitance can be read by changing frequency to obtain resonance on the second test and manipulating the resonance formula. A poorly chosen inductor is not the only cause of low Q in a tuned circuit as some types of capacitor also have high loss resistance which lowers the Q.

Small ceramic capacitors are often used in tuned circuits and many of these have high loss resistance, varying considerably in samples often taken from the same batch. If ceramic capacitors must be used where high Q is required, it is wise to select them for low loss resistance and the Q meter can be used for this purpose.

To do this, an inductor having a high Q, of at least , is used to resonate the circuit, first with the tuning capacitor C on its own and then with individual test sample capacitors in parallel. A drastic loss in the value of Q, when the sample is added, soon shows up which capacitor should not be used. Direct measurement of Q in an inductor, as discussed in previous paragraphs.

Inductors also have distributed. High distributed capacitance is common in large value inductors having closely wound turns or having multiple layers. Actual Q can be calculated from Qe, as read, from the following: Two methods of measuring distributed capacitance are described in the "Boonton Q Meter Handbook". The simplest of these is said to be accurate for distributed capacitance above 10 pF and this method is described as follows: With the tuning capacitor C set to value C1 say 50 pF , resonate with the sample inductor by adjusting the signal source frequency.

Set the signal source to half the original frequency and re-resonate by adjusting C to a new value of capacitance C2. Calculate distributed capacitance as follows: State the principle of digital voltmeter. Give the importance of iron loss measurement. List two instruments for measurement of frequency. Write the function of instrument transformer. Brief the principle of digital phase meter. Write any two advantages and disadvantages of digital voltmeter. Explain the purpose of Schmitt trigger in digital frequency meter.

Which torque is absent in energy meter? What are the errors that take place in moving iron instrument?


Explain the principle of analog type electrical instruments. How a PMMC meter can be used as voltmeter and ammeter?

Electronics Measurements and Instrumentation eBook & Notes

What is loading effect? State the basic principle of moving iron instrument. Why an ammeter should have a low resistance? Define the sensitivity of a moving coil meter. What is the use of Multimeter? Write its advantages and disadvantages. Voltmeter has high resistance, why it is connected in series? What is an energy meter? Mention some advantages and disadvantages of energy meter. What is meant by creep adjustment in three phase energy meter?

List some advantages and disadvantages of electrodynamic instrument. List the advantages of electronic voltmeter. What is a magnetic measurements and what are the tests performed for magnetic measurements? Mention the advantages and disadvantages of flux meter. What are the methods used to determine B-H Curve?

What are the errors in instrument transformers? What is frequency meter and classify it? What is phase meter and what are its type? Discuss why it is necessary to carry out frequency domain analysis of measurement systems?

What are the two plots obtained when the frequency response of a system is carried out? Explain the function of three phase wattmeter and energy meter. A function generator is a device which produces simple repetitive waveforms. Such devices contain an electronic oscillator, a circuit that is capable of creating a repetitive waveform.

Modern devices may use digital signal processing to synthesize waveforms, followed by a digital to analog converter, or DAC, to produce an analog output. The most common waveform is a sine wave, but sawtooth, step pulse , square, and triangular waveform oscillators are commonly available as are arbitrary waveform generators AWGs.

Function generators are typically used in simple electronics repair and design; where they are used to stimulate a circuit under test. A device such as an oscilloscope is then used to measure the circuit's output.

Function generators vary in the number of outputs they feature, frequency range, frequency accuracy and stability, and several other parameters. A function generator is a piece of electronic test equipment or software used to generate electrical waveforms. These waveforms can be either repetitive or single-shot, in which case some kind of triggering source is required internal or external. Function Generators are used in development, testing and repair of electronic equipment, e.

Explanation Analog function generators usually generate a triangle waveform as the basis for all of its other outputs. The triangle is generated by repeatedly charging and discharging a capacitor from a constant current source. This produces a linearly ascending or descending voltage ramp. As the output voltage reaches upper and lower limits, the charging and discharging is reversed using a comparator, producing the linear triangle wave.

By varying the current and the size of the capacitor, different frequencies may be obtained. Sawtooth waves can be produced by charging the capacitor slowly, using a current, but using a diode over the current source to discharge quickly - the polarity of the diode changes the polarity of the resulting sawtooth, i. Most function generators also contain a non-linear diode shaping circuit that can convert the triangle wave into a reasonably accurate sine wave.

It does so by rounding off the hard corners of the triangle wave in a process similar to clipping in audio systems. A typical function generator can provide frequencies up to 20 MHz. RF generators for higher frequencies are not function generators in the strict sense since typically produce pure or modulated sine signals only.

Function generators, like most signal generators, may also contain an attenuator, various means of modulating the output waveform, and often the ability to automatically and repetitively "sweep" the frequency of the output waveform by means of a voltage-. This capability makes it very easy to evaluate the frequency response of a given electronic circuit.

Some function generators can also generate white or pink noise. Arbitrary waveform generators use DDS to generate any waveform that can be described by a table of amplitudes. Signal generator: A signal generator, also known variously as function generator, pitch generator, arbitrary waveform generator, digital pattern generator or frequency generator is an electronic device that generates repeating or non-repeating electronic signals in either the analog or digital domains.

They are generally used in designing, testing, troubleshooting, and repairing electronic or electroacoustic devices; though they often have artistic uses as well. There are many different types of signal generators, with different purposes and applications and at varying levels of expense ; in general, no device is suitable for all possible applications. Traditionally, signal generators have been embedded hardware units, but since the age of multimedia-PCs, flexible, programmable software tone generators have also been available.

Basic Sweep Generator A basic system for the sweep generator is shown in figure 1. A low-frequency sawtooth wave is generated from some form of oscillator or waveform generator. The instantaneous voltage of the sawtooth wave controls the frequency of an RF oscillator with its centre frequency set at the centre frequency of the device under test filter or IF channel etc. Over a single sweep of frequency, RF output voltage from the device, as a function of time, is a plot of the filter response.

By rectifying and RF filtering in a simple AM detector, the output is converted to a DC voltage varying as a function of time and this voltage is applied to the vertical input of the CRO. To achieve this for a range of frequencies, it is easiest to sweep a single frequency say 1MHz and heterodyne this to the test frequency required.

The system developed is shown. A 1MHz oscillator is frequency modulated by the output of a sawtooth generator operating at 33 Hz. The modulated output is beat with an external signal generator set to provide the difference frequency centered at the center frequency of the filter or IF circuit under test.

By synchronising the CRO sweep circuit to the 33 Hz sweep generator, a plot of test circuit response is displayed in terms of amplitude verses frequency.

It calculates the total distortion introduced by all the harmonics of the fundamental frequency wave. In most cases THD is the amount required to be calculated, rather than distortion caused by individual harmonics. This type of analysis is very important in systems e. Block Diagram of a THD Analyzer This is a specific type of THD analyzer, in which basically the fundamental frequency of the input wave is suppressed so as to remove it from the spectra of the meters used for distortion measurement, and the total gain of all the harmonics is calculated, thus obtaining the total distortion caused by the harmonics.

This basic construction consists of three main sections: Input section with impedance matcher, a rejection amplifier section and an output metering circuit. Notice the feedback from the bridge amplifier to the pre-amp section, that enables the rejection circuit to work more accurately.

The applied input wave is impedance matched with the rejection circuit with the help of an attenuator and an impedance matcher.

This signal is then applied to a pre-amplifier which raises the signal level to a desired value. The following section consists of a Wien bridge. The bridge is tuned to the fundamental frequency by frequency control and it is balanced for zero output by adjusting the bridge controls, thus giving a notch in the frequency response of the rejection section. After the Wien Bridge, a bridge amplifier follows that simply amplifies low harmonic voltage levels to measurable higher levels.

This filtered output is then applied to a meter amplifier which can be an instrumentation amplifier. Thus the total voltage obtained at the meter output shows the amount of distortion present in the wave due to harmonics of fundamental. A spectrum analyzer or spectral analyzer is a device used to examine the spectral composition of some electrical, acoustic, or optical waveform. It may also measure the power spectrum.

There are analog and digital spectrum analyzers: An analog spectrum analyzer uses either a variable band-pass filter whose midfrequency is automatically tuned shifted, swept through the range of frequencies of which the spectrum is to be measured or a superheterodyne receiver where the local oscillator is swept through a range of frequencies.

A digital spectrum analyzer computes the discrete Fourier transform DFT , a mathematical process that transforms a waveform into the components of its frequency spectrum. Some spectrum analyzers such as "real-time spectrum analyzers" use a hybrid technique where the incoming signal is first down-converted to a lower frequency using superheterodyne techniques and then analyzed using fast fourier transformation FFT techniques.

Typical functionality: Allows one to fix the window of frequencies to visualize and center the display on a chosen frequency.

Controls the position and function of markers and indicates the value of power. Several spectrum analyzers have a "Marker Delta" function that can be used to measure Signal to Noise Ratio or Bandwidth.

The spectrum analyzer captures the measure on having displaced a filter of small bandwidth along the window of frequencies. Amplitude The maximum value of a signal at a point is called amplitude. A spectrum analyzer that implements amplitude analysis is called a Pulse height analyzer. Manages parameters of measurement.

It stores the maximum values in each frequency and a solved measurement to compare it. Usually, a spectrum analyzer displays a power spectrum over a given frequency range, changing the display as the properties of the signal change.

There is a trade-off between how quickly the display can be updated and the frequency resolution, which is for. With an analog spectrum analyzer, it is dependent on the bandwidth setting of the bandpass filter. Choosing a wider bandpass filter will improve the signal-to-noise ratio at the expense of a decreased frequency resolution.

With Fourier transform analysis in a digital spectrum analyzer, it is necessary to sample the input signal with a sampling frequency s that is at least twice the highest frequency that is present in the signal, due to the Nyquist limit. This can place considerable demands on the required analog-to-digital converter and processing power for the Fourier transform.

Often, one is only interested in a narrow frequency range, for example between 88 and MHz, which would require at least a sampling frequency of MHz, not counting the low-pass anti-aliasing filter. In such cases, it can be more economic to first use a superheterodyne receiver to transform the signal to a lower range, such as 8 to 28 MHz, and then sample the signal at 56 MHz.

This is how an analog-digitalhybrid spectrum analyzer works. For use with very weak signals, a pre-amplifier can be used, although harmonic and intermodulation distortion may lead to the creation of new frequency components that were not present in the original signal. A new method, without using a high local oscillator LO that usually produces a high-frequency signal close to the signal is used on the latest analyzer generation like Aaronias Spectran series.

The analog signal is converted into a digital code proportionate to the magnitude of the signal. Voltages from picovolts to megavolts are measurable, though the scale usually graduates in millivolts, volts, or kilovolts.

Frequencies between zero and several megahertz may also be measured. Common laboratory and commercial applications involve electromechanical machinery with a current flowing through wires and circuits. Often, a digital voltmeter is used to monitor a unit, such as a generator. Portable or handheld devices, such as the digital multimeter DMM , for example, may combine several functions into one instrument measuring voltage, current, and resistance.

This is the preferred tool of an electrician. Many DVMs integrate outputs for monitoring, controlling, transmitting, and printing of data. Advanced systems are often connected to computers, allowing for automation, optimization of processes, and prevention of malfunctions and critical failure safeties. Chemical plants can convert measurements to voltage, and control and monitor temperature, pressure, level, or flow. Medical equipment, such as x-ray machines, may use a digital voltmeter to make sure the voltage of the equipment is in the proper range.

Draw Maxwells AC bridge and give the balance equation interms of resistance. Explain any two technical parameters to be consider in grounding.

Give some applications of Wheatstones bridge. What is a potentiometer? List the applications of dc and ac potentiometer. Differentiate the principle of dc potentiometer and ac potentiometer. What is meant by transformer ratio bridge 2 8. What are the features of ratio transformer? List its applications. What is meant by electromagnetic interference?

List the sources of electromagnetic interference. What are the ways of minimizing the electromagnetic interference? Define electromagnetic compatibility. EMC 2 What are the main causes of group loop currents? What are the limitations of single point grounding method? What is the necessity of grounding and state is advantages. What is meant by ground loop? How it is created? What are the sources of errors in bridge measurement? Define standardization. Give the relationship between the bridge balance equation of DC bridge and AC bridge 2 What does a bridge circuit consists of?

Explain voltage sensitive self balancing bridge, and derive the bridge sensitivity of voltage sensitive bridge with fundamentals. The reverse operation is performed by a digital-to-analog converter DAC. Typically, an ADC is an electronic device that converts an input analog voltage or current to a digital number proportional to the magnitude of the voltage or current. However, some non-electronic or only partially electronic devices, such as rotary encoders, can also be considered ADCs.

The digital output may use different coding schemes. Typically the digital output will be a two's complement binary number that is proportional to the input, but there are other possibilities.

An encoder, for example, might output a Gray code. An ADC might be used to make an isolated measurement. ADCs are also used to quantize time-varying signals by turning them into a sequence of digital samples. The result is quantized in both time and value.

An 8-level ADC mid-tread coding scheme. As in figure 2 but with equal half-LSB intervals at the highest and lowest codes. Note that LSB is now slightly larger than in figures 1 and 2.

The resolution of the converter indicates the number of discrete values it can produce over the range of analog values. The values are usually stored electronically in binary form, so the resolution is usually expressed in bits.

In consequence, the number of discrete values available, or "levels", is usually a power of two.

The values can represent the ranges from 0 to i. Resolution can also be defined electrically, and expressed in volts. The minimum change in voltage required to guarantee a change in the output code level is called the LSB least significant bit, since this is the voltage represented by a change in the LSB.

The voltage resolution of an ADC is equal to its overall voltage measurement range divided by the number of discrete voltage intervals:. N is the number of voltage intervals, EFSR is the full scale voltage range, given by,. Normally, the number of voltage intervals is given by,. M is the ADC's resolution in bits. That is, one voltage interval is assigned per code level.

However, figure 3 shows a situation where. Some examples: The largest code represents a range of 1. The other N 2 codes are all equal in width and represent the ADC voltage resolution Q calculated above. Doing this centers the code on an input voltage that represents the M th division of the input voltage range. Get fast, free shipping with site Prime.

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Measurement and Instrumentation - 2nd Edition

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