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Instead of reinforcing the divide between face-to-face and online learning, many educators have started to take advantages of both learning environments. With the hybrid model, face-to-face learning allows learners to bond socially, while the online portion of the lesson provides another forum for in-depth discussion. Furthermore, learners can establish a mentor-mentee relationship with the instructor in a face-to-face environment and build on the relationship by being able to communicate in another format at anytime anywhere.
Lastly, unlike the linear progression in the face-to-face instruction, the hypertext technology enables learners to develop multilineal thinking processes by instantly connecting a wide variety of perspectives to the lesson at hand Landow, It also allows instructors to do interactive and collaborative activities in a more dynamic fashion through the medium Woodlief, Some activities are most effective when they are done in person, while others fit perfectly in an online setting.
It is therefore important to develop strategic hybrid learning models to take advantages of the strengths in each environment. Valiathan proposes three learning models that integrate both face-to-face and online learning: Below are brief explanations of each model: Skill-Driven Model. When the learner needs to develop a specific knowledge or skills and needs constant feedback from the instructor and peer learners, the class can be designed so that learners are grouped together and interact both online and in person.
Meeting both in person and online provides support and feedback necessary to reach the learning goals. Activities include instructor-led face-to-face overview and closure, communication through e-mail, synchronous chat and group projects.
Behavior-Driven Model. Learners can have the online forum to express opinions and reactions with less social inhibition than that commonly seen in the face-to-face setting.
When completing a project offline, peers can support each other and serve as simulation partners in order to try out the new behavior without negative consequences. Activities include discussion forums, online debate and face-to-face simulation or role-play. Competency-Driven Model. When learners must acquire tacit knowledge either by interacting with or observing the expert in a situation, it is important to have the face-to- face component to establish the mentor-mentee relationship.
However, online tools such as e-mail, chat room and document transfer facilitate the bonding of the relationship and in-depth discussion outside the regular meeting time and place.
The knowledge acquired by the mentee can be stored in an online repository as part of the artifact for the specific field being studied.
Conclusion Online and face-to-face learning can no longer be regarded as two separate and distinct approaches to learning. Rather, what is called for is a fundamental rethinking of our approaches to learning and education. We need to change our mindset and reorganize our thinking about the process of teaching and learning.
Instead of following traditional paradigms that have the instructor firmly in control, we should adopt entrepreneurial and innovative approaches to learning.
We should open the doors of the classroom into the communities beyond the school, thus enabling students to learn from others in their communities. Given an atmosphere that would take advantage of different styles and different approaches, the opportunities would multiply for students to design their own ways of learning, bringing depth, meaning and creativity to each learning environment Resnick, Digital technologies and the corresponding online tools they provide are not ends in themselves.
On the contrary, they are a means to the end of transforming the educational process. The capability of online technologies functions as added value to the human dimension fundamental to face-to-face learning situations. Learners are the beneficiaries of these productive and creative environments, which bring a wide range of educational opportunities. The goal is to use and orchestrate the best techniques and resources in order to attain the best educational experience for all learners.
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How teaching style affects student achievement. Education Consumers ClearingHouse. Blended learning models. Pliny criticized the custom of placing portrait busts of great poets and authors in libraries where their works were kept, and he commented that many of these images were wholly invented, since no one knew what certain individuals looked like such as Homer or Socrates. As Plutarch himself explains, genuine biographers care less about the great deeds of their subjects than they do about the content of their character or the state of their soul.
However, he too believed that a gifted visual artist should be less concerned with external appearance and more with conveying the intangible aspects of the personality, perhaps through the expression of the face and the eyes.
For it is not histories that I am writing, but Lives; and in the most illustrious deeds there is not always a manifestation of virtue or vice, nay a slight thing like a phrase of a jest often makes a greater revelation of character than bat- tles where thousands fall, or the greatest armaments, or sieges of cities.
Accordingly, just as painters get the likenesses in their portraits from the face and the expression of the eyes, wherein the character shows itself, but make very little account of the other parts of the body, so I must be permitted to devote myself to the signs of the soul in men, and by means of these to por- tray the life of each, leaving to others the description of their great contests. Visual images, like rhetorical or documentary portraits, were intended to honor an individual because of his or her deeds or actions.
Although countless portraits of now nameless individuals have been found whose accomplishments we can- not know, nevertheless, having been the subject of a portrait suggests achievement, even perhaps fame. At least it warded off oblivion and fos- tered some posthumous respect. Naturally, portraits that merited prominent and public locations within the city, or that were of the high- est quality work, signaled the political status, wealth, success, or even vanity of the model, then as well as now.
Although this era was known for its emphasis on real- ism, there was also a continued tradition of idealized heroic represen- tations based on earlier Hellenistic models. One particularly vivid example of this, now in the National Museum of Naples but originally from Pompeii, is the bust of the Augustan-era banker and businessman Lucius Cecilius Iocundus fig.
Bust of Lucius Cecilius model. Iocundus, Pompeiian banker, During the early imperial era, the classical heroic or idealized por- 1st cen. Good exam- ples of idealized portraits are the representations of Augustus, who is usually shown as a youthful and heroic figure fig. The next generations of the Julio-Claudian family generally kept up the ideal- izing tradition, especially in posthumous portraits of the dei- fied ruler, although occasional reappearances of older Roman realism sometimes reappear in cer- tain instances, such as the almost comical portrait of Claudius in the guise of Jupiter, now in the Vatican Museum fig.
At the end of the first century, the portraits of Ves- pasian 69—79 c. But even Fig. Augustus from Vespasian could be represented as Primaporta, 14—29 C. Claudius as Jupiter ca. Author Fig. Vespasian, mid 1st cen.
Place of manu- facture: Greece possibly. The women of the Flavian court, for example, affected elaborate hairstyles on their official portraits and sometimes had themselves appear with the figure and pos- ture of Venus.
At the same time, women of this and the next dynasty were also shown as aging, with wrinkled foreheads, bags under their eyes, and sagging cheeks fig. Hadrian, however, was the first emperor to show himself with a full beard, in the style of the Greek philosophers, a trend that caught on for male portraiture, since it seemed to emphasize the gravitas of the model. The bearded emperor types with luxuriant and curly hair were still in vogue toward the end of the sec- ond century, especially for the portraits of Antoninus Pius and his suc- cessors Marcus Aurelius and Lucius Verus, who wished to be regarded as intellectual rulers fig.
The same pattern describes the portraits of his wife, Faustina, who also moved from youthful beauty to middle-aged matron and finally showed the dignity and wisdom of age.
Caracalla however, favored a more clipped beard and hairstyle fig. In order to express the Fig. Bust of Antinoninus personality of the model and to achieve a realistic likeness, artists Pius, ca. The results pro- Author. Musing on one example of this type, the bust of Emperor Philip the Arab — c. With a great simplifying touch the artist has managed to concentrate phys- iognomic life in one characteristic sweep. The central motif is the threatening lowering of the brows, corresponding to convulsions of the forehead muscles and responding to nervous contractions of the muscles of the mouth.
The psychological picture achieves an almost uncanny intensity. Behind the nerv- ous quivering features the expression itself seems to change and move, flash- ing like a glimmering flame over the face.
Septimius Severus, ca. Shown with a short beard, Author. The style was more abstract than realistic, however, and likeness appears to have been Fig. Bust of Caracalla, less important than a kind of conventional frontality and symmetry. In ca. Facial features are stylized, with the wide-open and staring eyes Terme , Rome Photo: Related Papers. Special Issue: By Stephen Perkinson. Winter, I. Royal Images of the Ancient Near East.
By Irene Winter. Identity and Value: