Michelle R Clayman; Martin S Fridson; George H Troughton. Corporate Finance: A Practical Approach; Contents; Foreword; Acknowledgments; About the CFA Institute Investment Series; Chapter 1: Corporate Governance; Learning Outcomes; 1. Add tags for "Corporate finance: a practical. Corporate Finance: A Practical Approach is designed to help financial analysts, executives, and investors achieve this goal with a practice-oriented distillation of . ruthenpress.info: Corporate Finance: A Practical Approach (): Michelle R. Clayman, Martin S. Fridson, George H. Troughton, Matthew Scanlan: .
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Corporate Finance A Practical Approach 2nd Edition Approach 2nd Edition [ PDF] [EPUB] Solutions manuals with detailed solutions and great. Find the key to boost the lifestyle by reading this Corporate Finance Workbook: A Practical Approach. By Michelle R. Clayman, Martin S. Fridson, George H. Vernimmen's Corporate Finance, long overdue in English, is an outstandingly clear This book efficiently bridges financial theory and practice, and encapsulates .. Corporate Finance is neither a theoretical textbook nor a practical workbook.
Economic and Accounting Income 8. Introduction 2. Cost of Capital 2. Taxes and the Cost of Capital 2. Weights of the Weighted Average 2. Costs of the Different Sources of Capital 3.
Cost of Debt 3. Cost of Preferred Stock 3. Cost of Common Equity 4. Topics in Cost of Capital Estimation 4.
Estimating Beta and Determining a Project Beta 4. Country Risk 4. Marginal Cost of Capital Schedule 4. Flotation Costs 4. Leverage 3.
Business Risk and Financial Risk 3. Business Risk and Its Components 3. Sales Risk 3. Operating Risk 3. Financial Risk 3. Total Leverage 3. Breakeven Points and Operating Breakeven Points 3.
The Risks of Creditors and Owners 4. The Capital Structure Decision 2. Proposition I without Taxes: Capital Structure Irrelevance 2. Proposition II without Taxes: Taxes, the Cost of Capital, and the Value of the Company 2. Costs of Financial Distress 2. Agency Costs 2. Costs of Asymmetric Information 2. Practical Issues in Capital Structure Policy 3. Debt Ratings 3. Evaluating Capital Structure Policy 3.
Leverage in an International Setting 4. Basics Learning Outcomes 1. Forms 2. Regular Cash Dividends 2. Extra or Special Irregular Dividends 2.
Liquidating Dividends 2. Stock Dividends 2.
Stock Splits 3. Payment Chronology 3.
Declaration Date 3. Ex-Dividend Date 3. Holder-of-Record Date 3. Payment Date 3. Share Redownloads 4. Share Redownload Methods 4. Financial Statement Effects of Redownloads 4.
The Baseline 5. Concluding Remarks 6.
Analysis Learning Outcomes 1. Dividend Policy and Company Value: Theory 2. Dividend Policy Does Not Matter 2. Dividend Policy Matters: The Bird-in-the-Hand Argument 2. The Tax Argument 2. Other Theoretical Issues 2. Dividend Theory: Summary 3. Factors Affecting Dividend Policy 3. Investment Opportunities 3. The Expected Volatility of Future Earnings 3. Financial Flexibility 3. Tax Considerations 3. Flotation Costs 3. Contractual and Legal Restrictions 3.
Factors Affecting Dividend Policy: Summary 4. Payout Policies 4. Types of Dividend Policies 4. The Dividend versus Share Redownload Decision 4. Global Trends in Payout Policy 5. Analysis of Dividend Safety 6. Managing and Measuring Liquidity 2. Defining Liquidity Management 2.
Measuring Liquidity 3. Managing the Cash Position 3. Forecasting Short-Term Cash Flows 3. Monitoring Cash Uses and Levels 4. Investing Short-Term Funds 4. Short-Term Investment Instruments 4. Strategies 4. Evaluating Short-Term Funds Management 5. Managing Accounts Receivable 5. Evaluating Accounts Receivable Management 6. Managing Inventory 6. Approaches to Managing Levels of Inventory 6. Inventory Costs 6. Evaluating Inventory Management 7. Managing Accounts Payable 7. The Economics of Taking a Trade Discount 7.
Managing Cash Disbursements 7. Evaluating Accounts Payable Management 8. Managing Short-Term Financing 8. Sources of Short-Term Financing 8. Short-Term Borrowing Approaches 8. Asset-Based Loans 8.
Computing the Costs of Borrowing 9. Common-Size Analysis 2. Vertical Common-Size Analysis 2. Horizontal Common-Size Analysis 3. Financial Ratio Analysis 3. Activity Ratios 3. Main article: Dividend policy Dividend policy is concerned with financial policies regarding the payment of a cash dividend in the present or paying an increased dividend at a later stage.
Whether to issue dividends,  and what amount, is determined mainly on the basis of the company's unappropriated profit excess cash and influenced by the company's long-term earning power.
When cash surplus exists and is not needed by the firm, then management is expected to pay out some or all of those surplus earnings in the form of cash dividends or to redownload the company's stock through a share downloadback program. If there are no NPV positive opportunities, i. This is the general case, however there are exceptions.
For example, shareholders of a " growth stock ", expect that the company will, almost by definition, retain most of the excess cash surplus so as to fund future projects internally to help increase the value of the firm.
Management must also choose the form of the dividend distribution, as stated, generally as cash dividends or via a share downloadback.
Various factors may be taken into consideration: where shareholders must pay tax on dividends , firms may elect to retain earnings or to perform a stock downloadback, in both cases increasing the value of shares outstanding. Alternatively, some companies will pay "dividends" from stock rather than in cash; see Corporate action. Financial theory suggests that the dividend policy should be set based upon the type of company and what management determines is the best use of those dividend resources for the firm to its shareholders.
As a general rule, shareholders of growth companies would prefer managers to retain earnings and pay no dividends use excess cash to reinvest into the company's operations , whereas shareholders of value or secondary stocks would prefer the management of these companies to payout surplus earnings in the form of cash dividends when a positive return cannot be earned through the reinvestment of undistributed earnings.
A share downloadback program may be accepted when the value of the stock is greater than the returns to be realized from the reinvestment of undistributed profits. In all instances, the appropriate dividend policy is usually directed by that which maximizes long-term shareholder value.
Working capital management[ edit ] Main article: Working capital Managing the corporation's working capital position to sustain ongoing business operations is referred to as working capital management. In general this is as follows: As above, the goal of Corporate Finance is the maximization of firm value. In the context of long term, capital budgeting, firm value is enhanced through appropriately selecting and funding NPV positive investments. These investments, in turn, have implications in terms of cash flow and cost of capital.
The goal of Working Capital i. In so doing, firm value is enhanced when, and if, the return on capital exceeds the cost of capital; See Economic value added EVA. Managing short term finance and long term finance is one task of a modern CFO. Working capital[ edit ] Working capital is the amount of funds which are necessary to an organization to continue its ongoing business operations, until the firm is reimbursed through payments for the goods or services it has delivered to its customers.
As a result, capital resource allocations relating to working capital are always current, i. In addition to time horizon , working capital management differs from capital budgeting in terms of discounting and profitability considerations; they are also "reversible" to some extent. Considerations as to Risk appetite and return targets remain identical, although some constraints — such as those imposed by loan covenants — may be more relevant here.
The most widely used measure of cash flow is the net operating cycle, or cash conversion cycle. This represents the time difference between cash payment for raw materials and cash collection for sales.
The cash conversion cycle indicates the firm's ability to convert its resources into cash. Because this number effectively corresponds to the time that the firm's cash is tied up in operations and unavailable for other activities, management generally aims at a low net count.
Another measure is gross operating cycle which is the same as net operating cycle except that it does not take into account the creditors deferral period. In this context, the most useful measure of profitability is Return on capital ROC. The result is shown as a percentage, determined by dividing relevant income for the 12 months by capital employed; Return on equity ROE shows this result for the firm's shareholders. As above, firm value is enhanced when, and if, the return on capital exceeds the cost of capital.
Management of working capital[ edit ] Guided by the above criteria, management will use a combination of policies and techniques for the management of working capital. Identify the cash balance which allows for the business to meet day to day expenses, but reduces cash holding costs. Inventory management. Identify the level of inventory which allows for uninterrupted production but reduces the investment in raw materials — and minimizes reordering costs — and hence increases cash flow.
Note that "inventory" is usually the realm of operations management : given the potential impact on cash flow, and on the balance sheet in general, finance typically "gets involved in an oversight or policing way". Debtors management. There are two inter-related roles here: 1 Identify the appropriate credit policy , i.
Short term financing. Identify the appropriate source of financing, given the cash conversion cycle: the inventory is ideally financed by credit granted by the supplier; however, it may be necessary to utilize a bank loan or overdraft , or to "convert debtors to cash" through " factoring ". Relationship with other areas in finance[ edit ] Investment banking[ edit ] Use of the term "corporate finance" varies considerably across the world. In the United States it is used, as above, to describe activities, analytical methods and techniques that deal with many aspects of a company's finances and capital.
In the United Kingdom and Commonwealth countries, the terms "corporate finance" and "corporate financier" tend to be associated with investment banking — i.
Raising debt and restructuring debt, especially when linked to the types of transactions listed above Financial risk management[ edit ] See also: Credit risk , Default finance , Financial risk , Interest rate risk , Liquidity risk , Operational risk , Settlement risk , Value at Risk , Volatility risk , and Insurance Risk management   is the process of measuring risk and then developing and implementing strategies to manage " hedge " that risk.
Financial risk management , typically, is focused on the impact on corporate value due to adverse changes in commodity prices , interest rates , foreign exchange rates and stock prices market risk. It will also play an important role in short term cash- and treasury management ; see above.
It is common for large corporations to have risk management teams; often these overlap with the internal audit function. While it is impractical for small firms to have a formal risk management function, many still apply risk management informally.