This course teaches the theory and practice of building mathematical models for aircraft based on measured data, a topic also known as Aircraft System. A new encounter can be gained by reviewing a publication Aircraft System Identification: Theory And. Practice By Vladislav Klein, Eugene A. Morelli Also that is. If the physical system is an aircraft, then this activity is called aircraft system identification . Identification – Theory and Practice, by V. Klein and E.A. Morelli.
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Klein V., Morelli E.A. Aircraft System Identification: Theory And Practice. Файл формата pdf; размером 5,41 МБ. Добавлен пользователем Михаил Сидоров . Aircraft System Identification: Theory And Practice [Vladislav Klein, Eugene A. Morelli] on ruthenpress.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book provides. Aircraft System Identification: Theory and Practice V. Klein and E.A. Morelli American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics, Alexander.
In ranked set sampling, m sets each of size r of field locations are identified using simple random sampling. The locations are ranked independently within each set using professional judgment or inexpensive, fast, or surrogate measurements.
One sampling unit from each set is then selected based on the observed ranks for subsequent measurement using a more accurate and reliable hence, more expensive method for the contaminant of interest. Relative to simple random sampling, this design results in more representative samples and so leads to more precise estimates of the population parameters.
Ranked set sampling is useful when the cost of locating and ranking locations in the field is low compared to laboratory measurements. It is also appropriate when an inexpensive auxiliary variable based on expert knowledge or measurement is available to rank population units with respect to the variable of interest.
To use this design effectively, it is important that the ranking method and analytical method are strongly correlated. Several additional rounds of sampling and analysis may be needed. Adaptive cluster sampling tracks the selection probabilities for later phases of sampling so that an unbiased estimate of the population mean can be calculated despite oversampling of certain areas. An example application of adaptive cluster sampling is delineating the borders of a plume of contamination.
Adaptive sampling is useful for estimating or searching for rare characteristics in a population and is appropriate for inexpensive, rapid measurements. It enables delineating the boundaries of hot spots, while also using all data collected with appropriate weighting to give unbiased estimates of the population mean.
Filling a clean bottle with river water is a very common example. Grab samples provide a good snap-shot view of the quality of the sampled environment at the point of sampling and at the time of sampling. Without additional monitoring, the results cannot be extrapolated to other times or to other parts of the river, lake or ground-water. For large rivers such surveys should also have regard to the depth of the sample and how to best manage the sampling locations at times of flood and drought.
In all but the shallowest lakes, there are major changes in the chemical composition of lake water at different depths, especially during the summer months when many lakes stratify into a warm, well oxygenated upper layer epilimnion and a cool de-oxygenated lower layer hypolimnion.
In the open seas marine environment grab samples can establish a wide range of base-line parameters such as salinity and a range of cation and anion concentrations. However, where changing conditions are an issue such as near river or sewage discharges, close to the effects of volcanism or close to areas of freshwater input from melting ice, a grab sample can only give a very partial answer when taken on its own.
Semi-continuous monitoring and continuous[ edit ] An automated sampling station and data logger to record temperature, specific conductance, and dissolved oxygen levels There is a wide range of specialized sampling equipment available that can be programmed to take samples at fixed or variable time intervals or in response to an external trigger.
The trigger in this case may be a remote rain gauge communicating with the sampler by using cell phone or meteor burst  technology. Samplers can also take individual discrete samples at each sampling occasion or bulk up samples into composite so that in the course of one day, such a sampler might produce 12 composite samples each composed of 6 sub-samples taken at 20 minute intervals.
Continuous or quasi-continuous monitoring involves having an automated analytical facility close to the environment being monitored so that results can, if required, be viewed in real time. Such systems are often established to protect important water supplies such as in the River Dee regulation system but may also be part of an overall monitoring strategy on large strategic rivers where early warning of potential problems is essential.
In all examples of automated bank-side analysis there is a requirement for water to be pumped from the river into the monitoring station. Choosing a location for the pump inlet is equally as critical as deciding on the location for a river grab sample.
The design of the pump and pipework also requires careful design to avoid artefacts being introduced through the action of pumping the water. Main article: Passive sampling The use of passive samplers greatly reduces the cost and the need of infrastructure on the sampling location. Passive samplers are semi-disposable and can be produced at a relatively low cost, thus they can be employed in great numbers, allowing for a better cover and more data being collected.
Due to being small the passive sampler can also be hidden, and thereby lower the risk of vandalism. Remote surveillance[ edit ] Although on-site data collection using electronic measuring equipment is common-place, many monitoring programmes also use remote surveillance and remote access to data in real time.
This requires the on-site monitoring equipment to be connected to a base station via either a telemetry network, land-line, cell phone network or other telemetry system such as Meteor burst.
The advantage of remote surveillance is that many data feeds can come into a single base station for storing and analysis. The use of remote surveillance also allows for the installation of very discrete monitoring equipment which can often be buried, camouflaged or tethered at depth in a lake or river with only a short whip aerial protruding.
Use of such equipment tends to reduce vandalism and theft when monitoring in locations easily accessible by the public. Main article: Remote sensing Environmental remote sensing uses aircraft or satellites to monitor the environment using multi-channel sensors.
There are two kinds of remote sensing. Passive sensors detect natural radiation that is emitted or reflected by the object or surrounding area being observed.
Reflected sunlight is the most common source of radiation measured by passive sensors and in environmental remote sensing, the sensors used are tuned to specific wavelengths from far infrared through visible light frequencies to the far ultraviolet.
The volumes of data that can be collected are very large and require dedicated computational support. The output of data analysis from remote sensing are false colour images which differentiate small differences in the radiation characteristics of the environment being monitored. With a skilful operator choosing specific channels it is possible to amplify differences which are imperceptible to the human eye.
In particular it is possible to discriminate subtle changes in chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations in plants and show areas of an environment with slightly different nutrient regimes.
Active remote sensing emits energy and uses a passive sensor to detect and measure the radiation that is reflected or backscattered from the target. LIDAR is often used to acquire information about the topography of an area, especially when the area is large and manual surveying would be prohibitively expensive or difficult.
Remote sensing makes it possible to collect data on dangerous or inaccessible areas. Remote sensing applications include monitoring deforestation in areas such as the site Basin , the effects of climate change on glaciers and Arctic and Antarctic regions, and depth sounding of coastal and ocean depths. Other uses include different areas of the earth sciences such as natural resource management , land use planning and conservation. Organisms living in the environment under study are constantly exposed to the physical, biological and chemical influences of that environment.
Organisms that have a tendency to accumulate chemical species can often accumulate significant quantities of material from very low concentrations in the environment.
Mosses have been used by many investigators to monitor heavy metal concentrations because of their tendency to selectively adsorb heavy metals. For grasslands and other low growing habitats the use of a quadrat — a 1-metre square frame — is often used with the numbers and types of organisms growing within each quadrat area counted  Sediments and soils require specialist sampling tools to ensure that the material recovered is representative. Such samplers are frequently designed to recover a specified volume of material and may also be designed to recover the sediment or soil living biota as well  such as the Ekman grab sampler.
Data interpretations[ edit ] The interpretation of environmental data produced from a well designed monitoring programme is a large and complex topic addressed by many publications. Regrettably it is sometimes the case that scientists approach the analysis of results with a pre-conceived outcome in mind and use or misuse statistics to demonstrate that their own particular point of view is correct.
Statistics remains a tool that is equally easy to use or to misuse to demonstrate the lessons learnt from environmental monitoring. Environmental quality indices[ edit ] Since the start of science-based environmental monitoring, a number of quality indices have been devised to help classify and clarify the meaning of the considerable volumes of data involved.
Not recognizing the young pilot's American accent, the French thought him to be a saboteur and made ready to execute him. He had no identification to prove his allegiance, but he did have his leather pouch containing the medallion. He showed the medallion to his would-be executioners and one of his French captors recognized the squadron insignia on the medallion. They delayed his execution long enough for him to confirm his identity.
Instead of shooting him they gave him a bottle of wine. If the challenged member produced a medallion, then the challenging member was required to pay for the drink. This tradition continued throughout the war and for many years after the war while surviving members of the squadron were still alive.
Similarly, Jim Harrington proposed a Jolly sixpence club amongst the junior officers of the th Infantry. There would be specific aspects such as type of coin, date of the coin, etc. This helped prevent infiltration into the meeting by a spy who would have to have advance knowledge of the meeting time and place as well as what coin was to be presented, amongst other signals, as bona fides. While a number of legends place the advent of challenge coins in the post- Korean Conflict era some as late as the Vietnam War , or even later, Colonel William "Buffalo Bill" Quinn had coins made for those who served in his 17th Infantry Regiment during and He had a special coin struck with the unit's badge and motto in Until the s, his unit was the only unit with an active challenge coin tradition.
As the story goes, he carried a Philippine solid silver coin that was stamped on one side with the unit insignia. The coin was used to verify, to the guerrillas, that the soldier was their valid contact for the mission against the Japanese. Two coins issued by various units of the Belgian Air Component The challenge coin tradition has spread to other military units, in all branches of service, and even to non-military organizations as well as the United States Congress , which produces challenge coins for members of Congress to give to constituents.
Today, challenge coins are given to members upon joining an organization, as an award to improve morale, and sold to commemorate special occasions or as fundraisers. These coins are currently on display at the Clinton Library.
The challenge coins appear in the background of his official portrait , now hanging in the White House. President George W. Bush received a challenge coin from a Marine combat patrol unit during his short but unexpected visit to Al Asad Airbase in Anbar province, Iraq, 3 September Not all of his coin exchanges went smoothly; in he attempted to hand it off to Sergeant Kristie Ness who dropped it.
Obama picked it up, afterwards they both laughed it off. His campaign slogan " Make America Great Again " appears on both sides. It features a banner at the bottom, which also serves as a base allowing the coin to stand upright.
The rules of a challenge are not always formalized for a unit, and may vary between organizations. The challenge only applies to those members that have been given a coin formally by their unit. This may lead to some controversy when challenges are initiated between members of different organizations and is not recommended.
The tradition of the coin challenge is meant to be a source of morale in a unit, and forcing the challenge can cause a reverse effect.
The act of challenging is called a "Coin Check" and is usually loudly announced. In noisy environments, continuously rapping the challenge coin on a surface may initiate the challenge. Accidentally dropping a challenge coin is considered to be a deliberate challenge to all present.
Everyone being challenged must immediately produce the coin for their organization and anyone failing to do so must download a round of drinks for the challenger and everyone else who has their challenge coin. However, should everyone challenged be able to produce their coin, the challenger must download a round of drinks for the group.
Coins on belt buckles or key chains are not acceptable for meeting a challenge. However, a coin worn around the neck is acceptable for meeting a coin challenge.
During a challenge, everyone in the group must download a drink for the holder of the highest-ranking coin. A coin's rank is determined by the rank of the giver of the challenge coin.
For example, a coin presented by an Admiral would outrank a coin presented by a Vice Admiral , while both would outrank a coin presented by a Captain. Traditionally, the presentation of a coin is passed during a handshake. Some units provide strict time limits to respond to a challenge. Traditionally, rules of a challenge include a prohibition against defacing the coin, especially if it makes it easier to carry at all times.
If the challenge coin is attached to a belt buckle or key ring, or has had a hole drilled in it to attach to a lanyard, it no longer qualifies as a challenge coin. While there are only a few base metals, the patina finish can range from gold, silver, or nickel to brass, copper, or bronze - plus the antiqued variations.
Soft or hard enamel or a printed inset with an epoxy coating may add color the epoxies are often more resilient and scratch resistant than the metal surfaces.
There are two basic processes by which to manufacture: zinc-alloy castings or die struck bronze. Zinc alloy castings offer the advantage of low cost. Zinc casting also allows more flexibility in design like cutouts found on spinner coins or bottle opener coins. The cost of domestic manufacture can be many times this amount.
In order to be competitive, most North American companies offering challenge coins rely on having the product manufactured offshore. Many challenge coins are fabricated in South Korea, as the connection to the US military bases there is strong,[ citation needed ] and costs are cheaper than those made in the US. As such, they are used as a tool to build morale.
Since the B gunner position was phased out in , this famous challenge coin has become rarer.
This coin was presented to gunners upon graduation from their Air Force technical training and their entry into the "Gunners Association".