Published in the e-book form plus paper copies. trated golden jubilee edition of Khushwant Singh’s novel Train to Pakistan () Pakistan, Khushwant Singh, Margaret Bourke-White, Life magazine, postmemory. First published in , Train to Pakistan is a classic of modern Indian fiction. Khushwant Khushwant Singh was a Member of Parliament from to Train to Pakistan, the first novel on the theme of Partition, is a brilliant and realistic story says, Khushwant Singh's Train to Pakistan deserved a high position in.
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Abstract—This research aims to explore the heteroglot world of Sikhs, Muslims and Hindus in a Sikh village in. Khushwant Singh's novel, Train to Pakistan. It is in this respect that Train to Pakistan, written by Khushwant Singh and published in , is often considered a foundational novel (Mehrotra ; Coussy 42;. Mano Majra is a place, Khushwant Singh tells us at the beginning of this classic novel, where Sikhs and Muslims have lived together in peace for hundreds of.
In this type of representation, barbaric acts are silenced when they are mentioned and forgotten just as they are remembered; attributing responsibility to someone else is a way to exonerate oneself while also reducing violence to a marginal phenomenon. The villagers of Mano Majra are the subjects of the narrative in a narratological sense; simply put, they are the actants whose quest it is to resist an expansion of communalism coming from the outside9.
In the initial situation, Mano Majra is described as a pastoral utopia, an oasis of peace in a desert of violence The humble village is organised symbolically around a sacred banyan tree, itself surrounded by the Sikh temple, the mosque and the residence of the only Hindu villager.
The depiction of local customs and beliefs in the iterative present creates an impression of permanence and the inhabitants seem to live outside of history until Partition: Then comes a series of four trials for the villagers.
Firstly, violence erupts when the only Hindu inhabitant is assassinated by criminals coming from a nearby village — Malli and his gang — and a train of corpses stops at the village. Tension mounts but the members of both Hindu and Sikh communities gather under the banyan tree until the arrival of the police. Secondly, Hukum Chand tries to sow discord in Mano Majra to encourage the Muslims to leave for Pakistan and thus maintain law and order. He has Malli released and spreads a rumour according to which the murder was committed by Muslim League activists.
The naive villagers fall into the trap: The Sikhs meet in the temple and some want to draw blood.
When the Muslims join them, however, friendship overcomes animosity and a scene of reconciliation ensues. Little do they know that the soldiers in charge of the transfer will deport the Muslims to Pakistan and force them to leave most of their belongings behind. When the Sikh villagers refuse to seize those goods, Malli and another group of outsiders accept.
The complicity between intruders and the solidarity among villagers is explicit: It is all settled, said the Sikh officer, speaking softly in Punjabi. I have arranged that these people from the next village will look after the cattle, carts, and houses, till it is over. I will have a list made and sent over to you. His colleague did not reply. He had a sardonic smile on his face. Mano Majra Sikhs and Muslims looked on helplessly.
Once again, it is Malli and some unknown refugees who volunteer first: They were followed by many others, mostly refugees. Some villagers who had only recently wept at the departure of their Muslim friends also stood up to volunteer. He falls to his death after cutting the rope set up above the railway line to kill those sitting on the roof and to force the train to a stop, thereby saving his lover Nooran and the rest of the Mano Majra Muslims.
Chatterji 6 In Train to Pakistan, therefore, violence is carried out by the opponents of the narrative: The villagers are not responsible because they are manipulated, nor are they guilty since the only crime they could have committed is prevented and atoned for by a sacrifice.
Their only fault, it seems, is their innocence. The answer depends on our perception of dominant discourses.
Among the two types of forgetting that have been dealt with silence and self- exoneration , one was mentioned in Train to Pakistan but the other was inspired by the reading of historiography. Perhaps this can explain why the first has attracted the attention of literary critics while the second has not. It might therefore be time to use the latest works of historians to revisit other Partition novels from a fresh perspective.
Chatterji 7 Notes 1. Since , two monuments dedicated to the memory of Partition victims have been erected: To be precise, historians have long written about the relations between the Congress and the Muslim League until the Radcliffe Line was drawn in However, it has only been a dozen years since some have started to conduct interviews with survivors see Butalia; Pandey; Menon and Bhasin.
Chatterji 8 5. An actant, as opposed to a character, is not defined by its psychological character but by the function it serves in a narrative.
The function of a subject is — with the aid of helpers and against the hindrance of opponents — to seek an object, in this case inter- communal peace and harmony Greimas The novel tends to follow the archetypal narrative sequence described by a number of narratologists: Chatterji 9 Works cited Adam, Jean-Michel.
Le texte narratif: Nathan, Arendt, Hannah. Butalia, Urvashi.
The Other Side of Silence: Voices from the Partition of India. Coussy, Denise. Le roman indien de langue anglaise. Karthala, Dhawan, R. The Man and the Writer. Prestige Books, Editions du seuil, Greimas, AJ. Larousse, Hasan, Mushirul.
Khan, Yasmin. The Great Partition: New Haven: Yale Unversity Press, Kumar, Krishna. Prejudice and Pride: Viking Penguin, Mehrotra, Arvind Krishna. A History of Indian Literature in English. Menon, Ritu and Kamla Bhasin. New- Delhi: Kali for Women, Pabby, D. The summer of mano majra where sikhs and god the prose is written when a scatter. Instead was fantastic less Download - Penguin Books South Africa playing in the background as you discuss the novel.
Here are the songs, in no particular order: Riz Ortolani — Oh my love. Notice these expressions in the text. Infer their meaning from the context. MY grandmother, like everybody's grandmother, was an old woman. Blueback - Penguin Books Australia This is a story about love and the importance of and contribution that one life can The quotes at the beginning of the novel unpaged are reflective of the story.
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