Obstetrics and gynaecology at a glance pdf


 

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Obstetrics And Gynaecology At A Glance Pdf

Obstetrics and Gynecology at a Glance 4th Edition PDF - If you found this book helpful then please like, subscribe and share. Editorial Reviews. From the Back Cover. The market-leading at a Glance series is used world-wide by medical students, residents, junior doctors and health. Title Slide of Obstetrics and gynecology at a glance. The reproductive system at a glance pdf. LaureneChacko · English · Español · Português.

This requirement applies to ALL article types listed in the following section; including letters, replies, etc. The editors encourage the supplementary use of multimedia components such as PowerPoint, additional images, or video clips. Color figures and images are free. Original Research Systematic review and meta-analysis studies: please refer to Systematic Reviews Translational Research: please refer to Translational Research Original research manuscripts are limited to words of main text, must include all items listed under 'Article structure,' including a Title Page, Condensation, Short Title, AJOG at a Glance, and Keywords, and organized as follows: Title page - starting on page 1 - Title as concise as possible, approximately 12 words, without abbreviations or parenthetical abbreviations for terms used in the title, and suitable for indexing purposes Proprietary brand names and conclusion statements are NOT permitted in the manuscript title. A title page is required for ALL article types, see 'Essential title page information' of this document for details. Include the following in sequence: Condensation, Short Title, AJOG at a Glance, and Keywords On the next page supply: Condensation - a 1-sentence condensation of the paper, consisting of no more than 25 words, stating its essential point s ; this sentence, which is subject to copy editing in conformance with Journal style, will appear in the Table of Contents. Short Title: a short version of the article title, for the identification line inserted at the bottom of each published table and figure. AJOG at a Glance: This section is limited to no more than words, short sentences or phrases in bullet form, briefly describing your study, its significance, and its contribution to the literature. Include the questions followed by your responses, and listed in bullet form with A. Why was the study conducted? What are the key findings? What does this study add to what is already known? Keywords - Keywords are a pertinent component in making articles more visible and accessible to potential readers and assist in the dissemination of your research. Provide as many alphabetized key words or short phrases as needing for indexing purposes.

Materials and Methods: Describe briefly, but in sufficient detail to permit others to replicate the study, its plan, patients, experimental animals or other species, materials, and controls; methods and procedures; and statistical method s employed. Institutional Review Board IRB issues are to be addressed here as stated under "Human and nonhuman experimentation" in the Editorial Policies section above.

If the study was exempt from IRB approval, provide an explanation in this section. Emphasize only the most important observations. Required headings include: 1. Principal Findings - a brief statement of the principal findings, limiting claims to those strictly supported by the data, avoiding speculation and overgeneralization. Give equal emphasis to positive and negative findings of equal scientific merit. Results - in the context of what is known 3.

Indicate whether additional research is required before the information can be confidently used in clinical settings. Research Implications - Unanswered questions; proposals for future research. Strengths and Limitations - Strengths and weaknesses of the study, both intrinsically and in relation to other studies, particularly any differences in results.

Conclusions Additional subheadings - may be included by the authors if appropriate and will facilitate reading. Examples of a structured discussion can be found in the following papers: 1 Vaginal progesterone is as effective as cervical cerclage to prevent preterm birth in women with a singleton gestation, previous spontaneous preterm birth, and a short cervix: updated indirect comparison meta-analysis. Am J Obstet Gynecol. Epub Jan The full length article is the official version and is linked to search engines.

The full-length article becomes available online for citation before the print issue containing the abstract and accompanying material. Impact Factors and other citation indices are based on the full-length online article.

Translational Science Translational science is typically presented in the form of an original research manuscript; however, the only type of non-clinical research considered must be translational in nature and contain biological implications for obstetrics and gynecology.

Basic science without direct clinical relevance will not be considered; please see Editorial Policies for examples. Reviews Expert Reviews These invited articles provide concise reviews on a topic in which the author has expertise.

The manuscript should be comprehensive and balanced, but not exhaustive. Expert Reviews must be evidence based but may include some expert opinion and recommendations. The goal is to provide a concise update on the state of the art and guidelines for clinical care.

Expert Reviews are limited to words of main text not counting the title page, abstract, condensation, acknowledgments, references, tables, legends, and figures. An unstructured abstract 1 paragraph, no categories of no more than words and as many alphabetized key words or short phrases as needed for indexing must be provided.

Subheadings to separate and identify sections of text should be unique to the topic; the 4 prescribed subheadings required for research articles do not apply. To prevent such subheadings from occupying many lines on a page, they should be as short as possible, not exceeding approximately 6 words, and preferably 1 to 4 words. The full-length article appears both in print and on the Journal website. Systematic Reviews Each article in this category provides a comprehensive and exhaustive systematic review of the literature related to the topic, collating all relevant evidence meeting pre-specified eligibility criteria.

Systematic reviews may not be combined with other manuscript types. Systematic reviews must include a clearly stated set of objectives with reproducible methodology, a systematic search, eligibility criteria for selecting studies, assessment of study quality risk of bias , an assessment of the validity of the findings and systematic synthesis of these findings.

Metaanalysis, the use of statistical techniques to combine and summarize results across studies, may or may not be contained within a systematic review. Systematic Reviews are limited to words of main text not counting the title page, abstract, condensation, acknowledgments, references, tables, legends, and figures.

Include a structured abstract containing no more than words and as many alphabetized key words or short phrases as needed for indexing. Studies examining medical student specialty selection note that clinical clerkships greatly influence students' career decision-making processes. In contrast, those who chose to enter obstetrics and gynecology reported the clerkship made the specialty more attractive.

Hammoud and colleagues 11 assessed the effect of the obstetrics and gynecology clerkship on students' interest in pursuing the field in a survey of students of 3 US medical schools. They found that students' sex and preclerkship interest in obstetrics and gynecology were the main factors associated with postclerkship interest in entering the field.

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Studies show that perceptions of lifestyle, work hours, malpractice costs, and income influence specialty choice, 12 — , 18 and factors specific to obstetrics and gynecology, such as continutiy of patient care, surgical opportunities, and a healthy patient population, can make the field more attractive.

We hypothesized that 2 aspects of the clerkship have the greatest potential to influence student interest in obstetrics and gynecology: exposure to quality teaching and direct participation in examinations and procedures. We designed this study to address 2 main research questions: 1 Does the quantity and quality of teaching during the clerkship affect medical student interest in obstetrics and gynecology?

Methods We conducted an anonymous, self-administered written survey of all third-year medical students rotating through a required obstetrics and gynecology clerkship from November to May at a single, large, urban medical university in the eastern United States. For content validity, survey questions were developed with input from obstetrics and gynecology faculty and residents, as well as recently graduated and current fourth-year medical students. In a similar fashion, students were asked about their level of career interest in obstetrics and gynecology at the time of survey distribution, which occurred during the last week of their 4-week clerkship.

We used univariate statistics to describe participant characteristics.

Obstetrics And Gynecology Books

Student factors assessed were male or female sex and the student's top 5 career choices. Teaching factors included 8 questions regarding faculty teaching and 15 questions regarding resident teaching. Experiential learning factors included 5 questions assessing number of breast and pelvic examinations performed and location of the examination eg, operating room, labor and delivery ward, clinic , 12 questions assessing performance of specific procedural tasks during a cesarean delivery, and 13 questions assessing performance of specific procedural tasks during gynecologic surgery.

One confounding variable—prior clerkships completed—was also assessed. Using bivariate analyses, we examined these factors for associations between preclerkship and postclerkship career interest. We also examined factors associated with changes in levels of career interest in obstetrics and gynecology before and after the clerkship. Resident activities and students' perceptions of the residents were also associated with career interest at the end of the rotation.

Table Open in a separate window In general, hands-on experience suturing, using the Bovie instrument was not associated with postclerkship career interest. Students' sex, number of deliveries, and the teaching quality of the attending physicians were not associated with postclerkship career interest in obstetrics and gynecology. Student perception of quality of teaching, number of deliveries, feeling part of a team, and having clear rotation expectations were not associated with change in level of career interest.

Obstetrics Gynaecology at a ruthenpress.info

Hands-on experiences did not significantly affect career interest in obstetrics and gynecology. Students who had a preclerkship interest in obstetrics and gynecology were more likely to seek greater pelvic examination experience, which could explain the slight nonsignificant trend associating a higher number of pelvic examinations with postclerkship career interest.

Students who described more interest in obstetrics and gynecology were less likely to have had other types of hands-on experiences, such as participation in cesarean deliveries, stapling skin, and suctioning the airway of the newborn during cesarean deliveries, and retracting soft tissue or bladder and using Bovie cautery in gynecologic surgeries. Students possibly felt less involved and more tangential during cesarean deliveries and viewed skin stapling or tissue retraction as lower-skill, less interesting tasks.

Discussion Clerkship factors associated with greater postclerkship interest include a higher satisfaction with resident professional behavior and students' sense of inclusion in the clinical team. A larger number of study participants reported a career interest in obstetrics and gynecology at the end of the clerkship than at the beginning of the clerkship, with more men reporting an increase in interest postclerkship than preclerkship.

Teaching attributes were associated with preclerkship career interest, suggesting that neither residents nor faculty favored, with more intensive or higher quality teaching, those students who wished to pursue obstetrics and gynecology. Students' interactions with and perceptions of the residents were more consistently influential than either the quality or quantity of faculty interactions or the amount and type of participation in deliveries and surgical procedures.

Students' feelings of being part of a team were likely the result of a sense of inclusion and camaraderie from the residents within that clinical team. The high association between perception of residents as good professional role models and postclerkship career interest suggests that students may be placing value on the personalities and characteristics of the practitioners and advanced learners in the specialty. Should a student choose to enter into the field of obstetrics and gynecology, residents would represent the most immediate colleagues and peers.

When considering whether to pursue a career in obstetrics and gynecology, students may be making judgments regarding whether they share qualities, characteristics, and values with this group. Students' perceptions of the residents' teaching behavior eg, their inclusion of students in the clinical team, the clarity with which they communicated what they expected from the students, and their professionalism were significantly associated with career interest at the end of the clerkship.

Our study has several limitations. Our participants consisted of one class of medical students at a single medical school, and thus our results cannot be generalized to other institutions with clerkships differing in characteristics and structure. Despite our attempts to implement multiple methods of protecting participants' identity, the timing of survey completion—after a practice-based learning session and before the end of the clerkship—may have introduced some reporting bias.

Time and funding limitations did not allow us to compare these clerkship experiences and students' interest levels with those of other clerkships and other specialties. Finally, owing to the anonymous nature of the surveys, we could not follow up with participants to assess their final career choices and determine whether their postclerkship interest was associated with entry into the field of obstetrics and gynecology.

We do know that 9 female students from that class did match in obstetrics and gynecology. Our study contributes to the literature in the field because, to our knowledge, no prior study has examined with the same level of detail the association between clerkship experience and specialty choice; instead, prior research has focused primarily on students' characteristics and the number and type of other clerkships completed. Conclusion Residents and faculty should make students feel that they are part of the clinical team.

Helping clerkship students to become invested in the care of the patients in the obstetrics and gynecology service may in turn generate greater student interest for the specialty. This can be achieved by providing the student with an active and contributing role in the clinical team as well as allowing the student to participate more directly in patient examinations and procedures.

We offer 2 recommendations. Obstetrics and gynecology clerkship directors and residency program directors need to emphasize to residents their role as educators and professional role models for medical students. As suggested by leaders of the Association of Professors of Gynecology and Obstetrics, medical student educators—residents as well as attending physicians—need to be rewarded and recognized for their contributions and efforts. Residents may also benefit from attending training workshops on how to be effective teachers.

Student clerkship evaluations have been shown to significantly improve after residents participate in teaching skills workshops. Footnotes Judy C.

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