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When the enormous increases in prosperity ushered in by the Industrial Revolution essentially freed many Western nations from these constraints, scientists of the time expected Malthusian explosion in population.
However, an inverse relationship between prosperity and reproduction was soon noted; the average size of families fell. The trend continues to this day and has spread to recently industrialized portions of the world. Early biologists tried to explain the transition to smaller families by drawing comparisons to the animal world. Animals that have many young tend to live in hostile, unpredictable environments.
Since the odds against any given offspring's survival are high, having many offspring increases the chance that at least one or two of them will survive. In contrast, animals that have fewer children but invest more resources in childrearing tend to live in stable, less hostile environments.
Therefore, the biologists observed, progeny that have acquired the skills they need to compete while sheltered by a family have an advantage over their less prepared competitors.
By analogy, if people living in a prosperous environment produced only a few, pampered children, those children would outcompete the progeny of parents who had stretched their resources too widely.
Critics of this theory argue that there are limitations in conflating animal and human behavior. They argue instead that changes in social attitudes are adequate to explain this phenomenon. To a family in a society that is tied to the land, a large number of children is a great boon.
They increase family income by being put to work early, and usually some can be persuaded to care for their parents into old age. As a society becomes richer, and as physical labor becomes less important, education may extend into the early twenties, making children economically unattractive as they now consume family assets rather than produce them.
Meanwhile, plans such as pensions and Social Security mitigate the need for children to care for their parents into their dotage. Question 19Show Details The primary purpose of the passage is to A. Criticize explanations of human behavior that are based solely on observations taken from the animal world.
Show why the expected population explosion following the Industrial Revolution did not occur before the Industrial Revolution. Demonstrate how family size was influenced by both environmental restraints and social attitudes before and after the Industrial Revolution.
Present two alternative theories that explain why family size tends to shrink with increased prosperity. Argue that studies based on social attitudes are more effective than models based on evolutionary advantages in accounting for demographic patterns.
Answer: D In evaluating the choices for a "primary purpose" question, it is often useful to start with a scan of the initial verb. This should be the choice we read first. When we do, we find that is a perfect match n is, in fact, the correct answer. A is incorrect because the author doesn't "criticize" anything. C is incorrect because the author fails to "demonstrate" that either or both of the explanations described have any merit.
E is incorrect because the author fails to "demonstrate" that either or both of the explanations have any merit. E is incorrect because the author doesn't "argue" for or against anything.
Choice D is correct. Question 20Show Details According to the passage, which of the following is true of a Malthusian explosion on population?
It's occurrence has been limited to those areas of the globe that have remained preindustrial. It is inevitable in societies making the transition from an economy based on agriculture to one based on industry. It was predicted by at least some who lived through the Industrial Revolution in the West.
Social scientist have only recently reached consensus on the question of why it fails to occur in recently industrialized countries. It was avoided in Western society because wealth created by industrialization allowed families to support children through extended periods of education. Answer: C C matches our prediction and is the correct answer. A is incorrect because "preindustrial areas of the globe" are not mentioned in the passage.
All we know is that there has not been a population explosion in industrialized nations; what has happened elsewhere is not discussed in the passage. B is the opposite of what we need. The first paragraph of the passage states that a Malthusian population explosion, though believed to be inevitable during or after the Industrial Revolution did not actually occur.
Finally, C is a distortion. While the Critics' explanation does include extended education as an economic liability that helps convince people in industrialized nations to have fewer children, the author of the passage does not endorse the critics' explanation as correct.
Choice C is the correct answer. Go through it and get maximum out of it. Hi i want gate questions for civil engineering. Please post some more papers for GMAT Please i need past questions on gmat. Thank you. Do you have any question? Related Articles: Please also check: User Name. Remember Me? Question Papers.
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