PLANT ANATOMY. A. FAHN. Professor of Botany. The Hebrew University, Jerusalem, Israel. Translated from the Hebrew by SYBIL BROmO·ALTMAN. Fahn Plant Anatomy PDF - Free download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read online for free. Fahn-plant-anatomy-pdf. Fahn, A. Plant anatomy (3rd ed.). ISBN 0–08– Pergamon, Oxford. Bjorn Walles · Search for more papers by this author · Bjorn Walles · Search for.
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Phytochemistry,,Vol.8,p PergamonPress. PrintedinEngland BOOK REVIEW Plant Anatomy: A. FAHN,translated by S. BROIDO-ALTMAN. Pergamon . Get this from a library! Plant anatomy. [A Fahn]. PDF | On Jul 11, , Nigel Chaffey and others published Plant anatomy: an applied approach.
Maytenus and Olea probably did not require any further osmoregulatory mechanism, which explains their large sized cells across the environments.
Osmoregulation by cell size is not as effective as regulation by changes in solute concentration. The latter process accounted for much of the difference in tissue osmotic potential of leaves of Castanospermum australe growing between the forest and adjacent clearing Myerset al.
The large difference in stomatal frequency of Maytenus, Olea, Rapanea and Cunonia between the fynbos, on the one hand, and the interior and the margin of the forest, simulates the response shown by cuticle thickness.
It is also interesting that for any given leaf character, Maytenus, Olea, Rapanea and Cunonia often responded in a similar fashion. High stomatal frequencies are usually characteristic of leaves of xerophytes Shields, ; Fahn, Plants grown under high light intensities also show a high stomatal frequency Fetcheret al.
Radiation is many times higher under pioneer vegetation than within the forest Bazzaz, ; Messier and Bellefleur, As carbon dioxide constitutes only 0. In this way diffusion of carbon dioxide is minimally hindered by the epidermis. Water vapour is near saturation inside the leaf, and thus never forms diffusion shells.
In addition, there is always a boundary layer of moist air around the leaf, preventing steepening of the diffusion gradient Bidwell, Consequently, the leaf is maximally effective for reducing water evaporation whilst permitting high rates of carbon dioxide transfer. Directly or indirectly, the high stomatal frequency in the fynbos may also be a response to the scarcity of water.
The higher light intensity and temperature in addition to exposure to wind in the fynbos compared with the forest would accelerate evapotranspiration. The present observations suggest that Cunonia, Rapanea and, to some extent, Kiggelaria respond in a similar fashion to the environment. These species exhibited high phenotypic plasticity; their leaf structure changed to suit the particular environment.
Their leaves are of a xeromorphic nature in the fynbos but assume a mesomorphic structure within the forest.
In the case of Cunonia, Rapanea and Kiggelaria, all exhibited leaf anatomical plasticity. Maytenus belongs to a different class. Unlike the leaves of the forest precursors, its foliage showed no phenotypic plasticity. In the fynbos it was even more xeromorphic than the forest precursors. Its leaf anatomy is apparently a result of genetic influence.
This may limit Maytenus to environmental conditions found in the fynbos. Euclea occurs only in the fynbos and its leaf characters are similar to those of Maytenus. Like Maytenus, its confinement to the fynbos may be linked to a lack of phenotypic plasticity.
Species restricted to the forest also exhibited similar leaf characters. Their foliar features occupied the other end of the scale compared with those of Maytenus.
In this category, only Olinia exhibited leaf plasticity as it had xeromorphic leaves in the fynbos environment. Transcending all these categories, and found in all environments, were Olea and Cassine. The slow rate of forest recovery in Orange Kloof 50 years since the last fire may be explained by the mode of response of these species to the environment. Adaptive capacity is a prerequisite for invasion of the fynbos by forest species.
Maytenus is genetically adapted to the most adverse environments: the scree margin and fynbos zone. In these environments it may facilitate colonization by forest species. Imbued with phenotypic plasticity, the forest precursors may set the pace for regeneration by modifying the less adverse fynbos environments.
In conclusion, it does appear to be possible to identify plastic behaviour in anatomy which can be related to the ecology of a species. However, to understand this relationship more fully would require examination of a larger number of species than was undertaken in the present investigation, perhaps covering a wider breadth of environments. McKenzie and C. References Acocks JHP Veld types of South Africa.
Memoirs of the Botanical Survey of South Africa 1— The physiological ecology of plant succession. Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics — Plant physiology. New York: McMillan. Evolutionary significance of phenotypic plasticity in plants. Advances in Genetics — Anatomical study of seasonal dimorphism of Phlomis fruticosa Annals of Botany — Plant anatomy: Experiment and interpretation.
London: Arnold. The importance of cell size in the water relations of plants. Physiologia Plantarum — A comparative anatomical study of the southern African species of Olea L.. Some anatomical adaptations of desert plants. Phytomorphology 93— Effects of light regime on the growth, leaf morphology, and water relations of seedlings of two species of tropical trees. Oecologia — Plant form and function. London: Bell and Sons.
Dents who did not have the time to wade through Esau or Fahn. Professor Fahn did not come to plant anatomy in the usual way of studying. The phytographic study of the coffee senna plant initiated by Nassar et al. Essau, Metcalfe Chalk, Fahn, In this study, the morphological and anatomical properties of Hyacinthella glabrescens were investigated. Cross-sections of root, scape and leaf parts of the plant economics of india pdf were examined and demonstrated.
Fahn maintained that sand crystals.
For adult plants, the anatomical study was conducted on the different. In this paper we present the results of an anatomical study of the surface of the vesicles. To the wax of the leaves of other plants, e.