The Project Gutenberg EBook of The Antichrist, by F. W. Nietzsche This eBook is for the use of anyone anywhere at no cost and with almost no restrictions. The Antichrist. Friedrich Nietzsche Translated from the German with an introduction by H. L. Mencken. First published in This web edition published by. Twilight of the Idols, or How to Philosophize with a Hammer. The Case of Wagner: A Musician's Problem. 23 1. Nietzsche contra Wagner: From the Files of a.
|Language:||English, Spanish, Dutch|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
The Virtual Library - Free online ebooks in pdf, epub, kindle and other formats. In categories: Modern western philosophy, Friedrich Nietzsche collection. Texts in the. History of. Philosophy. Nietzsche. The Anti-Christ, Ecce. Homo, Twilight of the. Idols. And Other Writings. Edited by. Aaron Ridley and Judith Norman. This article examines Nietzsche's The Antichrist. Nietzsche constructed his own history of Christianity with its roots in Judaism. It is framed not so much by the.
For a noble morality, pity is a weakness, but for Christianity, it is a virtue. In Schopenhauer 's philosophy, which Nietzsche sees as the most nihilistic and opposed to life, pity is the highest virtue of all. But, for Nietzsche, pity " Of course, one does not say 'nothingness. Schopenhauer was hostile to life: therefore pity became a virtue for him.
Aristotle , who lived in — BCE, on the other hand, recognized the unhealthiness of pity and prescribed tragedy as a purgative. Theologians, priests and philosophers[ edit ] Theology and philosophy, practiced by priests and idealists, are antithetical to reality and actuality. They are supposed to represent a high, pure and superior spirit that is above and has " He defined the faith that they fostered as " This reversal of values is considered, by Nietzsche, to be harmful to life.
When the theologians seek political power, " Kant supported theological ideals by his discussions of the concepts of "true world" and "morality as the essence of the world. Its origin from concepts and logic was decadent because it was not a product of life, growth, self—preservation, and pleasure. Scientific method[ edit ] Nietzsche considered a free spirit to be the embodiment of a transvaluation of all values. Prior to Nietzsche's time, he claimed, the scientific method of searching for truth and knowledge was met with scorn and derision.
A quiet, cautious, modest manner was seen with contempt.
Also, we know that man is not superior to other animals. By reducing man to a mere machine, devoid of free will, we have learned much about his physiology. Will is now known to be a necessary reaction to a stimulus. Consciousness and spirit derive from instinct. However, " If Christians were naturally strong and confident, they would have a God who is destructive as well as good. A God who counsels love of enemy, as well as of friend, is a God of a people who feel themselves as perishing and without hope.
They will then attribute evil and deviltry to their masters' God. As a result, it deteriorated into an insubstantial ideal, pure spirit, Absolute , or thing in itself. In all religious history, Nietzsche believed, Buddhism was the only positivistic religion because it struggles against actual suffering, which is experienced as fact or illusion the concept of Maya in various Buddhist traditions.
Christianity, by contrast, struggles against sin, while suggesting that suffering can have a redemptive quality. Nietzsche claimed that Buddhism is "beyond good and evil" because it has developed past the " He also believed Christianity had conquered barbarians by making them sick.
Christianity, on the other hand, interprets suffering as related to sin. He called these virtues the three Christian shrewdnesses. Faith and belief are opposed to reason, knowledge, and inquiry, he believed. To him, hope in the Beyond sustains the unhappy multitudes. They turned against the natural world.
Their resentment against those who were well—constituted led them to " The Jews were not decadents, themselves. According to Nietzsche, they have " The Jews affirmed themselves, realized their own power, and had a good conscience. Even after internal anarchy and Assyrian invasions weakened Israel, it retained its worship of God as a king who is both soldier and judge.
Concept of God is falsified. Yahweh became a demanding god of justice who is " Morality is no longer an expression of life and growth.
Instead, morality opposes life by presenting well—being as a dangerous temptation. Priestly agitators " The great epoch becomes an epoch of decay. The Exile is an " It was a record of guilt, punishment, piety, and reward in relation to Yahweh. A moral world order is established which assigns value to actions that obey the will of God and which claims that this general will, i.
Priests teach that " The sacred book formulates the will of God and specifies what is to be given to the priests. Priests become parasites. Not to speak of 'sacrifice' meal—times The priest sanctifies and bestows all value. Disobedience of God the priest is 'sin. Priests use 'sin' to gain and hold power. Revolt against Jewish priesthood[ edit ] The Jewish church opposed and negated nature, reality, and the world as being sinful and unholy.
Christianity then negated the Jewish church and its holy, chosen people, according to Nietzsche. That is what brought him to the cross Nietzsche thought that the word idiot best described Jesus. With an antipathy toward the material world, Jesus was " Extreme sensitivity results in avoidance of the world. Also, any feeling of resistance to the world is experienced as pain.
Even evil is therefore not resisted. Morality is no longer an expression of life and growth. Instead, morality opposes life by presenting well—being as a dangerous temptation. Priestly agitators " The great epoch becomes an epoch of decay. The Exile is an " It was a record of guilt, punishment, piety, and reward in relation to Yahweh. A moral world order is established which assigns value to actions that obey the will of God and which claims that this general will, i.
Priests teach that " The sacred book formulates the will of God and specifies what is to be given to the priests. Priests become parasites. Not to speak of 'sacrifice' meal—times The priest sanctifies and bestows all value. Disobedience of God the priest is 'sin. Priests use 'sin' to gain and hold power. Revolt against Jewish priesthood[ edit ] The Jewish church opposed and negated nature, reality, and the world as being sinful and unholy. Christianity then negated the Jewish church and its holy, chosen people, according to Nietzsche.
That is what brought him to the cross Nietzsche thought that the word idiot best described Jesus. With an antipathy toward the material world, Jesus was " Extreme sensitivity results in avoidance of the world.
Also, any feeling of resistance to the world is experienced as pain. Even evil is therefore not resisted. The first disciples, in their Gospels, described him as having Old Testament characteristics such as prophet, Messiah, miracle—worker, moral preacher, etc.
Dostoevsky could have revealed his sickliness and childishness. His spirituality is infantile, a result of delayed puberty. Jesus does not resist or contend with the world because he doesn't recognize the importance of the world. His life is its own kingdom of God at every moment. Early Christians used Semitic concepts to express his teaching, but his anti—realism could just as easily have been a characteristic of Taoism or Hinduism.
Nietzsche asserted that the psychological reality of redemption was " He offers no resistance to evil, He has no anger and wants no revenge. Blessedness is not promised on conditions, as in Judaism. The Gospel's glad tidings are that there is no distinction between God and man. There is no Judaic concern for sin, prayers, rituals, forgiveness, repentance, guilt, punishment, or faith. The apparent world, however, is only a collection of psychological symbols, signs, and metaphors. These symbols are expressed in terms of space, time, history, and nature.
Examples of these mere symbols are the concepts of "God as a person", "the son of man", "the hour of death", and "the kingdom of heaven". He wanted to show how to live. His legacy was his bearing and behavior. He did not resist evildoers. He loved evildoers. Nietzsche has Jesus tell the thief on the cross that he is in Paradise now if he recognizes the divinity of Jesus' comportment.
Christianity's history is a " Modern people act with worldly egoism, pride, and will to power in opposition to Christianity's denial of the world.
Nietzsche considered this falseness to be indecent. Unlike past ages, his contemporaries knew that sham and unnatural concepts such as "God", "moral world—order", "sinner", "Redeemer", "free will", "beyond", "Last Judgment", and "immortal soul" are consciously employed in order to provide power to the church and its priests.
Belief in redemption through Christ is not originally Christian. Genuine, original, primitive Christianity is not a faith. It is state of being that consists of " The disciples, however, wanted revenge against the Jewish ruling class and high priests who had delivered him to Pilate. They elevated Jesus into being the Messiah and Son of God and promised future judgment and punishment in the kingdom of God.
Paul and the promise of eternal life[ edit ] The apostles claimed that Jesus' death was a sacrifice of an innocent man for the sins of the guilty. But " Jesus had done away with the concept of 'guilt' itself — he had denied any chasm between God and man, he lived this unity of God and man as his 'glad tidings' Paul made immortality the main point in 1 Corinthians when he said " Paul falsified the history of Christianity, the history of Israel, and the history of mankind by making them all seem to be a preparation for the crucifixion.
One lives for life in the beyond. By offering immortal life after death to everyone, Christianity appealed to everyone's egoism. The laws of nature would be broken for the salvation of everyone. Nietzsche claimed that Paul's pretense of holiness and his use of priestly concepts were typically Jewish. Christianity separated itself from Judaism as though it was the chosen religion, " If one wants to be, in one's own person, 'chosen of God' In the Old Testament , Genesis , God's, and therefore the priests', hellish anxiety regarding science has been chronicled, according to Nietzsche.
Man tasted knowledge and " During his dark days of neglect and misunderstanding. There is not the slightest reason to be- lieve that any such garbling ever took place. On the contrary. One notes. He had been de- veloping them since the days of his beginning.
Paul and his like. He had. Nietzsche was a Greek born two thousand years too late. His dreams were thoroughly Hellenic. He could forgive every other sort of mountebankery. In me Christianity … devours itself. Christianity in some form or other—Christianity as a system of practical ethics.
All the curves of his speculation lead up to it. Christianity as a gauge of the truth. And the rest are scattered through the whole vast mass of his notes. In me the stern intellectual conscience that Christianity fosters and makes paramount turns against Christianity. If he was anything in a word. Christianity as meta physics. Christianity as a political code. It would be difficult to think of any intellectual enterprise on his long list that did not.
The things he chiefly argued for were anti-Christian things—the abandonment of the purely moral view of life. It was as if his apostasy from the faith of his fathers.
What he flung himself against. From Plato. The folks of Anglo-Saxondom. The Germans. But his Hellenism. The God that Nietzsche imagined. I need not add. From the pulpits of the allied countries.
In much of it. It is in Heraclitus that one finds the germ of his primary view of the universe—a view. The late war. Most of this denunciation. Nietzsche was gravely discovered to be the teacher of such spokesmen of the extremest sort of German nationalism as von Bernhardi and von 6.
I daresay. The result was a great deal of mis- representation and misunderstanding of him. I amused myself. On the strength of the fact that I had published a book on Nietzsche in But under all this alarmed and preposterous tosh there was at least a sound instinct.
But he was plainly a foe of democracy in all its forms. I daresay that Nietzsche. I was called upon by agents of the Department of Justice. The thing went to unbelievable lengths. In other solemn pronunciamentoes he was credited with being philosophically responsible for various imaginary crimes of the enemy—the wholesale slaughter or mutilation of prisoners of war. It was thus quite nat- ural that he should have aroused a degree of indignation ver- ging upon the pathological in the two countries that had planted themselves upon the democratic platform most boldly.
He was not. After all his laborious efforts to prove that he was not a Ger- man. The mob. It seemed to him of small moment what they believed. But the intelligentsia. But these onslaughts. The net effect of this earlier attack. But in all this justifiable fear. And if his at- tack upon Christianity were mere sound and fury. The fact is that Nietzsche had no interest whatever in the delusions of the plain people—that is. What he stood against was not their beliefs. Nothing could be more untrue.
In this fear a great many judicious men joined. Belief in them had become a mark of in- feriority. But this sentimental yielding never went far enough to distract his attention for long from his main idea. No man of sound information. Protestantism tends to become identical with it. For a man of the superior minority to subscribe to one of them publicly was already sufficient to set him off as one in imminent need of psy- chiatrical attention. But though the theology of Christianity had thus sunk to the lowly estate of a mere delusion of the rabble.
It seemed to be generally felt. This cult still flourishes. Even Nietzsche himself yielded to it in weak moments. Such notions.
The present one may be right and it may be wrong. It soothes. I believe nothing of the sort. But in any battle between an institution and an idea. It is easy to grasp. In brief. If it is ever laid at all. One hears without surprise of a Bismarck philosophizing pla- cidly at least in his old age upon the delusion of Socialism and of a Frederick the Great playing the hose of his cynicism upon the absolutism that was almost identical with his own person. One thing is quite certain: As a matter of fact.
Democracy and free speech are not facets of one gem. Here I do not venture into the absurdity of arguing that. The no- tion to the contrary is thoroughly democratic.
The majority of men prefer delusion to truth. One imagines the author. Southern Senators. The face of demo- cracy. The evidence behind it is now supported by sympathy. But though an idea that is true is thus not likely to prevail. A study of Nietzsche reveals the sources of much that was honest in him. The for- gotten ideas are those of the men who put them forward soberly and quietly. Had Nietzsche lived to be burned at the stake by outraged Mississippi Methodists. Think of the facts and arguments.
The war brought down upon them the maledictions of vast herds of right-thinking men. One never hears of a martyr in history whose notions are seriously disputed today.
His shade. Years ago I called attention to the debt incurred with characteristic forgetfulness of obliga- tion by the late Theodore Roosevelt. Above all. Perhaps he even fooled himself. As it is. Nor are they the first to borrow from him. Christianity—he saw them all as allotropic forms of democracy.
I say it is conceivable. It trembles today as it trembled during the French Revolution. His notions. It found resistance suddenly slackened by civil war with- in the plutocracy itself—one gang of traders falling upon anoth- er gang. Per- haps it has already passed its apogee. Perhaps it would tremble less if it could combat the monster with a clearer conscience and less burden of compromising theory—if it could launch its forces frankly at the fundamental doctrine.
The soul and the belly of mankind are too evenly balanced. The world needed a staggering exaggeration to make it see even half of the truth. It got under way long before any of the cur- rent Bolshevist demons was born. But this combat between proletariat and Purit- anism. What is called Bolshevism today he saw clearly a generation ago and described for what it was and is—democracy in another aspect.
We are in the midst of one of the perennial risings of the lower orders. What actual difference does it make to a civilized man. The victory. The aver- age great captain of the rabble.
It will win because it will be able. On the Continent. This seems to be the slow. It is almost impossible to find a wealthy industrial over there who is not also an eminent non-conformist layman. In the present case my money is laid upon the plutocracy. The mob and its maudlin causes attract only sentimentalists and scoundrels. Not many superior men make the attempt.
Its defect and its weak- ness lie in the fact that it is still too young to have acquired dignity. The conflict can interest him only as spectacle. In Eng land the case is even worse. Pro- hibition and other such puerilities as it spends upon Congressmen. Two inferiorities struggle for the privilege of polluting the world. The plutocracy can recruit measurably more re- spectable janissaries.
But lately sprung from the mob it now preys upon. One seldom finds it undertaking one of its characteristic imbe- cilities without offering a sonorous moral reason. And beneath the Judaized plutocracy. Perhaps in America and Eng- land. Christianity will continue to survive. But even so. It ends by erecting If he is destined to lead the plutocracy of the world out of Little Bethel he will fail.
It seems to me very likely that. Here the intellectual cynicism of the Jew al- most counterbalances his social unpleasantness.
It starts out by denying his inferiority in plain terms: He was not blind to their faults. The case against the Jews is long and damning. Of all the religions ever devised by the great practical jokers of the race. There were heroes before Agamemnon. Above it will still stand the small group of men that constitutes the permanent aristocracy of the race—the men of imagination and high purpose.
I venture to guess. It is nonsense. Maybe it was this fact that caused Nietzsche to speak up for the children of Israel quite as often as he spoke against them. One somehow en- joys. It is a pity that Holy Church has no process for the elevation of demons.
The most they can ever accomplish is to make the superi- or orders of men acutely conscious of the exact nature of it. In Nietzsche they found. It presents a connected argument with very few interludes. This fact constitutes one of the counts in the orthodox indictment of him: Most of his works are in the form of col lections of apothegms.
It would be a pleasure to see the Advocatus Diaboli turn from the table of the prosecution to the table of the de- fence. It is strident. This is go- ing on. There must be a long roll of black miracles to the discredit of the Accursed Friedrich—sinners purged of con- science and made happy in their sinning.
Not all the eloquence of a million Nietzsches. What deceives the profess- ors is the traditional prolixity of philosophers. He employed too few words for them—and he had too many ideas.
Nietzsche avoided both faults. Because the av- erage philosophical writer. There is. There are two earlier translations. Oscar Levy. He never pumped up an idea to make it appear bigger than it actually was. Ludovici is more fluent but rather less exact. But he never wrote a word too many. The pedagogues.
What makes philo- sophy so garrulous is not the profundity of philosophers. Common follows the text very closely. That of Mr. He always assumed that his readers knew the books.
This is not unseldom quite untrue. There exists. They resent it. The argument. The tome is satisfactorily ponderous. Sometimes he got it into a hundred words. I do not offer my Theodor Hemberger for criticism. It is more nervous. The result. His marks begin to show upon the writing of the younger Ger- mans of today. I began this new Englishing of the book. They are getting away from the old thunderous manner. In the course of time. I owe thanks to Dr. Common and Ludovici for showing me the way around many a difficulty.
I cheerfully acknowledge that they have much merit. Levy for his imprimatur. And the will to economize in the grand manner—to hold together his strength. Some men are born posthumously. Reverence for self. The conditions under which any one understands me. He must have become indifferent. Even to endure my seriousness. The experience of seven solitudes. Friedrich W. A new con- science for truths that have hitherto remained unheard.
Very well. He must be accustomed to living on mountain tops—and to looking upon the wretched gabble of politics and nationalism as beneath him. New eyes for what is most distant. Perhaps not one of them is yet alive.
Author's Preface This book belongs to the most rare of men. He must have an inclination. New ears for new music. The formula of our happiness: What is good? Rather live amid the ice than among modern virtues and other such south-winds! We are Hyper- boreans—we know well enough how remote our place is. We thirsted for the lightnings and great deeds. Beyond the North. See also the fourth book of Herodotus. We grew dismal.
The Hyperboreans were a mythical people beyond the Rhipaean mountains. What is evil? This is the sort of modernity that made us ill. We have discovered that happiness. Our fate—it was the fulness. Who else has found it? They enjoyed unbroken happiness and perpetual youth. The Antichrist 1. The weak and the botched shall perish: The European of today. What is more harmful than any vice?
Not contentment. The problem that I set here is not what shall replace man- kind in the order of living creatures —man is an end—: Such happy strokes of high suc- cess have always been possible. Very often it has been precisely the most feared.
What is happiness? And one should help them to it. True enough. This more valuable type has appeared often enough in the past: Mankind surely does not represent an evolution toward a better or stronger or higher level. We should not deck out and embellish Christianity: The most lamentable example: This word.
I call an animal. It is a painful and tragic spectacle that rises before me: I have drawn back the curtain from the rottenness of man. It is used—and I wish to emphasize the fact again—without any moral signific- ance: Even whole races. Life itself appears to me as an instinct for growth. It preserves whatever is ripe for destruction.
Through pity that drain upon strength which suffering works is multiplied a thousandfold. Of course. Christianity is called the religion of pity. Pity thwarts the whole law of evolution. This in- nocent rhetoric. This is the first view of it. If one measures the effects of pity by the gravity of the reactions it sets up. Mankind has ventured to call pity a virtue —in every superior moral system it appears as a weakness—. Suffering is made contagious by pity.
A man loses power when he pities. Let me repeat: Schopenhauer was right in this: Petersburg to Paris. This poisoning goes a great deal further than most people think: The idealist. Nothing is more unhealthy. The pure soul is a pure lie…. To be the doctors here. One must have faced that menace at close hand. Schopenhauer was hostile to life: It is necessary to say just whom we regard as our antagon- ists: So long as the priest.
People erect a concept of mor- ality. Among Germans I am immediately understood when I say that theological blood is the ruin of philosophy. Upon this theological instinct I make war: I find the tracks of it everywhere.
What is truth? Truth has already been stood on its head when the obvi- ous attorney of mere emptiness is mistaken for its representative…. Whatever a theologian regards as true must be false: Protestantism Wherever the in fluence of theologians is felt there is a transvaluation of values. His profound instinct of self-preservation stands against truth ever coming into honour in any way.
The Protestant pastor is the grandfather of German philosophy. Whoever has theological blood in his veins is shifty and dishonourable in all things. The pathetic thing that grows out of this condition is called faith: The theolo- gical instinct of German scholars made them see clearly just what had become possible again…. Why all the rejoicing over the ap- pearance of Kant that went through the learned world of Germany.
In every other case it is a source of danger. Definition of Protestantism: A virtue must be our invention. Quite the contrary is demanded by the most profound laws of self-preservation and of growth: A backstairs leading to the old ideal stood open. A nation goes to pieces when it confounds its duty with the general concept of duty. The Suabians are the best liars in Ger- many. Nothing works a more complete That which does not belong to our life menaces it.
The success of Kant is merely a theological success. A word now against Kant as a moralist. Kant became an idiot. What destroys a man more quickly than to work. When one recalls the fact that. I put aside a few sceptics. Kant tried to give a scientific flavour to this form of corruption. They behave like women. This calamitous spinner of cob- webs passed for the German philosopher—still passes today! In the end. He stands far above it! Let us not underestimate this fact: We have had the whole pathetic stupidity of mankind against us—their every notion of what the truth ought to be.
The lowest of the Hindu castes. He feels that he is himself sanctified by this mission. How well they guessed that. Our objectives. All the methods.
It was our modesty that stood out longest against their taste….