MOLECULAR BIOLOGY GENE OF THE S E V E N T H E D I T I O N This page . The paper by Watson and Crick proposing the double helix ended with a now. Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Watson, James D. Molecular biology of the gene / James D. Watson, Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Tania. Molecular Biology of the Gene. F T H. E D I T I O N. James D. Watson. Cold Spring Harbor. Laboratory. Tania A. Baker. Massachusetts Institute of Technology .
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DOWNLOAD PDF HOX Gene Expression (Molecular Biology Intelligence Unit). Read more · Gene Function Analysis (Methods in Molecular Biology). Molecular Biology of the Gene 7th Edition by James D. Watson PDF. Now completely up-to-date with the latest research advances, the Seventh Edition of James. Trove: Find and get Australian resources. Books, images, historic newspapers, maps, archives and more.
He read up on crystallography and went to hear Franklin in mid-November Content with her circumscribed mastery, she was quick to discount any mode of attack but her own. Nothing much could be expected of DNA research, she assured the audience, until superior diffraction results disclosed the truth. Her hard-faced authority put a chill on the listeners: Maybe their reluctance to utter anything romantically optimistic, or even to mention models, was due to fear of a sharp retort from Rosy.
Certainly a bad way to go out into the foulness of a heavy, foggy November night was to be told by a woman to refrain from venturing an opinion about a subject for which you were not trained. It was a sure way of bringing back unpleasant memories of lower school. Watson himself is seriously unpleasant here, crude and sexist. Yet it may seem that, as the end results would prove, there is some truth in his criticism of the limitations of her approach more about this controversy later.
In the meantime, however, Watson would have to endure being treated as a fool by Franklin, and rightly so. So when Watson later repeated to Crick the water content of her DNA samples, he was flagrantly wrong. Their initial model was consequently a hopeless wreck of a triple helix, with the sugar—phosphate backbones in the center and the bases facing outward. Watson had fumbled the water numbers badly.
The correct model, as Franklin pointed out, would have to account for ten times as much water as their laughable failure, and with that revised water content a crushing superabundance of DNA models suddenly became possible.
A Nobel laureate for his pioneering work in crystallography, Bragg knew little and cared less about DNA. But he recognized a waste of time when he saw it, and imposed a ban on their project.
Crick was to return to his doctoral study of hemoglobin, Watson to see what he could make of tobacco mosaic virus.
Conversation over lunch at The Eagle, their pub of choice, naturally turned to DNA, as they pondered the mistakes they had made and contrived to set them right the next time.
They kept themselves apprised of developments in London, where Franklin was more certain than ever before that DNA was not a helix. The Competition As Watson and Crick ground on with their forced labor, the flow of revelatory talk about DNA continued, not only between the two of them but with others.
In all their DNA preparations, the number of adenine A molecules was very similar to the number of thymine T molecules, while the number of guanine G molecules was very close to the number of cytosine C molecules. In due course, furious brainstorms would produce a deluge of novel speculation. The complementary negative image would then function as the mold template for the synthesis of a new positive image.
Originality would appear by and by, in unexampled connections.
In some way specific groups of nucleotides must code for specific amino acids. Conceivably, adenine equaled thymine because of a yet undiscovered role in the ordering of the bases. They fiddled intermittently with their models but had made no substantial progress in the year since their debacle. Once she had written up her DNA results for publication, she would head off, and the reanimated Maurice Wilkins intended to mount his own offensive on the structure as soon as she was gone.
Then Linus Pauling entered the competition. As long as Linus had not told us the answer, we should get equal credit if we announced it at the same time. They were inexplicable. Each phosphate group, which ought to be negatively charged, was not ionized; a hydrogen atom bound to the phosphate gave it no charge whatsoever, and these hydrogens were indispensable to keeping the three conjoined helical chains from coming unglued.
Linus had botched the job. Instead of sherry, I let Francis download me a whiskey. Though the odds still appeared against us, Linus had not yet won his Nobel.
Several days later Watson went to London to tell Wilkins the news. But as Wilkins was otherwise engaged when Watson arrived, the visitor dropped in on Franklin first. Interrupting her harangue, I asserted that the simplest form for any regular polymeric molecule was a helix. Watson had in fact heard from Wilkins months before that her photos gave plain evidence of a helix, and he replied that she must be inept at her work. Fearing for his skin, Watson hastened for the door, where he ran into Wilkins.
Now that I need no longer merely imagine the emotional hell he had faced during the past two years, he could treat me almost as a fellow collaborator rather than as a distant acquaintance. It occurred when the DNA molecules were surrounded by a large amount of water The instant I saw the picture my mouth fell open and my pulse began to race. On the way back to Cambridge he opted for the double-helix model over the triple. Even though he was a physicist, he knew that important biological objects came in pairs.
But when Watson told him the photo indicated the diameter of the helix, the thickness of the bases, their arrangement one atop the other, and their orientation perpendicular to the helical axis, Crick was on the alert. He still had his doubts, however, about the double helix, and thought it best to keep the triple in mind as well. Appealing to his sense of national and institutional honor, emphasizing the peril of letting Pauling work away feverishly while the Cavendish dawdled, the American hell-bent on glory made the English grandee understand that the instant must be seized.
Bragg was more than agreeable, urging Watson to build all the models he needed. Now seriously at play, Watson ran into more and more difficulties with the model featuring a central sugar—phosphate backbone, and figured he might as well see what he could do with some outer-backbone alternatives. The result conformed happily to the crystallographic evidence, and the backbone-out model was there to stay.
They were getting close. The promising idea would make one chain the template for the synthesis of the other, thus neatly answering the question of how genes replicate; but it was wrong nonetheless. The crux of the problem was that Watson and Crick initially believed that, for each DNA base, there were roughly equal proportions of different tautomeric forms — minor molecular variants that feature hydrogen atoms at different positions.
Using a standard organic chemistry textbook as his guide, Watson was led astray. Getting this impossibility out of the way was a major step toward triumph.
Work continued the next morning, as Watson used cardboard representations to try out pairs of bases joined by hydrogen bonds: When Jerry came in I looked up, saw that it was not Francis, and began shifting the bases in and out of various other pairing possibilities.
Suddenly I became aware that an adenine-thymine pair held together by two hydrogen bonds was identical in shape to a guanine-cytosine pair held together by at least two hydrogen bonds.
All the hydrogen bonds seemed to form naturally; no fudging was required to make the two types of base pairs identical in shape. He asked Donahue if there was anything to disapprove of in this combination.
Donahue could see nothing wrong with it. This was it. The bases and their bonds were a perfect fit. Everything was a perfect fit: Two irregular sequences of bases could be regularly packed in the center of a helix if a purine always hydrogen-bonded to a pyrimidine. Furthermore, the hydrogen-bonding requirement meant that adenine would always pair with thymine, while guanine could pair only with cytosine.
Even more exciting, this type of double helix suggested a replication scheme much more satisfactory than my briefly considered like-with-like pairing. Always pairing adenine with thymine and guanine with cytosine meant that the base sequences of the two intertwined chains were complementary to each other. Given the base sequence of one chain, that of its partner was automatically determined. Conceptually, it was thus very easy to visualize how a single chain could be the template for the synthesis of a chain with the complementary sequence.
Crick was slow to celebrate; but after he had tried numerous variations on base-pair connections and found that only the AT and GC pairs worked, he was all but convinced. This had the important consequence that a given chain could contain both purines and pyrimidines.
At the same time, it strongly suggested that the backbones of the two chains must run in opposite directions. The definitive model still had to be built. But the celebration was on. A discovery of this magnitude called for a rich flow of emotion and words to match; decorous understatement would not do. Watson and Crick asked somebody else to call Wilkins and tell him to come look at their discovery. In the event, he acted not like a defeated contender but rather like an estimable colleague uplifted by the implications of the discovery.
Franklin reacted similarly. I had feared that her sharp, stubborn mind, caught in her self-made antihelical trap, might dig up irrelevant results that would foster uncertainty about the correctness of the double helix.
And she was quite over her ferocious personal distaste for Watson and Crick. Collegial, even warm, she treated them as equals for the first time. The importance of this insight, hinted at in the conclusion of the Watson—Crick paper, cannot be overstated. Faithful copying is essential for any gene-bearing molecule.
The sequence of bases is a template not only for copying itself, but also for the sequence of amino acids in the many proteins that make up a living cell. Complications soon ensued. As Watson sent Crick early drafts of his book in and , Crick responded with heat, insisting Watson not publish it. But then Crick, joined by Wilkins, had their attorneys write to the president of Harvard, Nathan Pusey, howling lawsuit.
Errol C. Watson, points out that they did not mention libel, so the basis of their legal threat was hazy. Nevertheless, the menacing Nobel laureates scared Pusey off, and he canceled publication. Watson promptly found another publisher, the newly founded Athenaeum Press, and he would later take satisfaction in writing of how much Harvard had lost in royalties. He could take satisfaction as well in the glowing reviews his book received from accomplished figures many of which are collected in the Norton Critical Edition of the book.
Moreover, the ambition is for personal triumph over other men, not merely over nature. The style is shy and sly, bumbling and irreverent, artless and good-humored and mischievous, so that the book leaves us with the spirited sense of intellectual knockabout of a novel by Kingsley Amis. No beginner in science will henceforward believe that discovery is bound to come his way if only he practices a certain Method, goes through a certain well-defined performance of hand and mind.
Or the somewhat bogus suspense provided — repeatedly — by the synthetic race with the demigod Pauling. It is a world of envy and intolerance, a world of scorn and derision. This book is filled with character assassination, collective and individual, direct and indirect.
Phosphate links available to proteins. This does not in itself provide the structure of DNA. But it contains some essential clues, without which the structure of DNA could not have been determined at the time at which it was.
The same was true of the location of the sugar-phosphate backbone, and this Rosalind also demonstrated. She had in fact built a model of graphite in her earlier research, and she did not do so with DNA because she thought the groundwork was not complete. As it turned out, she did miss a promising opportunity that might have led to lasting glory. Sayre acknowledges, nevertheless, that Watson and Crick merit the acclaim their discovery has brought them.
They, and no one else, deserve full credit for perceiving the nature of the base pairing; biologically speaking, this is what counts; and to have done this is in itself a very high and unarguable claim to glory. Speculation continues about how she would have answered Watson had she lived, and whether she rather than Wilkins would have shared the Nobel with Watson and Crick. Nobel Prizes are not awarded posthumously, and they are not shared by more than three recipients. As biographer Victor K.
One of his peers at Harvard was the entomologist, and later sociobiologist, E. And unfortunately, he did so, with casual and brutal offhandedness.
Watson and his supporters made sure he got his promotion fast, and by Harvard had its own Department of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry, while the traditionalists formed a separate department all their own.
To his acolytes and admirers, this monster was sacred.
Watson generally left his own name off the published work, so that lesser-known colleagues could get world-class respect. Cells contain no atoms unique to the living state; they can synthesize no molecules which the chemist, with inspired, hard work, cannot some day make. Thus there is no special chemistry of living cells.
When Wilson heard of the appointment, he said Watson could run a lemonade stand into the ground, but Watson proved a supremely capable administrator.
Watson took on the directorship as a side job, to be done in the time Harvard allowed its professors for outside consulting. In he would resign his professorship and head Cold Spring Harbor full-time, later becoming its president and then its chancellor, until he retired in Though he might sometimes have had the air about him of a social nudnik, and was in perpetual peril of saying precisely the wrong thing with fatal vehemence, he could be surprisingly gracious and talk convincingly with people he needed, from trustees to scientific recruits to building contractors.
Restriction enzymes, discovered in the early s, would cut the targeted DNA into segments, and ligase enzymes would stitch the segments together in the desired configurations, to be inserted into bacteria.
Twenty years after the discovery of the double helix, molecular biology was beginning to realize the powers modern men like Bacon and Descartes had longed to possess. Not everyone — not even every molecular biologist — relished the thought of this quasi-divine power in the hands of mere mortals.
It made many reasonable people tremble, and Watson himself publicly confessed to misgivings about potential biological hazards, even catastrophes, that accidents might cause. Any biohazards were only potential, unproven, after all, and might be pure phantasms. His maledictions against pusillanimity and retrograde religiosity, and his exhortations to boldness, struck the customary note of medical emergency.
There were desperately sick people out there, people with cancer or cystic fibrosis — what gave us the right to deny them perhaps their only hope? Reporting from and after Asilomar played up the prospect of uncontrollable plagues unleashed upon the innocent citizenry by scientists virtually malevolent in their unconcern.
In response, know-nothing politicos dreamed up bogeymen to terrify the know-nothing public. The mayor of Cambridge, Massachusetts, proud nemesis of Harvard and MIT, wrote in to the National Academy of Sciences retailing newspaper stories of a bizarre orange-eyed half-man and a hairy nine-foot-tall creature sighted on public thoroughfares, and calling for an investigation into recombinant DNA experiments that might have spawned these monstrosities.
Edward Kennedy, lion of the Senate, understood molecular biology to be as dangerous as atomic energy. In , he pressed Gerald Ford for federal control of industrial and academic DNA research, and sponsored legislation to constrain all such work severely. Scientists bit back. The lion surrendered, purring. Molecular biologists made up for lost time. In DNA: The Secret of Life, he promotes the adoption of a tactic used by organic farmers to guard plants from insect infestation.
The bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis, or Bt, produces a toxin that paralyzes the guts of crop-destroying caterpillars and beetle and fly larvae.
It has been employed as a natural pesticide since , when French farmers introduced its use. Once again great ambition moved Watson, at a time when such an ambition seemed outlandish to many scientists.
The U. Department of Energy, which investigates the health risks of nuclear power, had been studying the genetic damage done to Hiroshima and Nagasaki survivors and their descendants. To home in on radiation-induced mutations, the knowledge of the full human genome would be invaluable. The head of the National Institutes of Health scoffed that the DOE could think of such a project, but in the end both government agencies would play a significant role in the Human Genome Project coalition, with the NIH at the vanguard.
The X-ray diffraction images collected by Gosling and Franklin provided the best evidence for the helical nature of DNA. Watson and Crick had three sources for Franklin's unpublished data: Her seminar, attended by Watson,  Discussions with Wilkins,  who worked in the same laboratory with Franklin, A research progress report that was intended to promote coordination of Medical Research Council -supported laboratories.
According to one critic, Watson's portrayal of Franklin in The Double Helix was negative and gave the appearance that she was Wilkins' assistant and was unable to interpret her own DNA data.
Franklin consulted with Watson on her tobacco mosaic virus RNA research.
Franklin's letters begin on friendly terms with "Dear Jim", and conclude with equally benevolent and respectful sentiments such as "Best Wishes, Yours, Rosalind". Each of the scientists published their own unique contributions to the discovery of the structure of DNA in separate articles, and all of the contributors published their findings in the same volume of Nature. These classic molecular biology papers are identified as: Watson J. His work at Harvard focused on RNA and its role in the transfer of genetic information.
Watson continued to be a member of the Harvard faculty until , even though he took over the directorship of Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory in His most notable achievements in his two decades at Harvard may be what he wrote about science, rather than anything he discovered during that time.
His third textbook was Recombinant DNA, which described the ways in which genetic engineering has brought much new information about how organisms function.
The textbooks are still in print. Watson's original title was to have been "Honest Jim", in that the book recounts the discovery of the double helix from Watson's point of view and included many of his private emotional impressions at the time. Some controversy surrounded the publication of the book. Watson's book was originally to be published by the Harvard University Press , but Francis Crick and Maurice Wilkins objected, among others. Watson's home university dropped the project and the book was commercially published.
Between and , the Watsons' two sons were born, and by , the young family made Cold Spring Harbor their permanent residence. Watson served as the laboratory's director and president for about 35 years, and later he assumed the role of chancellor and then Chancellor Emeritus. In his roles as director, president, and chancellor, Watson led CSHL to articulate its present-day mission, "dedication to exploring molecular biology and genetics in order to advance the understanding and ability to diagnose and treat cancers, neurological diseases, and other causes of human suffering.
He is credited with "transforming a small facility into one of the world's great education and research institutions. Initiating a program to study the cause of human cancer, scientists under his direction have made major contributions to understanding the genetic basis of cancer. They want all failure in life to be due to the evil system. Watson was opposed to Healy's attempts to acquire patents on gene sequences, and any ownership of the "laws of nature.
He was quoted in The Sunday Telegraph in as stating: "If you could find the gene which determines sexuality and a woman decides she doesn't want a homosexual child, well, let her.
I think it would be great.