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Laksmana , Jakarta The recent announcement by Secretary of Defense Robert Gates that the US will begin "a gradual, limited program of security cooperation activities" with the Indonesian Army's Special Forces Kopassus sparked an immediate controversy. While the ban restricting the Kopassus from training on US soil or receive funding for lethal combat training is still likely to be in place for a while, the symbolic statement of opening formal lines of communications -- beginning with "staff level discussions"-- speaks louder than the actual deed. Human rights groups from within the country and abroad were furious with this development. In their view, the Kopassus had done little to fully account for its past abuses and torture across Indonesia in the last few decades. Such impunity, they believe, means that military reform is still superficial. On the other hand, government officials and Western pundits seem to believe that the move was a great gesture in not only beginning full, normal military-to-military relations between Washington and Jakarta, but also in deepening the two country's strategic partnership -- especially given Indonesia's incredible democratic progress. This partnership of course must be understood within the context of China's growing clout, Indonesia's geo- strategic significance for US presence in the Asia Pacific, and the rise of a complex nexus of traditional and non- traditional security threats.

This after all depends on key institutional issues such as manpower policies, education and training overhaul, and defense management reform. Also, what good is a foreign education for TNI officers when many of the best-and-brightest are not always part of the cohort -- often resulting from the fear of being shunned by their peers, or thrown off the promotion ladder upon return.

Second, while US foreign security assistance to Indonesia mainly in the education realm for the past 50 years have benefited both sides, the strategy and goal of the program itself needs to be evaluated and recalibrated. This was at least true for much of the Cold War.

The time has come however to put aside this antiquated strategy and focus more on building the TNI's personnel, technological and institutional capacity. Also, training TNI officers and civilians at the Defense Ministry in key defense management subjects -- over at US' Defense Acquisition University for example -- could also improve the overall management of Indonesia's defense establishment.

Better, deeper cooperation between the two country's military academies -- the foundation of any officer corps -- should also be discussed, including perhaps cadet changes, academy instructors' training, guidebook and manual assistance, and others.

Third, one should not forget that despite prior US training, some Kopassus officers were still implicated with alleged human rights abuses.

Kopassus - Wikipedia

How can we be completely sure that today will be any different? How can we know that future training of Kopassus officers in the US would improve their accountability and professionalism?

Human rights groups from within the country and abroad were furious with this development. In their view, the Kopassus had done little to fully account for its past abuses and torture across Indonesia in the last few decades.

Getting Into Bed With the Devil in Indonesia

Such impunity, they believe, means that military reform is still superficial. On the other hand, government officials and Western pundits seem to believe that the move was a great gesture in not only beginning full, normal military-to-military relations between Washington and Jakarta, but also in deepening the two country's strategic partnership -- especially given Indonesia's incredible democratic progress. This partnership of course must be understood within the context of China's growing clout, Indonesia's geo- strategic significance for US presence in the Asia Pacific, and the rise of a complex nexus of traditional and non- traditional security threats.

Yet, while fully accounting for past violence and military abuses is a moral and strategic imperative, one should also measure the impact of the US-Kopassus re-engagement within the context of Indonesia's defense transformation -- the institutional and paradigm shift on how the military views itself, educates and trains its members, how it equips itself and how it plans to fight.

In this light, US' Kopassus re-engagement does not seem to matter much.

Indonesian Army

Three points underline this argument. First, what the Indonesian Military TNI needs today -- and for the next 20 years -- to complete its defense transformation journey is institutional capacity building.

This includes the need to have a more, better educated civilian and military personnel that can run the defense juggernaut as efficiently and effectively as possible, while increasing indigenous technological expertise -- and, of course, more cooperation with all countries, not just one, willing to help us in this quest.

He served together with Prabowo Subianto a current presidential candidate in East Timor and the Papua region.

Although three years older than Prabowo, Suharto's then son-in-law, Muchdi rose rapidly on Prabowo's coattails since graduating from the Military Academy in Muchdi and Prabowo were kindred spirits--tough fighters and devout Muslims. Starting in , Muchdi was promoted three times in three years, succeeding Prabowo as Kopassus commander in March , one of Indonesia's most powerful military positions.

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C Prabowo commanded Kopassus from December to March Beginning in late and culminating in March-April , approximately 23 political activists were abducted by Kopassus. The covert team, "Rose Team" Team Mawar , took youth leaders, protesters and pro-democracy leaders into secret detention. Many of those abducted were members of major opposition political parties, including the Indonesian Party of Democratic Struggle PDI-P , which would later take power under President Megawati.

C Some of these missing figures were released in April , including a group of democracy activists. Fourteen are still missing. There are rumors that some of these were buried beneath the asphalt of the airport highway.

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