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A telescope is used to observe the path of motion of one of these charged droplets. The F c can be adjusted equal to F g by adjusting the voltage. In this case we can write: The droplet falls under the action of gravity through air. Its terminal velocity:. The drag force on the droplet can be find out using Stokess law: This value of m is substituted in equation 2 to get value of charge q on the droplet.
Millikan measured the charge on many drops and found that each charge was an integral multiple of minimum value of charge equal to 1. He, therefore, concluded that this minimum value of charge is the charge on electron. Chapter 12 2 nd Year Physics Electrostatics 14 Written and composed by: What do you about a capacitor?
A capacitor is a device that can store charge. It consists of two metal plates placed near one another separated by air, vacuum or any other insulator. Its value depends upon the geometry and medium between them. What do you know about the capacitance of a capacitor? The ability of a capacitor to store charge is called capacitance of a capacitor. It can also be defined as The amount of charge on one plate necessary to raise the potential of the plate by one volt with respect to the other.
Derive a relation for the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor Ans. Consider a parallel plate capacitor consists of two plane metal plates, each of area A, separated by a distance J as shown in figure below: We want to find out the expression of capacitance for a parallel plate capacitor, whose plates are separated by air.
By definition, the capacitance is C. Describe the effect on the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor, when a dielectric medium is place between its plates. The presence of a dielectric medium of dielectric constant e. Since remains constant, therefore the capacitance C increased as we placed the dielectric medium between the plates of a capacitor.
Thus, the expression of capacitance of capacitor when a dielectric medium of dielectric constant e. Define dielectric constant of a substance. The dielectric constant of a substance is defined as The ratio of the capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with an insulating substance as medium between the plates to its capacitance with vacuum as medium between them Mathematically, it is described as: Write a short note on electric polarization of dielectric.
The dielectric consists of atoms and molecules which are electrically neutral. The centers of positive and negative charges coincide in the absence of an electric field. When a dielectric is placed in an electric field between the plates of a capacitor, the centers of positive and negative charges now Chapter 12 2 nd Year Physics Electrostatics 16 Written and composed by: Degree College, Naushera no longer coincide with each other.
Thus the molecules of the dielectric under the action of electric field become dipoles and the dielectric is said to be polarized. How the electric polarization of dielectric result in the enhancement of capacitance of capacitor? The positively charged plate attracts the negative end of the molecular dipoles and negatively charged plate attracts the positive end.
Thus the surface of the dielectric which is in contact with the positively charged plate places a layer of negative charges on the plate. Similarly the surface of the dielectric in contact with the negatively charged plate places a layer of positive charges. This decrease of potential difference between the plates. As the capacitance is inversely proportional to the potential difference between plates. Therefore, the capacitance of capacitor increased due to electric polarization of a dielectric.
Find out the expression of energy stored in the electric field of a capacitor. Consider a capacitor having capacitance C is connected with a battery having a terminal potential difference V. We want to find out the expression of energy stored in electric field of a charged capacitor. The charge on the plate possesses electrical potential energy which arises work is to be done to deposit the charge on the plate.
With each small increment of charge, the potential difference between the plates increases. This is due to the fact that a larger amount of work is needed to bring up next increment of charge. Initially, when the capacitor is uncharged, the potential difference between the plates is zero and finally it becomes V when charge q is deposited on each plate.
Therefore the energy stored in the capacitor is: Energy Density The energy density can be find out by dividing the energy stored in the capacitor by volume of the capacitor: Describe the phenomenon of charging and discharging of a capacitor Ans.
The electrical circuits consist of both capacitor and resistors are called RC circuit. When the RC circuit is connected to a battery, it starts charging the capacitor through resistor R. The growth of charge with time is shown in the graph a. Graph b shows the discharging of a capacitor through resistor. RC Time Constant How fast or how slow the capacitor is charging or discharging, depends upon the product of the resistance and the capacitance.
As the unit of the product RC is that of time, so this product is known as the time constant and is defined as the time required by the capacitor to deposit 0. The charge reaches its equilibrium value sooner when the time constant is small. Similarly, smaller values of time constant RC leads to a more rapid discharge.
Chapter 12 2 nd Year Physics Electrostatics 18 Written and composed by: The potential is constant throughout a given region of space. Is the electric field zero or non zero in this region? The electric field intensity is described by the relation: Suppose that you follow an electric field line due to a positive point charge. Do electric field and the potential increases or decreases. If we follow an electric field line due to a positive point charge, then it means that we are moving await from point charge.
Thus the distance from the charge increases. Due to increase of distance from positive charge, both electric field intensity and electric potential decreases as: How can you identify that which plate of capacitor is positively charged?
The presence of charge on a body is detected by a device called gold leaf electroscope. The leaves of gold leaf electroscope are diverged by giving them negative charge. If the disc is touched with any plate of the charged capacitor and the divergence of the leaves increases, the plate of capacitor is negatively charged If the divergence of leaves decreases, then that plate of capacitor is positively charged. Describe the force or forces on a positive point charge when placed between parallel plates: With similar and equal charges ii.
With opposite and equal charges Ans. When a positive point charge is placed between parallel plates with similar and equal charges, then the electric field intensity due to one plate is equal in magnitude but opposite in direction of electric intensity due to other plate. So the value of resultant electric field intensity E is zero.
Hence the net force on the positive point charge is zero.
Thus it will remain at rest. When a positive point charge is placed between parallel plates with opposite but equal amount of charge, then electric field intensity due to one plate is equal in magnitude but in same direction of the electric field intensity due to other plate. So the value of resultant electric field intensity is non zero. Hence the point charge will be accelerated towards negative plate.
Electric lines of force never cross. Electric lines of force never cross each other.
This is because of the reason that electric field intensity has only one direction at any given pint. If the lines cross, electric intensity could have more than one direction which is physically not correct. Chapter 12 2 nd Year Physics Electrostatics 19 Written and composed by: Degree College, Naushera Q 6. If a point charge of mass m is released in a non-uniform electric field with field lines in the same direction pointing, will it make a rectilinear motion.
A non-uniform field of a positive point charge is shown in the figure: If a point charge q of mass m is placed at any point in the field, it will follow straight or rectilinear path along the field line due to repulsive force. Is E necessarily zero inside a charged rubber balloon if the balloon is spherical. Assume that charge is distributed uniformly over the surface.
Yes, E is necessarily zero inside a charged rubber balloon if balloon is spherical. If the Gaussian surface is imagined inside charged balloon, then it does not contain any charge i.
Applying Gausses law: A 2 Comparing 1 and 2 , we have: Is it true that Gausss law states that the total number of lines of force crossing any closed surface in the outward direction is proportional to the net positive charge enclosed within surface? Yes, the above statement is true. Electric flux is defined as the measure of number of electric lines of force passing through a certain area. According to Gausss law, the flux through any close surface is 1 s 0 times the total charged enclosed in it.
Do electrons tends to go to region of high potential or of low potential? The electrons being negatively charge particle when released in electric field moves from a region of lower potential negative end to a region of high potential positive end. Flag for inappropriate content. Related titles. Jump to Page. Search inside document. Chapter 12 2 nd Year Physics Electrostatics 1 Written and composed by: If the dielectric medium having relative permittivity e is placed between two point charges, then the electrical force will reduced by e -times.
The distance of points A and B from point charge q are r and r , respectively. Its terminal velocity: The presence of a dielectric medium of dielectric constant e has resulted in decrease in the potential difference between the plates as shown in the figure below: Thus, the expression of capacitance of capacitor when a dielectric medium of dielectric constant e is placed between the plates of capacitor will be: MOaz Ejaz.
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