Social psychology 5th canadian edition pdf


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Social Psychology 5th Canadian Edition Pdf

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Without effective leadership, coordination among members will falter and the group will drift or fail. Furthermore, individuals and minority coalitions often innovate change in group structure and procedures. Both leadership and innovation depend on the initiative, insight, and risk-taking ability of individuals.

Impact of Groups on Groups. A fourth concern of social psychology is the impact of one group on the activities and structure of another group. Relations between two groups may be friendly or hostile, cooperative or competitive. Of special interest is intergroup conflict, with its accompanying tension and hostility. Violence may flare up, for instance, between two teenage street gangs disputing territorial rights or between racial groups competing for scarce jobs. Conflicts of this type affect the interpersonal relations between groups and within each group.

Social psychologists have long studied the emergence, persistence, and resolution of intergroup conflict. Relation to Other Fields Social psychology bears a close relationship to several other fields, especially sociology and psychology. Sociology is the scientific study of human society. It examines social institutions family, religion, politics , stratification within society class structure, race and ethnicity, gender roles , basic social processes socialization, deviance, social control , and the structure of social units groups, networks, formal organizations, bureaucracies.

Copyright Cengage Learning, Inc. Although this behavior may be social in character, it need not be. Psychology addresses such topics as human learning, perception, memory, intelligence, emotion, motivation, and personality. Social psychology bridges sociology and psychology.

In fact, some view it as an interdisciplinary field. Both sociologists and psychologists have contributed to social psychological knowledge. Social psychologists working in the sociological tradition rely primarily on sample surveys and observational techniques to gather data. These investigators are most interested in the relationship between individuals and the groups to which they belong.

They emphasize such processes as socialization, conformity and deviation, social interaction, self-presentation, leadership, recruitment to membership, and cooperation and competition. Social psychologists working in the psychological tradition rely heavily on laboratory experimental methodology. They emphasize such topics as the self, person perception and attribution, attitudes and attitude change, personality differences in social behavior, social learning and modeling, altruism and aggression, and interpersonal attraction.

Thus, sociologically oriented and psychologically oriented social psychologists differ in their outlook and emphasis.

Social Psychology Pdf

As we might expect, this leads them to formulate different theories and to conduct different programs of research. Yet these differences are best viewed as complementary rather than as conflicting. Social psychology as a field is the richer for the differing contributions of both approaches. Warren was not entirely sure what to make of this behavior, but he decided to take the threat seriously. That evening, talking with his girlfriend Madison, Warren announced that he would have to work overtime at the office, so he could not take her to a party on Friday evening as originally planned.

Madison immediately got mad at Warren—she definitely wanted to go, and he had promised several times to take her— and threw a paperweight at him. By now, Warren was distressed and a little perplexed. Reflecting on these two events, Warren noticed that they had some characteristics in common.

If someone is frustrated, he or she will become aggressive. If someone is aggressive, he or she will attack either the source of the frustration or a convenient surrogate. Starting from some observations regarding social behavior, Warren attempted to formulate a theory to explain the observed facts. As the term is used here, a theory is a set of interrelated propositions that organizes and explains a set of observed phenomena.

Theories usually pertain not just to some particular event but to whole classes of events. If a theory is valid, it enables its user to explain the phenomena under consideration and to make predictions about events not yet observed. In social psychology, no single theory explains all phenomena of interest; rather, the field includes Copyright Cengage Learning, Inc.

It is useful to distinguish between middle-range theories and theoretical perspectives. Middle-range theories are narrow, focused frameworks that identify the conditions that produce a specific social behavior. They are usually scientific-causal in nature; that is, they are formulated in terms of cause and effect. Another middle-range theory tries to specify how majorities and minorities within groups differ qualitatively in the ways they influence their targets Moscovici, a; Nemeth, Throughout this book, we will describe many middle-range theories.

In addition to middle-range theories, social psychology includes theoretical perspectives. Broader in scope than middle-range theories, theoretical perspectives offer general explanations for a wide array of social behaviors in a variety of situations. These general explanations are rooted in explicit assumptions about human nature. Theoretical perspectives serve an important function for the field of social psychology.

By making certain assumptions regarding human nature, a theoretical perspective establishes a vantage point from which we can examine a range of social behaviors. The fundamental value of any theoretical perspective lies in its applicability across many situations; it provides a frame of reference for interpreting and comparing a wide range of social situations and behaviors.

Social psychology can be organized into a number of distinct theoretical perspectives. The five central perspectives that will guide this textbook are 1 role theory, 2 reinforcement theory, 3 cognitive theory, 4 symbolic interaction theory, and 5 evolutionary theory.

She was offered the role of Martine, a kitchen servant dismissed from her job for using poor grammar. Brianna enthusiastically accepted the role and learned her part well. The theater group was scheduled to present the play six times over a period of 3 weeks.

Brianna played the role of Martine in the first four shows, but then she got sick. In fact, one reviewer wrote that it was difficult to tell them apart.

Chris plays fullback on the college football team. Although very large and strong, he is a third-string player because he has the unfortunate habit of fumbling the ball, sometimes at the worst possible moment. Although active in different arenas, Chris and Brianna have something in common: They are both performing roles. When Brianna appears on stage, she performs the role of kitchen servant.

When Chris appears on the football field, he performs the role of fullback. In both cases, their behavior is guided by role expectations held by other people. Roles consist of a set of rules that is, expectations held by others that function as plans or blueprints and guide behavior. Her part calls for her to say certain lines and perform certain actions at specified points in the plot.

There is virtually no room for her to improvise or deviate from her lines. He has to carry out given assignments— running and blocking—on each of the plays by his team. There is some latitude in exactly how he does these things, but not a great deal. Whenever he misses a block, all the coaches and players know it.

In everyday life, we all perform roles. Anyone who holds a job is performing a role. But it will certainly specify what goals should be pursued, what tasks must be accomplished, and what performances are required. The theoretical perspective that best addresses behavior of this type is role theory Biddle, , ; Heiss, ; Turner, Role theory holds that a substantial proportion of observable, day-to-day social behavior is simply persons carrying out their roles, much as actors carry out their roles on the stage or ballplayers perform theirs on the field.

Propositions in Role Theory. The following propositions are central to the role theory perspective: 1. People spend much of their lives participating as members of groups and organizations. Within these groups, people occupy distinct positions fullback, advertising executive, police sergeant, and the like. Each of these positions entails a role, which is a set of functions performed by the person for the group. Groups often formalize these expectations as norms, which are rules specifying how a person should behave, what rewards will result for Copyright Cengage Learning, Inc.

Individuals usually carry out their roles and perform in accordance with the prevailing norms. In other words, people are primarily conformists; they try to meet the expectations held by others.

If an individual meets the role expectations held by others, he or she will receive rewards in some form acceptance, approval, money, and so on. If he or she fails to perform as expected, however, group members may embarrass, punish, or even expel that individual from the group. The anticipation that others will apply sanctions ensures performance as expected. Impact of Roles.

Role theory implies that if we as analysts have information about the role expectations for a specified position, we can then predict a significant portion of the behavior of the person occupying that position. Chris himself may experience some strain while adjusting to the new role, but his behavior will change. In other words, individuals bring their attitudes into congruence with the expectations that define their roles. A change in role should lead to a change in attitude.

One illustration of this effect appears in a classic study of factory workers by Lieberman In the initial stage of this study, researchers measured the attitudes of workers toward union and management policies in a Midwestern home- appliance factory.

During the following year, a number of these workers changed roles. Some were promoted to the position of foreman, a managerial role; others were elected to the position of shop steward, a union role. The attitudes of workers who had become foremen or shop stewards were compared to those of workers who had not changed roles.

In contrast, the recently elected shop stewards expressed more positive attitudes than the nonchangers toward the union and favored an incentive system based on seniority, not productivity. In general, the roles that people occupy not only channel their behavior but also shape their attitudes. Roles can influence the values that people hold and affect the direction of their personal growth and development. We will discuss these topics in more depth in Chapters 2, 11, and Limitations of Role Theory.

Despite its usefulness, role theory has difficulty explaining certain kinds of social behavior. Foremost among these is deviant behavior, which is any behavior that violates or contravenes the norms defining a given role. Most forms of deviant behavior, whether simply refusing to perform as expected or something more serious like committing a crime, disrupt interpersonal relations.

Deviant behavior poses a challenge to role theory because it contradicts the assumption that people are essentially conformist—deviant behavior violates the demands of roles. Of course, a certain amount of deviant behavior can be explained by the fact that people are sometimes ignorant of the norms. Deviance may also result whenever people face conflicting or incompatible expectations from several other people Miles, In general, however, deviant behavior is an unexplained and Copyright Cengage Learning, Inc.

In Chapters 10 and 14, we discuss the conditions that cause deviant behavior and the reactions of others to such behavior. Even critics of role theory acknowledge that a substantial portion of all social behavior can be explained as conformity to established role expectations. But role theory does not and cannot explain how role expectations came to be what they are in the first place. Nor does it explain when and how role expectations change. Thus, role theory provides only a partial explanation of social behavior.

Reinforcement Theory Reinforcement theory, another major perspective on social behavior, begins with the premise that social behavior is governed by external events.

Its central proposition is that people will be more likely to perform a specific behavior if it is followed directly by the occurrence of something pleasurable or by the removal of something aversive; likewise, people will more likely refrain from performing a particular behavior if it is followed by the occurrence of something aversive or by the removal of something pleasant.

The use of reinforcement is illustrated in an early study by Verplanck Students conducting the study sought out situations in which each could be alone with another person and conduct a conversation.

During the first 10 minutes, the student engaged the other in polite but neutral chitchat; the student was careful neither to support nor to reject the opinions expressed by the other. During this period, the student privately noted the number of opinions expressed by the other and unobtrusively recorded this information by doodling on a piece of paper. After this initial period, the student shifted behavior and began to express approval whenever the other ventured an opinion. The student continued this pattern of reinforcement for 10 minutes, all the while noting the number of opinions expressed by the other.

Next, the student shifted behavior again and suspended reinforcement. Any opinions expressed by the other were met with noncommittal remarks or subtle disagreement. As before, the student noted the number of opinions expressed.

The results of the study showed that during the reward period when the student expressed approval , their partners expressed opinions at a higher rate than they had during the initial baseline period. Moreover, during the extinction period when the student suspended approval , about 90 percent expressed opinions less frequently than they had during the reward period. Some Concepts of Reinforcement Theory. Reinforcement theory has a long tradition within psychology.

It began at the turn of the century with research by Pavlov and by Thorndike, and evolved through the work of Allport , Hull , and Skinner , The reinforcement perspective holds that behavior is determined primarily by external events, not by internal states. Thus, the central concepts of reinforcement theory refer to events that are directly observable.

Any event that leads to an alteration or change in behavior is called a stimulus. For example, a traffic light that changes to red is a stimulus, as is a wailing tornado siren. The change in behavior induced by a stimulus is called a response. Drivers respond to red lights by stopping; families respond to tornado sirens by rushing for shelter. A reinforcement is any favorable outcome that results from a response; reinforcement strengthens the response—that is, it increases the probability it will be repeated.

Responses that are not reinforced tend to disappear and not be repeated. Reinforcement is important in some forms of learning, most notably through conditioning Mazur, In conditioning, a contingency is Copyright Cengage Learning, Inc. If a person emits a particular response and this response is then reinforced, the connection between response and reinforcement is strengthened; that is, the person will more likely emit the same response in the future in hopes of again receiving reinforcement.

A related process, stimulus discrimination, occurs when a person learns the exact conditions under which a response will be reinforced. For example, Karl, a young child, has learned that if his mother rings the dinner bell a stimulus , he should respond by coming indoors, washing his hands, and sitting in the appropriate place at the table.

His mother then puts food on his plate a reinforcer. Thus, Karl has learned to discriminate between stimulus conditions bell vs.

Social Learning Theory. Although learning based on reinforcement and conditioning is important, it is not the only form of learning. A central proposition of social learning theory Bandura, is that one person the learner can acquire new responses simply by observing the behavior of another person the model.

This observational learning process, called imitation, is distinguished by the fact that the learner neither performs a response nor receives any reinforcement. Many social responses are learned through imitation.

For instance, children learn ethnic and regional speech patterns by imitating adult speakers around them. Learning of this type can occur without any external reinforcement.

But the issue of whether the learner will actually perform the behaviors learned through observation may hinge on the consequences that performance has for the learner—that is, on whether the learner receives reinforcement for the performance.

A young girl, for example, might observe that her older sister puts on makeup before going out with friends; in fact, if she watches closely enough, she might learn precisely how to apply makeup the right way.

But whether the little girl actually puts makeup on herself and wears it around the house may depend heavily on any reinforcements she receives for doing so.

Tendai Sithole presents his approach to writing, the importance of privileging the African archive. This following by a discussion with Patricia.

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Creative writing sutton surrey Are you an emerging or established creative or non-fiction writer? Check out these unique funding and residency opportunities for writers. Deadlines change often, so be sure to bookmark these fellowships to your Pro Fellow account for updates and announcements.

The NEA Literature Fellowships program offers , grants in prose fiction and creative nonfiction and poetry to published creative writers that enable recipients to set aside time for writing, research, travel, and general career advancement. The program operates on a two-year cycle with fellowships in prose and poetry available in alternating years. The Wallace Stegner Fellowship at Stanford University provides 10 two-year professional fellowships annually: 5 fellowships in fiction writing and 5 fellowships in poetry writing.

Fellows meet weekly in a 3 hour class with teachers, but do not need to meet any curricular demands except for attending workshops. Candidates must demonstrate the quality of their creative work, their willingness to develop their skills, and their capacity to expand their expertise. Fellowships receive a stipend of , annually and Stanford University pays educational costs and medical health insurance. The Bard Fiction Prize was created to inspire and assist fledgling fiction writers to strive for their artistic goals and offer a vibrant, creative atmosphere in an academic setting.

Each year one fellowship is awarded to a promising, emerging American writer. In addition to a , stipend, the winning Fellow receives an appointment as writer in residence at Bard College for one semester, without the expectation that he or she teach traditional courses. Fellows must give at least one public lecture during their fellowship. Candidates must be US citizens with a published book or novel. The Milton Fellowship is a 9-month opportunity for Christian writers to complete their first book-length manuscript of fiction, poetry, or creative nonfiction at Seattle Pacific University sponsored by Image Journal.

Each fellow will be matched up with a literary mentor to act as an occasional consultant on their book project. Fellows receive free accommodation and a 0 monthly stipend for their time with us, as well as health and dental coverage. Applicants must be US citizens or residents and possess an M. Posen Society of Fellows is a unique international fellowship for junior scholars and emerging fiction writers.

Each member of the Posen Society of Fellows receives a two-year, , award, as well as a special opportunity to collaborate with peers and learn from seasoned scholars and writers. Eligible scholars should be completing a doctoral dissertation on a topic related to modern Jewish history or culture. Eligible fiction writers should be working on a Jewish-themed novel or short story collection, and should not yet have published their first book. The Posen Society of Fellows is not restricted to any religion or nationality.

Established in by the Indianapolis philanthropist Ruth Lilly, the fellowships are intended to encourage the further study and writing of poetry. The Steinbeck Fellowship Program is a one-year fellowship for emerging writers of any age and background to pursue a significant writing project while in residence at SJSU.

The fellowship provides a stipend of ,, the opportunity to interact with other writers, faculty and graduate students, and share work in progress by giving a public reading once each semester during the fellowship.

The fellowship is for creative writers, including fiction, drama, creative nonfiction, and biography. The Emerging Voices Fellowship is a literary mentorship based in Los Angeles that aims to provide new writers who are isolated from the literary establishment with the tools, skills, and knowledge they need to launch a professional writing career.

Applicants need not be published, but the fellowship is directed toward poets and writers of fiction and creative nonfiction with clear ideas of what they hope to accomplish through their writing. He or she must work a minimum of 19 hours per week at the BPL during the nine-month residency September — May.

Projects eligible for this program are fiction, non-fiction, a script, or poetry, intended for children or young adults. The Bellagio Residency program in Italy offers researchers in the humanities, natural sciences, social sciences, and other academic disciplines a serene setting conducive to focused, goal-oriented work.

The fellowship provides a , stipend to cover transportation, food and other expenses. Fellows work with the Mc Cullers Center Director to plan a presentation near the end of the residency. Students must be enrolled full-time and maintain a 3. The recipients will receive full funding tuition and fees , plus an additional , scholarship as well as a , stipend as compensation for duties performed as a requirement of the fellowships.

Social Psychology Pdf

Fellowship recipients are trained in pedagogy and have an opportunity to teach college-level writing or work in the Naropa Writing Center. The Academy welcomes applications from emerging and established scholars, writers, and professionals who wish to engage in independent study in Berlin. Approximately 24 Berlin Prizes are conferred annually.

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The residency is for artists seeking time for disciplined work, reflection, and collegial engagement. The Center typically offers stays of weeks long, in a community of 15 fellows that typically includes arts resident fellows. Artists of significant achievement from any country are welcome to apply.

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Each Rome Prize winner is provided with a stipend, meals, a bedroom with private bath, and a study or studio. Those with children under 18 live in partially subsidized apartments nearby. Winners of 6-month and month fellowships receive stipends of , and ,, respectively. The Hodson-Brown Fellowship supports work by academics, independent scholars and writers working on significant projects relating to the literature, history, culture, or art of the Americas before The fellowship is also open to filmmakers, novelists, creative and performing artists, and others working on projects that draw on this period of history.

The fellowship award supports two months of research and two months of writing. The stipend is , per month for a total of ,, plus housing and university privileges. The Hodder Fellowship will be given to writers and non-literary artists of exceptional promise to pursue independent projects at Princeton University during the academic year.

Applications from published writers and established scholars are welcome. Applicants should have a significant book-length project currently in progress. The fellowship includes a , stipend, health benefits, faculty privileges, a book allowance, and a nine-month residency. CWIT enables Indians in the early to mid stages of their careers to spend time in the UK, helping them to achieve artistic, academic and professional ambitions and to broaden their international contacts. There are ten fellowships to enable academics, writers and translators to spend months at specified host universities, devoting themselves to their own work and interacting with colleagues.

Ku creative writing major Learn fast, interesting fun facts about Viking Homes - ideal for kids providing amazing, cool and quick information. Did you know that the Viking word for Saturday means Washing Day? Enjoy learning fast, fun facts for kids about Vikings and their homes in a useful fact file format with a fact sheet about Viking Homes.

Did you know that one of the most common objects found from the Viking Age is the comb? Fast, fun facts for kids has free pictures and a funny video on every page to make the learning process easy, funny and great fun - ideal for students, providing fast homework help. Read the Facts sheet about Viking Homes to discover more fascinating facts and information about Vikings and their Homes. Find out answers to questions like: How big were their homes?

Fun facts about the Viking Homes would not be complete without a picture! Did you know that famers often kept farm animals in their homes? Discover the answers to these questions on the Vikings facts about Homes facts sheet! Watch the fun facts video about Vikings and their Homes, its fun for kids and children of all ages and ideal for homework help. The Vikings were people from Scandinavia, most people in the Viking Era lived in a home that consisted of just one long room and it was often called a hall or longhouse.

Most Vikings lived together in small groups Viking Homes measured up to 30 m long ft long; Viking homes were larger in the farming areas and additional buildings, such as a store houses for wood and food were often attached to the main building Viking Homes had a central fireplace and a smoke hole in the ceiling, there may have been one or two windows but they had no glass in them and they were tiny. It was common for families and animals, including cows, goats and sheep to live in the Viking home together.

It would be very dark, very smoky and smelly In colder regions Viking houses were built with stone and turf. Archaeologists have discovered Viking homes that were built with cavity walls for insulation; they were stuffed with wool, moss and straw There was little furniture in a Viking home, people would sit and sleep on wooden benches that edged the walls of a Viking Home.

Cushions and pillows were made and stuffed with chicken or duck feathers to add comfort. Chests were used to store personal belongings and to provide additional seating The daily menu in a Viking Home usually consisted of porridge and stew. Ingredients and additional foods included; vegetables, grain, unleavened bread, homemade cheese, honey and meat fish, hare, birds, small mammals, deer, and boar, the northern regions would eat seal, and polar bear , meat would be preserved by smoke or salt Work around the Viking Homes included; housework, maintenance, tending to crops, collecting and chopping wood, fetching water, tending to animals, spinning, weaving, making clothes and tanning animal skins and furs The Vikings took great pride in their appearance, and were considered clean-freaks by the English Anglo-Saxons.

The Viking word for Saturday lrdag, "lrdag," or laurdag means Washing Day - Saturday is the day that Vikings took their bath an Anglo-Saxons at that time would bathe once or twice a year! Vikings used a strong soap to bathe with, wash clothes with and to bleach their hair with. They also ironed their clothes; they heated large smooth stones or glass on the fire and flattened fabrics.

Pattar, who started teaching at Janice Churchill two years ago, said for the past five or six years she has registered for Student Vote, which gets students across B. While she loved the lessons that came with Student Vote, she wanted more. It was then the idea of a council at the elementary school level came to her. Every year, the majority of votes go to running our own election. The students in Grade 6 acted as the media, and ran the voting station on election day.

A slate called Golden Eight campaigned for the school to add security cameras to reduce any stealing or vandalism. Each group gave their opening statements, and then the floor was opened up to students and teachers to ask questions. One girl, who had her hand raised to ask a question for most of the debate, had crib notes scribbled on the palm of her hand, but she never got the chance to speak.

A teacher citing litter on the playground and cleanliness around the school asked the parties if they had a stance on environmental issues. Fantaci, led by Jusneer Sandhar, said they would get a group of people to pick up the garbage while on the playground. For example, one student claimed someone in a competing slate, Golden Eight, was promising to put candy machines in the school if elected.

With the debate in the history books, students and teachers had until the end of recess the following day to figure out who would get their vote. She said the previous night her brother was playing video games with friends and said he would be voting for MJCB.

Thank-you to the classes that organized everything for this very important experience. Go Vote sd36learn pic. Khakh Khakh Marina October 26, Following lunch, Grade 6s headed back to the library to count the votes with a scrutineer representing each party.

After the votes were tallied the students went back to class, but were told to keep the results secret until it was time for the announcement. Once back in the classroom, Pattar and Binning went over the voter turnout before announcing the results. Pattar asked students what could have led to a 64 per cent voter turnout. Why is there not more of a turnout, especially when it affects you so much? Thesis paper writing service At the beginning of the school year I got the crazy idea that kids might like a forum in which to do creative writing.

Although they get some in the classroom, I was thinking of a completely non-judgmental environment where I guide them but they ultimately do what they want, where there are no wrong answers or points off for misspelling a word. Really, I wanted for them the kind of club I would have loved as a child myself.

I provide notebooks, pencils and anything else we require the PTA reimburses me which is lovely. Exercise 2: pass photo to the left. Below is the general outline of what I do during different sessions. Future, past, now, outer space, a farm, school, New York City, etc. Describe the setting from your favorite book or movie. This is a pile of magazine photos of settings — beach, ocean, mountains, etc — pasted on paper.

Exercise 1: describe the picture. I thought the club might attract ten students but I regularly get thirty. Use these three words in your story: rainy, Pogo ball, Doritos. I put a bunch of descriptions of possible main characters in a bag — Martian, Mad Scientist, Astronaut, Olympic Skier, etc Describe this character: what does she look like? Secondary characters — those are the ones that only show up for a little bit here and there.

They are the focus of the story or are telling the story. Funny is good and most of these end up ridiculous but most more interesting than the original. Write a simple story using your character, setting and action.

Example 1: Superhero Exercise Building on the five minute questions exercise, invent a super hero. I do my homework significato italiano First off: You are interested in a line of business with a long and storied past. Some quick background: There have been professional detailers for as long as there have been cars on the road. The profession actually dates back to the days of horse-drawn carriages.

Fast forward to the s and most car dealerships had a staff of pro detailers. Anyway, economic factors forced many dealers to trim their detailing staff. They contracted these services out to the lowest bidder.

Several car ownership realities play into making car detailing a viable and growing business. You can always increase revenue and attract new clients by adding special services to your detailing business.

Principles of Social Psychology

This, in turn, spawned the booming car detailing and car wash business we have today. For example, new car prices continue to rise at an average of , per year. The fact that people are keeping their cars longer. The average road worthy vehicle is over 11 years old.

Add an assistant and revenue will be significantly higher. Professional detailing is possible in many shapes and sizes. You can categorize them into 3 basic groups: No doubt, there are customers who prefer the convenience of having a car detailed at home or at their job. Reliable used vans and trucks can be downloadd for as little as , Outfitting a mobile detailing system is largely a matter of personal taste and pocketbook.

Snow and freezing daytime temperatures will have that effect. But realize this: Your mobile rig will be your central work facility.

Mobile detailing is a great business model in the southern regions. But there are several other disadvantages to a mobile detailing business. They include waste disposal, special equipment, mobile system upkeep and travel time loss. Waste management is a big concern for most states and cities.

A mobile detailer must have a containment and water reclamation system. Containment is mandatory if the detail job requires more than 2 gallons of wash water.

OK you need to know what it costs to start a mobile detailing business. A mobile detailing business also has special equipment requirements. To be effective, a mobile detailer must truly be mobile. Here are some basic assumptions for a one-person mobile operation: One-Time Start-Up Expenses A fixed-site detailing business, or detailing shop, is a more expensive proposition. You must carry all the water, power and shelter with you. You see, there are many hard costs incurred before opening the doors for business.

That is, for a modest-sized shop with only a couple of detailing bays. You can hire employees and locate the business in a natural traffic center. With a good location and marketing plan, this kind of operation can generate annual revenues of 0, or more. If the majority or all of the local competition are independent operators it is an indicator.

There may not be a competitive advantage to opening a franchise. You should have an to gallon water capacity at least. The equipment takes more abuse than shop-based tools. Still, you have 2 big decisions to make before going the fixed-site route. In any case, what does it cost to start a fixed-site operation? Here are some basic assumptions: Start-Up Expenses Some professional detailers start out using temporary locations like a parking garage, gasoline station or portable awning in a shopping mall parking lot.

A detailer can build a steady business of drive-up customers with this concept. The equipment for a temporary location detailing shop is similar to a mobile business. In fact, many temporary location operators simply pull their mobile rig on site. Some have agreements with parking garages or gasoline stations to draw more business.

Perhaps a better question to ask is: Must a detailer have a large budget with expensive equipment to have a respectable business? Most newcomers to pro detailing are motivated by the self-employment aspect. They have a passion for getting the business started. Most people can learn the business with only a few months of working for a detailing shop or by detailing their own cars.

When detailers start off on a minimal budget, they often set prices artificially low to attract business. To keep their head above water financially, they rush jobs and cut corners. Some expenses can be avoided in the first year, such as the attorney and accountant. The best way to get started is to offer a basic wash and vacuum, express detail service.

Advertise and promote the business by distributing flyers and business cards. Plan to do a lot of footwork, distributing handouts door-to-door or business-to-business. Get listed in the Yellow Pages and put magnetic signs on your vehicle. Never be shy about asking family and friends for referrals.

Provide people who give referrals a discount if they bring you business. You will also need a good dual-action orbital buffer. Pneumatic is best if you are installing a good compressed-air system. Your dual-action buffer will also serve as your carpet and floor mat shampoo machine.

By changing the attachment to a brush, you will be able to deep-clean even the worst carpets and floor mats. An extractor is a cleaning system for carpet and upholstery.

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