Chuck Palahniuk – Sobrevivente. Pages "Fight Club" by Chuck Palahniuk (zlibraryexau2g3p_onion).pdf The Energy Bus: 10 Rules to Fuel Your Life. Emperor Thread - PDF Format - Chuck Palahniuk The Fiction of Self- destruction: Chuck Palahniuk - ruthenpress.info Chuck Palahniuk – Sobrevivente. results 29,90 Palahniuk Chuck the Ghost Who Came to Say He Was Sorry Sobrevivente - Chuck ruthenpress.info 3 Writing Craft Essays by Chuck Palahniuk.
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Make Something Up - Chuck Palahniuk - documento [*.PDF] Also by Chuck Palahniuk Fight Club Survivor Invisible Monsters Choke Lullaby. A Clockwork Orange by Anthony Burgess Fight Club by Chuck Palahniuk American Psycho by Bret Easton Ellis .. Shelves: favorite, روايات-مترجمة, pdf, este3ara. Survivor is a satirical novel by Chuck Palahniuk, first published in February The book .. Print/export. Create a book · Download as PDF · Printable version.
He is not all aware of database or its way of performance. But whatever be the request, it should be efficient enough to fetch, insert, update or delete the data from the database. The query optimizer decides the best way to execute the user request which is received from the DML compiler. It is similar to selecting the best nerve to carry the waves to brain! It is one the main central system of the database.
It is responsible for various tasks o It converts the requests received from query optimizer to machine understandable form. It makes actual request inside the database. It is like fetching the exact part of the brain to answer. Similarly it does not allow entering any duplicate value into database tables. If there is multiple users accessing the database at the same time, it makes sure, all of them see correct data.
It guarantees that there is no data loss or data mismatch happens between the transactions of multiple users. Since it is a huge database and when there is any unexpected exploit of transaction, and reverting the changes are not easy. It maintains the backup of all data, so that it can be recovered. It can be stored as magnetic tapes, magnetic disks or optical disks.
As the name suggests, it is the dictionary of all the data items. It contains description of all the tables, view, materialized views, constraints, indexes, triggers etc.
Introduction In a daily life, we come across various needs to store data. It can be maintaining daily household bills, bank account details, salary details, payment details, student information, student reports, books in the library etc. How it will be recorded at one place, so that we can get it back when required? It should be recorded in such a way that 1. Should be able to get the data any point in time latter 2.
Should be able to add details to it whenever required 3. Should be able to modify stored information, as needed 4. Should also be able to delete them In traditional approach, before to computer, all informations were stored in papers. When we need information, we used to search through the papers. If we know particular date or category of information we are searching, we go to that particular session in the papers.
When we want update or delete some data, we search for it and modify them or strike off them. If the data is limited, then all these tasks are easy. Imagine library information or information about a student in School, or baking system!
How do we search for single required data in papers? It is a never ending task! Yes, Computers solved our problems. File Processing System When computers came, all these jobs become easy.
But initial days, these records were stored in the form of files. The way we stored in files is similar to papers, in the form of flat files — to be simpler, in notepad.
Yes, the informations where all in the notepads with each fields of information separated by space, tab comma, semicolon or any other symbol.
All the files were grouped based on their categories; file used to have only related informations and each file is named properly. As we can see in the above sample file has Student information. Student files for each class were bundled inside different folders to identify it quickly. Now, if we want to see a specific Student detail from a file, what do we do? We know which file will have the data, we open that file and search for his details.
Fine, here we see the files; we can open it and search for it. But imagine we want to display student details in a UI.
Now how will we open a file, read or update it? Disadvantages of file processing File processing system is good when there is only limited number of files and data in are very less. As the data and files in the system grow, handling them becomes difficult. Data Mapping and Access: - Although all the related informations are grouped and stored in different files, there is no mapping between any two files.
Hence if we need to display student details along with his report, we cannot directly pick from those two files. When there is very huge amount of data, it is always a time consuming task to search for particular information from the file system. It is always an inefficient method to search for the data. Data Redundancy: - There are no methods to validate the insertion of duplicate data in file system.
Any user can enter any data. File system does not validate for the kind of data being entered nor does it validate for previous existence of the same data in the same file. Duplicate data in the system is not appreciated as it is a waste of space, and always lead to confusion and mishandling of data.
Again the file system does not validate this process. Hence the purpose of storing the data is lost. Though the file name says Student file, there is a chance of entering staff information or his report information in the file. File system allows any information to be entered into any file. It does not isolate the data being entered from the group it belongs to. Data Dependence: - In the files, data are stored in specific format, say tab, comma or semicolon.
If the format of any of the file is changed, then the program for processing this file needs to be changed. But there would be many programs dependent on this file. We need to know in advance all the programs which are using this file and change in the entire place. Missing to change in any one place will fail whole application. Similarly, changes in storage structure, or accessing the data, affect all the places where this file is being used.
We have to change it entire programs. That is smallest change in the file affect all the programs and need changes in all them.
The program searched only Student file for the address and it updated it correctly. What happens to the report of a student whose address is being changed? There is a mismatch in the actual address and his report is sent to his old address.
This mismatch in different copies of same data is called data inconsistency. This has occurred here, because there is no proper listing of files which has same copies of data. Data Isolation: - Imagine we have to generate a single report of student, who is studying in particular class, his study report, his library book details, and hostel information. All these informations are stored in different files.
How do we get all these details in one report? We have to write a program. But before writing the program, the programmer should find out which all files have the information needed, what is the format of each file, how to search data in each file etc. Once all these analysis is done, he writes a program.
If there is files involved, programming would be bit simple. Imagine if there is lot many files involved in it? It would be require lot of effort from the programmer.
Since all the datas are isolated from each other in different files, programming becomes difficult. Security: - Each file can be password protected. But what if have to give access to only few records in the file? For example, user has to be given access to view only their bank account information in the file.
This is very difficult in the file system. Integrity: - If we need to check for certain insertion criteria while entering the data into file it is not possible directly. We can do it writing programs. Say, if we have to restrict the students above age 18, then it is by means of program alone. There is no direct checking facility in the file system. Hence these kinds of integrity checks are not easy in file system. Atomicity: - If there is any failure to insert, update or delete in the file system, there is no mechanism to switch back to the previous state.
Imagine marks for one particular subject needs to be entered into the Report file and then total needs to be calculated.
But after entering the new marks, file is closed without saving. That means, whole of the required transaction is not performed. Only the totaling of marks has been done, but addition of marks not being done. The total mark calculated is wrong in this case.
Atomicity refers to completion of whole transaction or not completing it at all. Partial completion of any transaction leads to incorrect data in the system. File system does not guarantee the atomicity.
It may be possible with complex programs, but introduce for each of transaction costs money. Concurrent Access: - Accessing the same data from the same file is called concurrent access. In the file system, concurrent access leads to incorrect data.
For example, a student wants to borrow a book from the library. He searches for the book in the library file and sees that only one copy is available. At the same time another student also, wants to borrow same book and checks that one copy available. First student opt for borrow and gets the book. But it is still not updated to zero copy in the file and the second student also opt for borrow!
But there are no books available. This is the problem of concurrent access in the file system. Database Management System To overcome all drawbacks of file processing system, a new system called database system is developed. All the files in the file processing system are known as tables in the database. The contents of files form records of the table.
In database, each of column values are known as attribute and each row of information is known as record. There no difference in the data being stored. But it is different from the file system by the way data is stored and accessed in the database. In the database, each set of information is stored in the form of rows and columns.
We define a unique key column for each record known as primary key. Using primary key, we can access the data much faster than file system. We can also define a mapping between any two related tables. This helps in reducing unnecessary data storage and faster retrieval of data. Below is the example how the data is stored in the database tables logically.
How do we access these data from the database?
These set of programs are known as database management system — DBMS. Apart from basic transactions, it allows the users to perform complex transaction; it helps to maintain consistency, atomicity, security, and controls concurrency. Though they are manufactured by different manufacturer, basic functionalities of all them are same. Data Mapping and Access: - DBMS defines the way to map any two related tables by means of primary key —foreign key relationship.
Primary key is the column in the table which responsible for uniquely identifying each record in the table. Foreign key is the column in the table which is a primary key in other table and with which the entries in the current table are related to other table.
Because of such mapping, it becomes each for the programmer to search for related tables, join them, and fire the query as per the requirement. This reduces the time consumed while searching and mapping these tables. Even when there is large amount of data, the time consumed to retrieve, insert, update or delete is very less. Hence there is no data isolation in the system.
Note: Mapping of tables is usually done when they are created. Data Redundancy: - By the introduction of primary key in the table, data redundancy problem is reduced to great extent. As we saw, primary key is the unique column for each record, when there is a re-entry of same record, it does not allow saving such records.
DBMS has strong designing techniques like normalization which makes sure the same copy of data is not stored in same table or in multiple tables. It makes sure all the informations are stored only once in the database tables. We can see the difference in the way data is being stored in the file and database system. These are missing in the file processing system. It also stores the information about the tables, columns, keys, storage space, used space, available space etc separately from the logical data.
Hence they totally independent of the way they are stored and the data being stored. Any changes to the physical storage like disks, tapes etc or structure, does not harm the data being stored. Since DBMS defines each columns and rows at the beginning itself and controls the way data being entered, there is no affect on the programs or any other tables or data. Hence the consistency of the data also maintained. If there is a change in the address of any student, we just have to update it in the Student table.
There is no other place his information is being stored. Hence it maintains the consistent data in the database. This will change the metadata to reflect additional column in the table structure. It will hardly affect the application unless until there is a new requirement to have transaction with DOB. Hence data independence is also assured in the database. Security: - DBMS allows different levels of access to different users based on their roles. In the school database, individual students will have access to their data alone, while their teachers will have access to all the students whom they are teaching and for the subjects that they are teaching.
Class teacher will be able to see the reports of all the students in that class, but not other classes. Similarly, in a banking system, individual account holder will have Read-Only access to their account. While accountant can update, individual account details for each of their transaction. All these levels of security and access are not allowed in file system.
Integrity: - DBMS allows having restrictions on individual columns. It would be defined while designing the table itself. If we want to enter salary of an employee within the range to , we can impose this while designing the table by using CHECK constraint. When salary is entered, it will automatically check for the range specified.
Atomicity: - DBMS makes sure either the transaction is fully complete or it is rolled back to the previous committed state.
It does not allow the system to be in a partially committed state. In our example above, DBMS commits marks change transaction before calculating the total. If there is any crash or shutdown of the system, before committing the marks, then updated marks will be rolled back to the original marks. Hence it makes sure atomicity of the transaction is achieved. It has its own mechanism to have concurrency accesses and hence avoid any incorrect data in the system.
Disadvantages of DBMS 1. It is bit complex. Since it supports multiple functionality to give the user the best, the underlying software has become complex. The designers and developers should have thorough knowledge about the software to get the most out of it. Because of its complexity and functionality, it uses large amount of memory.
It also needs large memory to run efficiently. DBMS system works on the centralized system, i. Hence any failure of the DBMS, will impact all the users. DBMS is generalized software, i. Hence some of the application will run slow. Each of these datas is grouped into different related groups.
Each of these groups is stored in the physical memory like disks in the form of bits. But when a user wants to see some specific data, if he is given in the form of bits, he will not understand what it is.
Also, in the memory records are scattered in different data blocks and it will not be in any order. But user would always like to see a meaningful and formatted data. In some instances, the title of the chapter will give you enough background about what the chapter is about. Words and information to know: Throughout the book there are a number of "footnotes" designated by a star.
These sections of the chapters are for extra information. You are not required to read these starred sections, but might want to if you are interested. They will help you to further understand the author's descriptions. As you go through this guide, there will be suggested material to look for in each chapter.
This will help you to keep track of what you have read and what is most important. Of course, you might find others items of importance and that is great!
Make sure to designate in writing why you have highlighted a particular section, this will help you when you go back to review the book at the beginning of the school year. Pause and reflect: It is important to take time to write down reactions to the material you have just read.
You only need to respond to what you have read in about sentences at the end of each chapter. This will help you to better summarize a chapter. You are also encouraged to write comments and questions about what you have read while you are reading and to make any connections to your everyday life. The former Salon columnist now writes the humor column "My Planet" in Reader's Digest and is a contributing editor for Discover magazine.
She lives in San Francisco with her husband and stepdaughter. Norton , is a comical-but-scientific exploration of the many fascinating ways in which cadavers have been used to advance the human condition. She visits a research facility at the University of Tennessee where they study human decay for forensic purposes, and she goes to facial anatomy lab where she encounters 40 severed heads in roasting pans.
Additionally, she talks about how corpses have been used as human crash test dummies, as ancient confections, and even as crucifixion experiments. Never a dull moment in this book. About the Book: This is a book about dead bodies.
As Mary Roach demonstrates in her new book, some bodies go on to do remarkable things, such as helping FAA investigators understand why a plane crashed or helping auto-makers design safety features that save thousands of lives. Others are asked to do nothing more than rot away quietly at a research lab where forensic scientists study decomposition in order to improve crime scene investigation techniques.
Some are put to slightly more questionable uses, such as the severed heads used by plastic surgeons to practice their facelift technique surely not what people had in mind when they donated their bodies to science. Others have had even more bizarre adventures.
Cadavers have been nailed to a cross in order to prove the authenticity of 1 the shroud of Turin. Severed heads have been poked, prodded, and given transfusions in an attempt to revive them long after they and their bodies have parted ways. The anonymous cadavers that are the subjects of STIFF could hardly have asked for a livelier or more sympathetic chronicler than Mary Roach, who has managed to write a book that balances sensitivity and respect with a wonderfully sharp wit.
In fact, STIFF is unexpectedly and quite blessedly hilarious, although the humor never comes at the expense at the dead bodies that populate its pages. Instead, Roach uses humor as a kind of psychic safety valve, a vital and much-appreciated tension release from what is, at times, some very intense subject matter. The real highlights of this book are the sections that delve into some of the more disreputable uses of cadavers.
There is a droll and utterly hilarious history of body snatching and a short overview of medicinal cannibalism human mummy confection, anyone? There is a fascinating catalog of the methods historically used to make sure that a dead body was in fact dead. This chapter culminates in what is surely the most spectacularly strange section of the book, in which Roach relates the story of Dr. Robert White, a neurosurgeon who in the mids performed a series of surgeries constituting what could be considered the first head transplant or full body transplant, depending on your point of view.
A wonderfully engrossing book on a subject most of us are reluctant to talk about. The statements are in order and will take you from the beginning, through each section of the book, and to the end. You should make all marks and comments directly in the book.
In addition to any marks you have been directed to mark, you might want to put a? Again, those words might be better explained in the starred sections as you go through the novel, so make sure to check there as well. Good luck and happy reading!
Enjoy your summer! Mark this with reason. How heads are displayed and treated by the surgeons. Mark this with respect.
Early ways surgery was learned and practiced. Mark this with past surgery. Why cadavers were introduced into college anatomy programs.