SHORE PROTECTION. MANUAL. VOLUME II. (Chapters 6 Through 8; I- Introduction, page ; II-Wave Mechanics, page ; III-Wave Refraction, page 2- 60;. U.S. Army Coastal Engineering Research Center () Shore Protection, (1) A lessening of the amplitude of a wave with distance from the origin. (2). SHORE PROTECTION. MANUAL. VOLUME I. (Chapters 1 Through 5) . of Coastal Engineering and the SPM, page ; II —The Coastal Area, page ;.
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Title. Shore protection manual: Volume I and II. Author. Anonymus, A. Date. Abstract. Design manual for coastal structures. Note that this manual is. Shore Protection Manual Vol 2 - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt ) or read book online. shore protection manual. VOLUME I. CHAPTER. 1. 2. 3. INTRODUCTION TO THE SHORE PROTECTION MANUAL.
The parameters of the wave energy is destroyed usually expressed in the form of dissipation coefficient KD as well as transmitted and reflected waves are manifested in the form of transmission coefficient KT and coefficient of reflection KR Horikawa, The purpose of this research is to know the magnitude of the transmission coefficient value KT , the reflection coefficient KR and the dissipation coefficient KD on the breakwater type cube on the conditions of submerged and merged and to know the influence wide the structure of breakwater against the transmission coefficient KT , the reflection coefficient KR , and dissipation coefficient KD.
The ability of a breakwater can be known through the reflection coefficient.
The reflection coefficient is the ratio between the reflection wave height HR and the height wave coming Hi. If a wave of the objects that blocking the speed of the wave, then certainly those waves have what is called reflection and transmission.
Similarly, on the waves of the shore protection structures.
Simply wave reflection can be interpreted as large waves that bounced by the protective structure compared with a value of the incoming wave. So that, when formulated into mathematical form, the reflection coefficient becomes: Fig.
The scheme wave reflection is presented in Figure 3. For comparison analysis of reflection coefficient KR then in the Shore Protection Manual Volume 2 provide an alternative to determine Fig. Design model breakwater made of materials in form of cube.
From this research, used five model breakwater with the following dimensions: 1. Hypothesis 2 To present the top relations wide breakwater on the perceived value KD on the conditions of submerged and merged. There are some things may be the cause of the difference between the experimental and theoretical results, among others: 1. Accuracy of measurements in the laboratory facilities is inadequate. Human error during data retrieval research.
The influence of the width the top of breakwater B and the slope m constant on condition submerged breakwater and merged breakwater shows the result of wide the top breakwater transmission coefficient KT and reflection coefficient KR is getting smaller. Engineering structures such as groins and seawalls have often been shown to have detrimental effects on adjacent beaches. Also, their construction and maintenance costs are quite high.
However, global warming and accelerated sea level rise will cause more rapid rates of beach loss and could make even this alternative too costly for many resort areas along the U.
The cost to nourish all the major recreational oceanic beaches in the United States was estimated based on various sea level rise scenarios. The beach nourishment approach involves placing enough sand on the beach to maintain stable nonretreating conditions in response to rising sea level.
Beach nourishment is not a practical alternative for most Pacific island nations because sand is a scarce resource. In fact, beaches are often mined for sand for construction, contributing to beach erosion.
For mainland countries, beach fill projects are more practical. Singapore was one of the first countries to use this technology in combination with building offshore breakwaters to form artificial headlands. As Western style sunbathing and the overall popularity of beaches for recreation continue to grow, beach nourishment can be expected to become a more common way to deal with sea level rise induced coastal erosion for highly developed beach resort areas.
Leatherman, testimony in U. Senate on impact of climate-induced sea level rise on coastal areas, This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.
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