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To foster the increasingly refined invention of architectural compositions and urban views was the spread of the rules of perspective drawing that imposed on painters the acquisition of graphic and theoretical skills traditionally owned by the architects. In terms of drawing techniques, painters had to learn how to draw orthogonal projections, the graphic method used by architects to represent in two dimensions the three-dimensionality of buildings.
On the theoretical level they had to acquire the knowledge handed down by Vitruvius to learn how to dominate symmetries and proportions, ornaments and structural elements. While favoring the visual dimension of architecture, painters had to learn how to design like architects.
Painted architecture was not approximate, as in the Middle Ages, but 'possible', measured and proportionate to man's height. In view of the imminent celebrations for the five hundredth anniversary of the death of Raphael - one of the greatest painter-architects of the Modern age - this dossier proposes a deepening of the architectural culture of painters in order to highlight the levels of knowledge, the theoretical sources, the practical knowledge, the relationships of collaboration between painters and architects, the elements that allow us to recognize in the diffusion of linear perspective a strong element of cultural renewal of the pictorial profession.
Without forgetting that in some cases, like in the famous ideal cities or in wooden inlayed panels, architecture is the only subject of pictorial composition.
Proposals will be evaluated and accepted according to quality, but also spread and variety. Please circulate this Call for Papers widely. Once you have registered and consulted the submission guidelines, please send your proposal on our online journal platform:. In our investigations we have noticed the richness of the narrative work for the research in history education. To narrate is a cultural practice of time interpretation, anthropologically universal.
This thesis is treated, in history theory, as the narrativist paradigm. The third part section of the data collection survey was designed with questions about the methodology inside the classroom and the evaluation.
This section was organized from numeric correspondences to the questions 6 to 10, and they should use, in every topic asked, answers from items 1 to 5.
Number 1 is total agreement and number 5 is total disagreement. Therefore, we have set the methodology of empiric data collection for each Brazilian region. Each researcher was responsible for the collection in their respective states. In the initial questions of our main study, we have worried with the substantive contents in order to understand how they are developed by the teachers.
The researches that are developed in the area of history education work with theoretical frames which divide the historical contents developed by curricula, teachers, textbooks and students in two types: a analysis concerning the substantive ideas; b analysis concerning second order ideas. According to Germinari: Second order ideas seek to comprehend the historical thought according to criteria of quality, anchored in the recent debates about the philosophy and theory of History.
In this approach, we are not interested in the questions related to the quantity or merely correction of factual information about the past, but we are interested in the questions related to reasoning and historical logic. The analysis of substantive ideas is focused on reflections about the historical concepts, involves general notions revolution, migrations… and particular notions related to specific contexts in time and space example: national, regional and local histories.
We start here from the invisible and visible texts, most of the times markedly represented in the narratives presented by the surveyed.
We have opted for two substantive contents worked by the teachers in basic education: Immigration in Brazil and the discovery process. In this article, we will dedicate ourselves to the narrative about the discovery of Brazil.
We have also decided to establish a specific school year to notice if the teacher would make any distinction among the proposals in terms of progression of knowledge. For the content of immigration, we have established, to the teacher, that it would be the 9th year of elementary school, and for the content of the discovery of Brazil, the 7th year.
As stated by Schmidt and Urban The learning process of the historical concepts or substantive concepts, related to the contents that are taught, is of great value in the development of historical consciousness. How do they think what is important to teach to kids and teenagers? Why do they think the predetermined content? How do they organize the content from their daily experiences and feelings?
Concerning the question of Historical Narrative, we have selected the following understanding possibilities of the narrative elaborated by the teacher, which, in general, we present it in the following chart and it can evidence some of these categories. We have had answers to 46 surveys from teachers from basic education. Understanding the narrative as a way to practice history, we have sought to understand how teachers articulate their historiographic knowledge and how they attribute meaning to the set of factors that mean a certain substantive content, for example: the facts, the temporality, the second order contents which gravitate around the proposed theme.
We assume, with Husbands that the historical narratives idea is built from the way the past is thought by historians, teachers and even students. These characteristics show that, when selecting historical and temporal markers, characters and events, teachers support their narratives in contents from the school universe already settled in the shape and structure of the textbook.
Portugal and Spain, searching for new lands and trying to maintain trade with India, country that had the so desired spices like pepper, clove, cinnamon, ginger, among other products, decided to sail the oceans. In this way, Pedro Alvares Cabral reached Brazil with his caravels, but here there were millions of Indians, many were decimated and slaved, then I question.
Who discovered Brazil, Portuguese people or Indians? I believe it is of vital importance to observe the historical concepts, linking them to the context in which they are inserted.
Question the students about what the think of the first inhabitants Indians and then draw a comparison between Indians and non-Indians Europeans , leading them to reflect about the stereotypes that there are barbarians and civilized people.
It all depends on the view oft the person who is analyzing the fact. We understand that, in this case, even if the historiographical question is outdated, this type of approach moves and activates the thought of who is learning, creating a doubt in the argument, giving students an active role in the learning when they dedicated themselves to solve a problem placed.
In the case of teachers with less time of experience, the idea of a content deconstruction is present in their narratives, as well as an attempt of critical history. However, all teachers argue basing on the fact. It is the indicated event that translates the way of teaching, either by the maintenance of History or by its deconstruction.
Some narratives search a historiographic discussion relying on a historiography of the period that would have reviewed, in the last few years, the way of teaching the discovery of Brazil. Which objective and subjective factors guide the meaning attribution to the chosen contents and the way of teaching them?
The historiographical knowledge keeps being worked in a unique way and with a truthful destiny. The use of sources, of the previous knowledge of many methodologies have the purpose of leading students to understand a true history and reach this knowledge.
There is no possible multiplicity of perspectives in History with the interpretation and analysis of different sources, but there is the use of many sources that reach the same content. Online , v. Youth and History. What is history teaching? Language, ideas and meaning in learning about the past.
Buckingham-Philadelphia: Open-University, FGV Editora, Natal, Educar em Revista, Curitiba, Brasil, n.