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Because CourseMate only allows one concurrent session per user, the session you have been using is now terminated. Password: A valid password is required.
Try again. CourseMate times out if you have been inactive for 60 minutes. If you see a Continue link below and click it, CourseMate will see you as active for at least 60 more minutes. However, if you don't see a Continue link below, you have timed out, and you will need to close this window and cross back into this CourseMate site to continue using it. A timeout or token validation problem has occurred. Practice Tests Each chapter ends with a item multiple-choice Practice Test that should give students a realistic assessment of their mastery of that chapter and valuable practice taking the type of test that many of them will face in the classroom if the instructor uses the Test Bank.
This research indicated that students pay scant attention to some standard pedagogical devices. They should be useful, as I took most of the items from Test Banks for previous editions.
The back of the book contains a standard alphabetical glossary. Opening outlines preview each chapter, and a chapter recap appears at the end of each chapter. I make frequent use of italics for emphasis, and I depend on frequent headings to maximize organizational clarity.
The preface for students describes these pedagogical devices in more detail. Content The text is divided into 15 chapters, which follow a traditional ordering. The chapters are not grouped into sections or parts, primarily because such groupings can limit your options if you want to reorganize the order of topics.
The topical coverage in the text is relatively conventional, but there are some subtle departures from the norm. This coverage of history lays the foundation for many of the crucial ideas emphasized in subsequent chapters.
As its title indicates, this book is a condensed version of my introductory text, Psychology: Themes and Variations. How was this reduction in size accomplished? Definitions of culture. However, this is probably too much of a simplification. For example, a member of a minority group who is part of the middle or upper socioeconomic class may be more representative of the majority culture than a nonminority who is in the low socioeconomic class.
Sampling adequacy. Sampling is a problem in any culture, as researchers seek to choose research participants who are representative of the larger population.
This problem is compounded in cross-cultural research because a researcher must obtain samples that are representative of two or more populations.
Imagine the problem you would face if you went to a foreign country and tried to get a representative sample. You would more than likely be visiting a large city in the other country—are people in that city representative of the population at large?
Would you want to sample Canadians only from such cities as Toronto and Montreal? Noncultural, demographic equivalence. Once you have conquered the sampling issue, you must then worry about comparing the two samples.
Are they equivalent samples? If you compare samples that are from two different cultures and that differ in education, social experiences, or socioeconomic level, to what factor can you attribute differences between the two groups?
As you can imagine, confounding of variables is a major concern here. Language and translation issues. Typically, cross-cultural research must be conducted in more than one language. As you know from dealing with languages, a word-for-word translation often does not give equivalent meanings. Often, cross-cultural researchers use the back-translation method to ensure equivalence.
In this method, for example, an English questionnaire would be translated into the second language by translator 1, and then from the second language back to English by translator 2. Even this type of equivalence, though, still leaves open the question of nuances in languages. The research environment, setting, and procedures. Students in American colleges and many Canadian universities, are fairly familiar with the notion of serving as research participants, which may not be the case in another culture or country.
Thus, simply being a research participant may have a different meaning in a different culture, as may the significance of the actual research setting itself.
Cultural response sets. The cross-cultural researcher should beware of any particular manner in which people in a particular culture might respond. For example, suppose that people of a given culture do not like to stand out or seem different from others.
If these people served as research participants and responded on a 7-point scale, they might tend to respond in the middle of the scale. In a more individualistic culture, participants might tend to respond at the high or low ends of the scale.
Thus, the two cultures would appear to be different on the scale, but the differences would reflect response sets rather than true differences on the scale. As you can see, there are important methodological considerations that must be taken into account when conducting cross-cultural research.
If you wish to take a more in-depth look at this subject, you can consult Triandis and Berry For general readings about incorporating cross-cultural issues in your class, see the Hill and Reiner essay in this manual.
Enns, C. On teaching about the cultural relativism of psychological constructs. Teaching of Psychology, 21, — Goldstein, S. Cross-cultural psychology as a curriculum transformation resource. Teaching of Psychology, 22, — Matsumoto, D. Culture and modern life. Pacific Grove, CA: Culture and psychology: People around the world 2nd ed. Belmont, CA: Simoni, J. Teaching diversity: Experiences and recommendations of American Psychological Association Division 2 members.
Teaching of Psychology, 26, 89— Triandis, H. Handbook of cross-cultural psychology: For example, their physical well-being is controlled through the use of such chemicals as vitamins, drugs prescribed by their physicians, and food additives. Likewise, their existence is made easier through control of the natural elements: Students will probably be more sensitive to the issue of control as a goal of psychology because it involves the control of human behaviour perhaps their own.
You should point out that control in psychology is not necessarily a bad or negative goal. All of us engage in behaviours designed to control the behaviour of others. The advertisements that bombard us daily are also attempts to control our behaviour. To fully develop as a science, psychology must gain the ability to control its domain, just as other sciences have.
Perhaps the ultimate example for students because of their preconceived notions about psychology, discussed in Chapter 1 of this manual is clinical and counselling psychology.
Should psychologists not attempt to exert control in these areas? Both cases involve people who are experiencing difficulty with life and their responsibilities. Is it ethical not to help such a person? If you have personal knowledge or experiences that you could share with students in a confidential manner, those would help illustrate the point to your class.
If you have no such personal experiences to cite, refer to Miller He cited two cases in which behaviour therapy was used. The accompanying before-and-after photographs make the cases particularly vivid. Thus, you can convince students that some degree of control in psychology is both necessary and good. An interesting class discussion can ensue regarding the limits of control in psychology: How much is too much, and how much is still good?
Be sure to point out that other disciplines have problems in this same area. As a science gains more control over its area of study, it seems that problems with that control arise. Certainly genetic engineering has the potential for good, as in the correction of prenatal abnormalities, eradication of genetically linked problems, and so on. Genetic engineering is already widely applied in the cattle industry, for example, for producing better beef and dairy stock.
We have benefited greatly from imposing control over the environment and our bodies through chemistry. However, many criticisms have been levelled about the vast amount of chemicals dumped into our environment, food, and bodies every day. Certainly, many of the chemicals have beneficial purposes, but one wonders about their cumulative effect. Thus, chemistry also has potential problems with the issue of control.
The issue of the safety of nuclear energy and nuclear reactors has raised a furor. Accidents like Three Mile Island and Chernobyl have emphasized the critical nature of this issue. Control in physics is certainly a controversial topic. These examples of control issues in biology, chemistry, and physics are only the most obvious. If you wish to use different examples, you could talk to faculty at your school from each of those departments.
Ask them what the critical issues are in their discipline. You might even invite them to your class for a panel discussion or a question-and-answer session concerning the issue of control in science. Bachrach, A. The control of eating behaviour in an anorexic by operant conditioning techniques.
Krasner Eds. New York: Lang, P. Case report: Avoidance conditioning therapy of an infant with chronic ruminative vomiting. Journal of Abnormal Psychology, 74, 1—8. Miller, N.
The value of behavioral research on animals. American Psychologist, 40, — Ask your students to think of their kitchen at home as a scientific laboratory.
What are the similarities between the two? Vandervert listed many items in a kitchen that are similar to items in a laboratory: How do we ensure that our particular operational definition will bring about the desired product? For example, there are many operational definitions for the construct of anxiety, depending on whether one is dealing with state or trait anxiety, whether one is using anxiety as an independent or a dependent variable, whether one subscribes to a physiological or psychological theory of anxiety, and so on.
Similarly, there are many recipes operational definitions for cake, depending on whether one is making a chocolate or lemon cake, a sheet or layer cake, a wedding or birthday cake, or some other kind. Vandervert suggested generating an operational definition for fear, but any psychological construct should suffice.
Give students several minutes to work on this definition, and then have them share their definitions with the class. Allow the other students to critique gently the definitions offered. Attempt to generate a class consensus on the operational definition of the construct you chose. After this activity, students will be much more sensitive to the need for operational definitions and the often difficult task of creating them. Vandervert, L. Operational definitions made simple, lasting, and useful.
Teaching of Psychology, 7, 57— Although the text provides good examples, I recommend the use of a new, different one so that students will have multiple opportunities to learn the important concepts of research. What variables should they use? Students can usually see that they are interested in determining the effects of the two different toothpastes one independent variable with two levels on the number of cavities dependent variable.
After the students have isolated the independent and dependent variables, ask them how they would operationally define and manipulate the variables. Then ask them what variables need to be controlled so that they do not affect the outcome of the experiment extraneous variables.
Typically, students can generate a list of 10 to 15 extraneous variables in a couple of minutes. They readily realize that such variables as dental history of the parents, fluoridation, personal dental history, number of brushings daily, time spent brushing, types of food eaten, type of toothbrush used, and so on could be important extraneous variables. This list of extraneous variables can be used to highlight Theme 4, Behaviour is determined by multiple causes, and Theme 6, Heredity and environment jointly influence behaviour.
Ask students to speculate about how they would attempt to control these extraneous variables. If not, what implications does the lack of control have for the findings? Ask students to share their answers, and create a rough frequency distribution of the answers on the chalkboard or on an overhead transparency. There will likely be a great deal of variability and little consistency in the answers. This exercise should demonstrate that a standard decision criterion must be adopted so that different experimenters looking at the same data will come to the same conclusions.
Point out to the class that the probability of results occurring by chance decreases as the difference in the number of cavities gets larger. Small differences might reverse themselves if the experiment were run a second time. All you need to do is present students with two identical cups containing the same small amount of two different colas. The students consume and rate both samples.
The ratings of a number of students are compared, and a winner is declared. Here are some aspects that you might want to discuss with your class: Which second? The best solution is to counterbalance the sequence of the presentation.
However, make sure that these counterbalanced sequences are equally assigned to men and women. Should potential differences between men and women be evaluated? Those who have just eaten breakfast or had a cup of coffee will have residual tastes that may affect their perception of the two colas.
If Likert scales are used, what type will they be 5 point, 7 point, 9 point? Does the type matter? Physiological evidence does tell us that taste buds become less sensitive as people grow older. In a sip test, participants preferred the sweeter taste of New Coke, leading to an expensive new product launch.
It was only after New Coke proved unpopular with the public that the marketers realized too late that its taste was cloying when drunk in real-life conditions.
Obviously, this simple study is not so simple after all. Challenge your students to find additional problems with it. Despite the fact that it may be a difficult study to conduct with ample control and adequate experimental design, it raises an abundance of issues pertaining to research methodology in psychology that can be shared with your students.
You might even want to use statistical procedures and significance testing to determine the reliability of the results of your cola challenge. For variety, you can choose a different commercial claim to test in class. For example, in addition to the cola challenge, Solomon suggested testing the claims for the softest bathroom tissue and driest antiperspirant. What different variables would be involved, and how would the class choose to answer the new questions that arise?
Solomon, P. Science and television commercials: Adding relevance to the research methodology course. Teaching of Psychology, 6, 26— Gladwell, M. The Power of Thinking without Thinking. Little, Brown and Company. Considering how one attempts to find an answer to a question from a research standpoint is a foreign way of thinking for most students, because they have not been previously exposed to this approach.
Yet it is important for them to be able to think in such terms in order to appreciate the research discussed throughout the course. Formulate a testable hypothesis. Select the research method and design the study. Collect the data. Analyze the data and draw conclusions. Report the findings.
Allow students to express their ideas freely, even though they will not use the proper terms from the chapter. After a few minutes of discussion, try to pull together their ideas into a hypothesis. Point out important characteristics of hypotheses, particularly their testability. Often, students have appealing ideas that are not testable. Discussing what makes a hypothesis testable should allow you to bring in the idea of operational definitions and why they are important.
After the class has generated a testable hypothesis, you can begin talking about variables. Many students, even in experimental psychology courses, have a difficult time identifying independent and dependent variables, so it is important to begin laying the groundwork at this point. Students often do a good job of teaching other students how to identify independent and dependent variables.
You can serve as a guide to gently remind them of the differences between the two types of variables, but try to allow the class to come to a democratic conclusion. After students have isolated the independent and dependent variables, ask for a list of other variables that might potentially affect the dependent variable in the experiment.
Again, this exercise gives the class some room for creativity and open discussion. After several good candidates have been generated, ask students what would happen if these variables were allowed to remain unchecked during the experiment.
You can then ask how they would make sure that these extraneous variables do not enter into the experiment and confound the results. This discussion will allow you to discuss experimental design and the need for control in research so that valid conclusions can be derived from an experiment.
You can also discuss the notion that some research is probably not valid because of a lack of control. An interesting sidelight is to ask students to present some claims made in advertisements.
Ask whether the class believes that such claims are actually based on data from well-controlled and well-designed experiments. If not, what are the implications for the claims made in advertising? Discussing experimental research techniques from this point of view may help students remember to think critically about various studies mentioned later in the semester.
Throughout this discussion, take note of the hypotheses or variables suggested by students—perhaps even the names of the students who make the suggestions—that are ruled out by the class because they will not fit within the context of an experimental research project. Watson presented an interesting class demonstration designed to show students that random assignment does, indeed, create groups that are essentially equal on variables that might affect the outcome of an experiment.
Tell your class that you want to design an experiment to test a new basketball coaching technique that you have developed. The obvious way to test this new approach is to pick two teams, train one team using your new coaching technique while the other team is trained using a traditional approach, and then have the two teams play each other.
However, you are worried about a possible extraneous variable in the experiment: A tall, traditionally coached team could beat a short, innovatively trained team for reasons unrelated to the training method. Random assignment should eliminate such confounding elements by creating equal groups. Watson typically used his female students in this demonstration to avoid biasing height by gender and because they are more numerous.
Using female students could also allow you to make a silent statement against gender stereotypes. Pick students randomly with the gender constraint and assign them to Team A or Team B by flipping a coin. Have Team A stand in front of the class, arranged from shortest to tallest. Then have Team B stand in front of Team A, arranged in the same manner. The result should be two teams approximately equal in height, thus removing that potential extraneous variable from your experiment.
Sometimes random assignment will work with such a small sample, but sometimes you will obtain teams that are much different in height. Before you end this demonstration, ensure that students understand why flipping a coin represents random assignment. Also, be sure that they understand the difference between random selection and random assignment.
You can point out that violating the principle of random selection harms the external validity of an experiment the ability to generalize findings beyond the population studied. Obviously, researchers do not worry too much about this problem because of the vast number of studies using college students and lab rats as subjects.
On the other hand, violating random assignment can destroy the internal validity of the experiment, resulting in confounding and an inability to make cause-and-effect statements. Watson, D. A neat little demonstration of the benefits of random assignment of subjects in an experiment.
Makosky, C. Sileo, L. Whittemore, C. Skutley Eds. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association. Take note of such ideas so that you can discuss them when you cover correlational research approaches. Assuming that you have covered the concept of control within experimentation, students should understand that the control available in the laboratory allows researchers to make cause-and-effect statements, which is the goal of any science.
However, they have also probably mentioned the artificiality of the laboratory situation. Although nonexperimental approaches to research do not allow statements of causality to be drawn, they do have benefits, particularly in terms of generating ideas and hypotheses that might later be subjected to experimental scrutiny or in terms of testing the external validity generalizability of experimental findings.
It is vital that students understand the differences between the different approaches and exactly why the correlational approaches do not allow causality to be determined.
An example always makes concepts easier to understand, and this is particularly true when talking about correlational relationships and their lack of causality. Do not end your discussion on this note, however. Be certain that students see the value in correlational approaches and how they might lead to experimental research. Also, you may wish to convince your students that the ideal is a combination of laboratory and naturalistic research in order to establish causal relationships that would work in the real world.
You will need to download some exotic but unappealing food, such as chocolate-covered ants, squid, or tongue. Negotiate to get the lowest possible price. Then ask students if they have ever eaten unusual or strange or exotic foods that are generally unappealing to North American tastes, using some specific examples of these foods.
Pick some of the students who have not previously eaten such foods, and ask them whether they would consider eating the food that you have with you without naming it. Some brave individuals will usually say that they would, particularly if you put a price on this behaviour. After getting several to agree, preferably for free or for a nominal sum, display your food. Usually some of your volunteers will back down, often at the last moment.
Male students may be more prone to actually taste the food because of peer pressure. Scoville recommended choosing students who are likely to back down, because they illustrate the difference between saying something and actually doing it.
You can use this demonstration to launch an interesting discussion of the potential pitfalls of survey research and hypothetical questions. Highlight the results from any recent poll. Ask students to react to the published results now that they have experienced firsthand the relative ease of making a verbal commitment versus the difficulty of actually following through with the behaviour.
Scoville, W. What would you do if? Makosky, L. Rogers Eds. Statistical Methods. Many aspects of research methodology can be made clearer and more meaningful through this simple in-class demonstration. Randomly assign the students in your class to two groups, and mention the importance of random sampling. Obtain the height and shoe size for each student. Calculate the correlation coefficient for these two measures for each group a computer is highly desirable , and share the correlations with your students.
There is likely to be a moderate positive correlation, but the two groups will probably show different degrees of correlation. If your computer can generate a scatterplot of the scores for each group, show the plots to the class so they can see the linear trend. You can also use this demonstration to make the point that correlation does not imply causality: Being tall does not cause one to have large feet, and having large feet does not cause one to be tall.
Having collected and analyzed these data, you can also discuss measures of central tendency and variability. These data also lend themselves nicely to an inferential statistical test a t test and a discussion of significant differences.
There is no reason to assume that you will find significant differences between your two random groups in either height or shoe size. If significant differences do exist, you could explore the cause s with your class, discussing extraneous variables. Most likely, you will also find an abundance of women or men in one of the two groups, giving you the chance to discuss sampling techniques and the importance of beginning research with equivalent groups.
Use this activity after covering the different research approaches in Chapter 2. Divide the class into small groups. Present the groups with the 10 statements in HM concerning human nature and behaviour and with four research approaches: Give the groups 20 minutes to choose the best research approach for dealing with each statement. If they believe that a problem is not amenable to scientific study, they should mark it with a question mark.
Have a group report their answer for the first statement, followed by class discussion until a reasonable conclusion is reached. Continue with the other statements in the same manner. Be sure that the discussion focuses on the appropriateness of the research approach recommended for each statement, as well as the merits and limits of that approach.
According to Fernald and Fernald, the answers are: E They pointed out that Statements 1 and 10 could be explored through naturalistic observation but are tested more thoroughly with the experimental approach.
You can make up additional questions to suit your own interests. This activity gives students a chance to apply the knowledge they have gained from Chapter 2 in a manner that requires both synthesis and critical thinking. Fernald, P.