accomplished by delivering oral presentations in class, at conferences, . NC Central Oral Speaking PDF: Very detailed advice on planning, presenting. Researching, planning and structuring an oral presentation is similar to the . ruthenpress.info pdf. PDF | Apologies to all those who requested this paper or bothered to open it. The ability to give an oral presentation is an important skill in a.
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During your time at university you will almost certainly have to give an oral presentation. Almost everyone who gives a presentation feels nervous beforehand. Effective Oral. Presentations. Les Perelman Organize your talk to fit allotted time. ▫ Talk as Verbal. Abstract or Summary. ▫ Cover only 3 or 4. ORAL. PRESENTATION. IN ENGLISH. How to get started, how to conclude, and suggestions for of your talk; and you'll give them a map of your presentation.
What do you think of that idea? Depending on the context or specific cultural environment you may or may not want to use a transparency. For example, in a professional corporate context it may look a bit scholastic to project an outline. However, in giving a paper, since the objective is didactic you could put it on a transparency and refer back to it from time to time.
A Cont e nt. What inform at ion should you give in your speech? All your inform at ion should support your purpose. I n m ost cases you will have t o lim it t he cont ent , as t im e is usually precious! B Qua nt it y How m uch inform at ion should you give? Enough t o clearly develop your ideas. C Se que ncing your ide a s. Here are a few possibilit ies for organizing your ideas: What ever sequencing you choose, t he headings should be all of t he sam e gram m at ical form.
D Ke e ping t he a udie nce 's a t t e nt ion The beginning and t he end or t he first and last part s of a t alk are what list eners will rem em ber best.
Think of ways you can keep t he audience's at t ent ion t hroughout t he rest of t he speech. See part I V. E Signpost ing or signa ling w he r e you a r e. That is t o say, first announce what you are going t o say give an exam ple, reform ulat e et c.
This is very like verbal punct uat ion. I ndicat e when you have finished one point and t hen go on t o t he next one. I t is redundant in t ext but very useful in oral present at ions. Experienced present ers will also clearly pause, change t heir st ance and t he pit ch of t heir voice as t hey m ove from one part of a present at ion t o anot her. List ing infor m a t ion List s are oft en a necessary evil.
Vary your language whenever possible and avoid reading direct ly. Ther e ar e t hr ee t hings w e have t o consider: A, B, C. Now let us look at t he fir st aspect w hich is That 's all I w ould like t o say about Now t hat w e've seen I f t here are alt ernat ive ways of looking at a t opic or proposal, out line t hem t o show you are fam iliar wit h t he different ways of dealing wit h a sit uat ion. Ther e seem t o be t w o possible w ays of dealing w it h t his We've looked at t his fr om t he point of view of t he m anufact ur er but w hat about if w e w er e t o A num ber of opt ions pr esent t hem selves at t his point I f what you are dealing wit h dem ands a com parison of st rengt hs and weaknesses indicat e clearly t he different aspect s and underline t he point s you feel are im port ant or secondary.
What exact ly ar e t he benefit s? On t he plus side w e can add This is not t he only w eakness of t he plan We cannot ignor e t he pr oblem s t hat such an act ion w ould cr eat e We do not need t o concer n our selves w it h… Of lesser int er est ar e… To be cle a r a nd concr e t e. Use exam ples, rephrasing, sum m aries et c.: Now let 's t ake an exam ple. An exam ple of t his can be found What w e need t o focus on To illust r at e t his… Let 's see t his t hr ough an exam ple.
For inst ance, As I have alr eady said ear lier To sum m ar ize For now , suffice t o say So t hat concludes m y over view I quot e t he w or ds of I n conclusion I n t he w or ds of… Br iefly said Accor ding t o As Mr.
X says in his book To r ecap w hat w e've seen so far Ther e is a fam ous quot at ion t hat To e m pha size goes What is ver y significant is As you all m ay w ell know I 'd like t o em phasize t he fact t hat I t is gener ally accept ed t hat As you ar e pr obably aw ar e of A Cont e nt The end or t he conclusion of your t alk should include four part s: Alt ernat ives are: Then you should give som e kind of conclusion.
That is t o say you should give a m essage t hat logically com es out of t he ideas developed in your speech. This could be a com m ent ary, t he lessons learned, som e recom m endat ions, or t he next st eps.
You could also m ake a call t o act ion; t he audience should have t o do som et hing. Thirdly, t hank t he audience for being t here. Finally, ask for quest ions and com m ent s or invit e a discussion. I f you choose t he form er, you put yourself in a superior posit ion com pared t o t he audience and should be considered as an expert. You will need t o be very prepared int ellect ually and psychologically t o t ransfer cont rol t o t he audience and be able t o answer any quest ions. However, in t he case of t he lat t er, you put yourself m ore or less on equal t erm s wit h t he audience and do not have t o be t he expert wit h all t he answers!
The audience m ay have som e clear ideas or som e pract ical knowledge about t he subj ect t hem selves! Nat urally you need t o signpost t he end of your t alk. This m ay t ake t he form of a recapit ulat ion of t he m ain point s. So, as w e have seen t oday As I have t r ied t o explain t his m or ning BT finds it self in Or t here m ay be recom m endat ions or proposals t hat you wish t o m ake; As a r esult w e suggest t hat … I n t he light of w hat w e have seen t oday I suggest t hat My fir st pr oposal is Above all when you conclude do not do it abrupt ly or as if surprised t o get t o t he end of your t alk.
I n conclusion I w ould like t o say t hat My final com m ent s concer n I w ould like t o finish by r em inding ever yone t hat I 've pr epar ed a slim folder of t he pr oposals I n t he sheet s t hat ar e now being dist r ibut ed you w ill find a br eakdow n of t he And finally you m ay well have t o deal wit h quest ions. I 'd be happy t o answ er any quest ions I f t her e ar e any quest ions please feel fr ee t o ask. Thank you ver y m uch for your at t ent ion and if t her e ar e any suggest ions or com m ent s 8 I I.
B D e a ling w it h difficult que st ions 1. Make sure you underst and t he quest ion. Ask a quest ion t o see if you underst and Repeat t he quest ion in your own words t o check t hat you have underst ood.
I n answering: What is a? How can I put it? I 'm glad you asked t hat quest ion. Can I answ er t hat quest ion lat er? I saw t hat in t he w or k of… agree but give an alt ernat ive point of view I agr ee w it h you but t her e is anot her w ay of looking at it. You need t o t ake int o considerat ion who you are speaking t o, when, where, and why, as all of t hese det ails will have an im pact on your st ruct ure and cont ent.
A well- st ruct ured speech wit h a st ep- by- st ep approach is one t hat is easy t o follow. Besides st ruct ure, it is also necessary t o be relat ively repet it ive. A good 'rule' is announce what you are going t o say, say it and finally, say what you've said. Be careful wit h t he figures. Pronunciat ion proper nam es, cognat es, num bers and present at ion are im port ant , pract ice beforehand!
This is equally im port ant for t he key words of your present at ion. I t is part icularly annoying for t he audience t o hear t he sam e word m ispronounced repeat edly. I n addit ion t o careful preparat ion - good st ruct ure and vocabulary — and organizat ion, a m essage passes in ot her ways.
Using im ages visuals ; body language and voice are ext rem ely im port ant and will be exam ined in t he following sect ions. See bibliography Carl Storz et al. For more information on describing visuals, especially graphs and the movement of the curve on a graph, see Simon Sweeney in bibliography. Criticism includes the pre-formatting, ubiquity, bulleted ideas, boredom, lack of personal style and so on.
See Parker, Ian. The New Yorker, May 28, , pp.
Try t o do t his consist ant ly but not t o t he det rim ent of a t able or im age. Size - A4 Layout should be pleasant and easy t o read: Font s: Som e com panies im pose a part icular st yle. Font size - m aybe 20 or m ore depending on t he size of t he room you will be speaking in. A good idea is t o use different sizes for different t ypes of t ext: I f possible, use color t ransparencies unless you are j ust showing t ext.
One every t wo m inut es is sufficient. To show t oo m any slides is worse t han none at all. Have t he slides ready and in order. Check t o see if t he OHP is plugged in, in working order and in focus.
Test t he visual t o see if people at t he back of t he room can see it. St and t o t he side of t he screen and face t he audience. Mask t o reveal only what you want t he audience t o see. Use a point er or a pen t o draw at t ent ion t o a specific point. Visuals should be adj ust ed t o t he audience. Visuals should supplem ent t he spoken m essage.
Large enough for everyone t o see. Good idea t o give out a paper copy, i. Does t he layout work? Are t here any spelling m ist akes or gram m at ical errors? Rem em ber t hey are going t o be in plain view all t he t im e of your visual.
I t is not sufficient j ust t o put up a t ransparency on t he screen and expect t he audience t o t urn it s at t ent ion t o it , t o underst and it and m ake t he link wit h what you are saying.
See Giving Pr esent at ions Unit. I t is im port ant t o prepare your audience for what t hey are going t o see. This keeps t he audience on t heir t oes and gives you t he opport unit y t o posit ion your visual correct ly. Apologies to all those who requested this paper or bothered to open it. I'm afraid it was one of my very earliest papers in the English Teaching Forum that ResearchGate found online at put on the site. It then got out of control and generated lots of requests so here it is.
Things have moved on in the 25 years since I wrote this, however - for both the ways presentation skills are taught and for myself. Thanks for your interest in my work. Content uploaded by Ken Hyland. Author content All content in this area was uploaded by Ken Hyland on Oct 25, Published as: Hyland, K.
Developing oral presentation ski lls. English Teaching Forum, 29 2: Oral Presentation Skil ls. The ability to give an oral presentation is an important skill in a varied range of careers,. Consequently, this activity is a major component of many EST and. Communication Studies courses in tertiary institutions. I believe there is also an important.
Some teachers already include formal presentations in their courses, realising that students. Training in public speaking not only. However, many teachers feel they can do little to help students beyond setting a topic,. But while this view is. It's true that the teaching literature offers little. However, detailed help can be. This skill area can be taught just as systematically as any other in the syllabus if it is treated.
This short article will briefly outline the sequence of stages in developing oral. The approach it.
The oral presentation is typically a partly spoken, partly visual form of communication. Time is. Obviously this is a fairly demanding exercise but it is. There are seven general stages in the process of developing oral presentation skills:.
Short talks and awareness of oral communication strategies. Obviously students cannot be expected to simply gather data and present it. As with most.
To demonstrate a number of basic precepts of oral communication, students can practice. These might merely involve a. The teacher can easily prepare a number of diagrams in advance and ask a.
Alternatively, speakers can be asked to give a two minute talk on any subject with, say, only. The talks are then analysed and discussed by the. These discussions are the crucial part of the exercise as various fundamental principles.
Among them, are the need to be explicit and break the communicative task. The speaker should clearly "signpost" the. By giving and examining short talks in this way, students can begin to identify strategies for. These strategies can then be tested in further talks. Communication always has a purpose.
General objectives of a presentation are to inform. More precise aims are content specific but in. Effective communication involves shaping a message to the receiver's point of view. A class speaker will obviously have a. Speakers should therefore be. This will make planning easier and the.
In the real world, an oral presentation arises from a particular problem or task occurring in. The most authentic activity is therefore to adopt a case study approach. More flexibly,. This involves various data gathering activities and encourages. Storz int-evry. This short paper is divided into several sections, each one being based on a particular point which is important to think about in preparing for and giving an oral presentation.
The first one deals with preparation and planning, the most important stage. The second one deals with the structure of the speech and necessary language. The third speaks about visuals and how to make the best use of them. The fourth discusses how to create interest and establish and maintain a relationship with the audience. The fifth deals with body language and finally, the sixth contains a few comments on using the voice and correct pronunciation. Actual language used to express the above is given in italics.
Comments and questions you could ask yourself in preparing each part are also included. At the end, you will find a bibliography of materials available in the Resource Center of the Department of Languages and Humanities at the INT for further work on oral presentations or listening practice.
It is also important to remember that there are perhaps several formulae for an oral presentation, this being just one. What you are trying to do in your presentation should have a bearing on how you present.
There are also cultural aspects to take into consideration in that different communities will react differently to the same presentation: English-speaking as against a French-speaking audience, a scientific forum, a literary group or an assembly of business managers. Each one will expect and react in various ways according to the linguistic, scientific, academic or business culture it is familiar with. Different people speak in different ways in different languages and different conventions depending on to whom, where, when and why they are speaking.
All of these questions are, of course, vital to take into consideration during the preparation. Remember anyone can give a good presentation. Preparation and practice can be the keys to success!
Some even have specific guidelines or style sheet for slides. Also over time you will develop your own personal style. Carl Storz et al. What is t he aim? Who am I speak ing t o? Are t hese people t he decision m akers? What do t hey k now of t he subj ect?
How does t his change m y approach? What sort of quest ions will t hey ask m e? What are t he answers? What aspect s will t hey be int erest ed in? What are t he m ain point s 1, 2, 3; first , second, t hird; I want t o m ak e? What do I want t he We m ust invit e t hem: Who is t he audience?
How m any people will t here be in t he audience? Check beforehand, if you can, t he place where you are going t o m ake your present at ion. Where will it t ake place? How big is t he room? What equipm ent is t here in t he room? What equipm ent do I need? Does t he equipm ent work? Are you going t o need a black or whit eboard? Do you need an overhead proj ect or or a screen?
Are t hey in place? I s t here a podium? Do you need an adapt er or ext ension lead? Can t he inform at ion be seen? Can you present t he inform at ion and not get in t he way? Do you need a point er?
Will you need t o dim t he light s or draw t he curt ains? Are you going t o need handout s or any ot her docum ent s? How m any? Do t hey present a good im age of you and your com pany? What t im e of day is it? What day is it?
Will t he audience be m ore or less recept ive when list ening? H ow lon g? I n relat ion t o what t he audience knows or t im e const raint s, what can I elim inat e if necessary? Ot he r Am I dressed appropriat ely?
Shoes polished? Are m y hands and fingernails clean? Experienced Experienced presenters are able to improvise and adapt to changing circumstances but you may have only one chance to present your information, so be prepared.
Basically t here are t hree part s t o a t ypical present at ion: We are going t o look at each part in t urn and present t he language needed t o express bot h t he st ruct ure and t he cont ent. I t is when you est ablish a rapport wit h t he audience and when you have it s at t ent ion.
More det ailed t echniques can be found in part I V. Let 's begin. Gr eat. Shall w e st ar t? Let 's get t he ball r olling. Let 's get dow n t o business. I n English- speaking count ries it is not uncom m on for t he speaker t o begin wit h a j oke, an anecdot e, a st at em ent m ade t o surprise or provoke in order t o gain t he audience's at t ent ion, t o m ake people want t o list en, t o feel relaxed and even t o int roduce t he subj ect.
This m ay or m ay not be appropriat e in your count ry; you are probably t he best j udge. Cert ainly hum our is difficult t o convey and would not be appropriat e in all cont ext s. A good t echnique is t o t ry t o get your audience involved in your t alk eit her by asking direct or rhet orical quest ions. Ask for a show of hands for exam ple, in response t o a quest ion or, present inform at ion in such a way t hat t he audience can ident ify wit h it.
You can give an anecdot e, unusual or surprising fact s, or an illust rat ion from real life could be em ployed here.
I t is im port ant t o greet t he audience by saying som et hing like: Hello ladies and gent lem en.
Good aft er noon est eem ed guest s Good evening m em ber s of t he boar d Fellow colleagues Mr. C I nt r oduce one se lf, na m e , posit ion, a nd com pa ny Do t his not only t o give im port ant inform at ion so people can ident ify you but also t o est ablish your aut horit y on t he subj ect and t o allow t he audience t o see your point of view on t he subj ect you are a st udent , researcher, responsible for, direct or of, neophyt e, laym an.
My nam e is I 'm t he m anager of… I am a r esear cher fr om … I 've been w or king on t he subj ect now for X year s I 've had w ide exper ience in t he field of Good m or ning, m y nam e is Law r ence Couder c. I am a st udent at t he I NT and I w ould like t o t alk t o you t oday about som e of m y findings in a st udy I did on… Som et im es, especially when invit ed t o speak, t he host int roduces t he guest , gives t he sam e inform at ion as above and t hen gives t he floor t o t he guest speaker.
I am ver y pleased and pr oud t o int r oduce …w ho is…. D Give t it le a nd int r oduce subj e ct What exact ly are you going t o speak about? Give a rough idea or a working definit ion of t he subj ect. I plan t o speak about Today I 'm going t o t alk about The subj ect of m y pr esent at ion is I 've been asked t o give you an over view of Cult ural aspect s m ay be im port ant here; scient ist s want t o dem onst rat e t heir work and findings while m anagers and hum anit ies people want t o share ideas and reflect ions wit h t heir audience.
I t m ay be t he result of a desire t o persuade and convince. I t m ay be com parison of t wo or m ore product s, plans or proposals. Why are you going t o speak about it? I have chosen t o speak about t his because I w as asked t o speak about X because Have you set any lim it s on t he scope of your t alk?
What won't you speak about?
I t m ay be very useful t o elim inat e cert ain areas before you st art so as t o avoid confusion or deviat ion from your m ain t ask. I t also prot ect s you from crit icism lat er for not covering cert ain aspect s or issues.
Have you est im at ed t he t im e it will t ake? I w ill not speak about I have lim it ed m y speech t o My t alk w ill last about 15 m inut es 3 Concerning time, professional people are very often pressed for time.
You m ay want t o give acknowledgem ent s here t oo. I f you have been sponsored, support ed or encouraged by a part icular firm , organizat ion, professor, et c. Your research and paper m ay have been t he work of a collaborat ive effort and you should acknowledge t his t oo giving t he nam es of all t he part icipant s.
At som e point you should ask a quest ion or som ehow t ry t o det erm ine t he at t it ude and knowledge of t he audience. How do t hey feel about t he subj ect? You will t hen have t o m odify t he cont ent s, as you never know exact ly what t o expect.
Have you ever hear d of? You m ay alr eady know … I feel sur e t hat som e of you… Ever y day you encount er To get t he audience's at t ent ion and perhaps t o find out where t hey are you could int roduce t he subj ect by saying: You've pr obably seen count less t im es You m ay have w onder ed E Give your obj e ct ive s pur pose , a im , goa ls The m ain purpose of an inform at ive speech is t o have t he audience underst and and rem em ber a cert ain am ount of inform at ion.
You should t herefore have t wo purposes: The form er is t o inform: The lat t er is what you want t he audience t o t ake away wit h t hem aft er list ening t o you, what you want t hem t o do, what t hey should rem em ber. My pur pose in doing t his paper is t o give you a solid backgr ound on t he subj ect of or al pr esent at ion skills so t hat in t he fut ur e, at t he I NT or elsew her e, you can deliver a successful speech in fr ont of a gr oup.
What I w ould like t o do t oday is t o explain t o illust r at e What I w ant m y list ener s t o get out of m y speech is I f t her e is one t hing I 'd like t o get acr oss t o you t oday it is t hat … Once you have est ablished your specific obj ect ives you m ay go on t o form ulat e your cont ent. F Announce your out line. You want t o keep t he out line sim ple so 2 or 3 m ain point s are usually enough. Concerning gram m ar t he headings of t he out line should be of t he sam e gram m at ical form.
I have divided m y pr esent at ion up int o Y par t s. In t he next sect ion I w ill explain In par t t hr ee, I am going t o show You should also let t he audience know at som e point in t he int roduct ion when and whet her t hey m ay ask quest ions. I 'd ask you t o save your quest ions for t he end. Ther e w ill be plent y of t im e at t he end of m y speech for a discussion. Please st op m e if you don't under st and any t hing I say but could you keep any specific quest ions unt il aft er I 've finished.
You should refer t o your t ransparency or out line. Now let us t ur n t o point one.