The Airport Development Reference Manual (ADRM) is a valuable reference tool for For more information, see the ADRM 11th Edition Table of Contents (pdf). Airport Development. Reference Manual. 4th Release, Effective October 10th Edition. Forecasting and Planning sections produced in. 18ADPLAN – Airport Development Reference Manual. 4. Why is IATA interested in Airport Infrastructure? ↗ IATA expects billion passengers to travel in .
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The interests of airlines and airports are very closely linked. The success of one group contributes to the success of the other. As such, airlines and airports are very close business partners. Intrinsically, best practice airport planning, including the affordability of major airport developments, is beneficial for airline customers and passengers.
It advances the collective interests of, and acts as the voice of, the world's airports and the communities they serve.
ACI's mission is to promote professional excellence in airport management and operations. This mandate is carried out through the organization's multiple training opportunities, its customer service benchmarking program as well as a wide range of conferences, industry statistical products and best practice publications. The most important relationship is with the International Civi Aviation Organization ICAO , where international standards for air transport are debated and developed.
ACI has five regional offices that play a very important role in the relationship with ACI members and the spread of best practices. The five regional offices are: They are also required to assist the Governing Board, Executive Committee and Secretariat, as appropriate. The ADRM brings together aviation industry best practices with respect to the development of world-class airports through better comprehension, briefing and design.
Its content represents the consolidated recommendations of world- renowned industry specialists and organizations seeking to promote the development of sustainable world- class airport facilities. The previous edition of the ADRM 9th Edition published in was published in traditional bound paper format.
The traditional format has some obvious constraints; most notably the difficulty of responding quickly to what is an inherently dynamic, fast-changing industry as well as the editorial need to limit the published material to manageable proportions.
The latest edition adopts a different approach that allows for more regular updates and linkages to a vast array of material contained in other relevant articles and publications prepared and monitored by recognized industry specialists, authorities and organizational partners.
In order to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by this new approach, the structure of the new manual has been completely revised and reformatted.
Material contained in earlier editions that continues to be relevant has been revamped and expanded to address the quickly evolving nature of the aviation industry. One of the key aspects of the new manual is the ability to offer a comprehensive overview of the many complex topics that are involved in any airport project, especially at large international airports.
However, the complexity associated with all airport developments means that the information contained within this manual must be carefully considered. As with any complex concept, there are many variables that are subject to different interpretations and can lead to significantly different conclusions.
Required Expertise It is recommended that all commissioning airlines, airports and government authorities select experienced professionals to assist them. IATA recognizes that international standards will vary from region to region around the world.
While the ADRM should be the initial source of design guidance for airport development, the airport design professional should always seek to clarify national standards and decide appropriately on any potentially conflicting requirements. Professional engineering and architectural guidance should be used to assess and resolve differences between the ADRM and national standards. The ADRM should be used in conjunction with relevant international and national legislation, regulations and standards.
Examples include, but are not limited to: New Format Engineering: Therefore, as stated above, it is recommended that all commissioning airlines, airports and government authorities select experienced professionals to assist them. New Format The revised format allows the new ADRM to adopt a flexible structure that can be adjusted as and when required.
The ADRM currently has two primary sections: This new edition of the ADRM is provided in an electronic format that will facilitate ongoing updates and additions. Sub-sections are referred to as chapters. In the first release of the 10th edition, the chapters focus on: Policy Airport forecasts should consider that: A robust forecast relies on: Typical long-term changes to be considered include airline strategies, airport competition, modal competition and regulation.
Forecasts should generate a range of data that can be used by planners to determine floor area, building footprint and plot sizes. Forecasts should provide a plausible and robust guide to future activity levels based upon the latest available data. Forecasts should: Any activity that could potentially create a facility need should be included in the forecast. The level of effort required to produce a planning forecast will vary significantly from airport to airport and project to project.
The use of elaborate forecasting tools and techniques may be warranted in the case of large airports and more complex projects. An existing forecast may be all that is required for simpler projects.
Stakeholders should agree on the appropriate level of forecasting effort required in the pre-planning and scoping phase of the study. Aviation activity forecasts used for airport infrastructure planning are typically developed for a to year time horizon due to the capital intensive nature of airport infrastructure projects and their life cycle. Forecasts are usually presented in five-year increments. Annual forecasts may be desirable for the first five-year period.
Aviation forecasts provide the basis for: This section provides an overview of the information required and approach to developing airport forecasts for passenger volumes, air cargo tonnage, and air transport movements ATMs. The section is organized into the following key chapters: The purpose of this chapter is to provide a context for how air carriers have added supply in response to the latent demand for air travel passenger demand and the need to ship goods air cargo demand.
The chapter also discusses the importance of understanding peak hour flows by direction and the development of day flight schedules. This chapter significantly expands on the previous version of the ADRM by providing more guidance and concrete examples. While most of the metrics used in the ADRM edition 9 remain the same, it is anticipated that further updates to recommended practices may be made as feedback is collected from the airlines and ADRM users.
The approach described in the following chapters provides guidance on how to develop forecasts of market- driven aviation demand for air service. In other words, for the purposes of estimating demand, the approach assumes facilities will be provided to meet the forecast demand. However, when there are financial, capacity or regulatory constraints, these specific cases should be applied to the outcome of the unconstrained passenger or ATM demand forecast.
Several other reference publications provide guidelines on airport traffic forecasting. The main ones are: Simply put, growth in population, income, and business activity typically lead to increased demand for air travel and the shipment of goods by air. Consequently, one of the first steps in developing an aviation activity forecast is to collect data relating to the business, economic, trade, and tourism characteristics of the regions served by the subject airport.
These help to explain the economic basis for air travel at the airport. In most cases, economy and tourism are the primary drivers of air passenger traffic while economy and trade are the main stimulus for air cargo traffic.
Air passenger demand depends on the combination of trends in the: When developing an economic base, it s essential to determine the catchment area of the airport. Understanding the region where passengers originate prior to arriving at the airport will help determine what economic data best describes the underlying market potential. Catchment areas range in size depending on the airport, its accessibility and its surrounding environment.
The passenger and cargo catchment areas of a given airport are often different. Cargo activities tend to be more concentrated in the vicinity of the airport, but cargo payloads are often transported over long distances to reach the airport. Although it can be time consuming and costly, a passenger survey is the best method of identifying the catchment area for an airport by determining where a local passenger's trip originated from.
Catchment area passenger surveys most commonly ask passengers if they are: This gives a high-level indication of the origin of a passenger's trip.
It should be noted that it is common to find overlapping airport catchment areas, particularly in large metro areas served by multiple airports. In overlapping catchment areas with more than one choice of airport, passengers typically decide to use a specific airport based on: All other variables being equal, theory dictates that passengers will tend to choose the closest airport.
In reality, homogeneity in airport choice rarely occurs. As a result, it is important to not assess the subject airport in isolation, but to understand the catchment area dynamics of the region as a whole. It should also be noted that catchment areas are dynamic and change over time, particularly in multi-airport regions. Examples of factors that could cause a catchment area to shift are: Socioeconomic historical trends and forecasts are key indicators of air service activity.
Examples include: Growth in population and employment are important indicators of the overall health of the local economy. Thus, inferences can be made relative to a resident's ability to download air travel. PCPI is calculated by dividing total income by total population. When working with socioeconomic variables over time, all currency values should be converted to constant units to eliminate any distortions resulting from inflation. Sources for socioeconomic data and statistics include: When choosing a source for socioeconomic data, it is important to check its coverage, both in terms of scope and time range historical and forecast.
When organizing the socioeconomic data to serve as input to various projections, historical and forecast data should be arranged in compatible formats. Therefore, airport forecasters will often analyze and forecast these traffic segments separately. Forecasts of transfer passengers at an airport are particularly sensitive to the strategies, networks and service densities of the carriers at the airport.
Airline passenger yields are the aviation industry's measure for average ticket prices. Yield is defined as the average revenue an airline obtains from carrying a passenger one mile or one kilometer. It reflects fare, length of haul, level of competition, carrier costs, and other factors.
Yield is a commonly accepted measure of the price of air travel, but excludes airport taxes and charges. Indeed, potential travelers make air travel decisions based primarily on the following three factors: Availability of air service; 2. Price; and 3.
Competitive prices will often cause travelers to select airports that are not necessarily the closest to where their trip begins or ends. Yields have a direct impact on the associated level of air travel demand.
When data is available, understanding historical yield trends and making inferences regarding their future direction is an important component in the forecasting process. Similarly, businesses looking to ship goods will examine the cost of shipping by air versus other transportation modes i. Air freight is typically the most expensive form of transportation, but also the most time efficient. Therefore, it will generally be used for high-value commodities per unit weight or time-sensitive goods such as fruits or fashion apparel.
Forecast analysts must understand how the cost of shipping air freight affects air cargo volumes at the subject airport versus other airports and other modes of transportation. It is important to note, however, that the availability of data makes understanding air cargo shipping costs difficult to evaluate. As with socioeconomic data, when working with historical yield and average air fares, all currency values should be converted to constant units to eliminate any distortions resulting from inflation.
Historical yield values should be arranged in the same format as the other socioeconomic variables in order to be compatible with various projection techniques. Collecting statistics about tourism trends in the airport catchment area is an important part of the forecasting process.
Tourism indicators include: Attractions that often bring visitors to a region include: Visitors to airports also drive facility requirements such as nonresident Customs and Border Protection CBP , car rentals, hotels, restaurants, retail outlets, etc.
Indeed, these trends can be explicitly modeled in aviation forecasts if the visitor data is available by city, country or world region. Moreover, the airport can also target emerging markets that have been historically less well linked to the airport's surrounding catchment area.
Understanding the number of hotel room nights and the average length of stay of passengers gives airports insight into the economic impact of tourism on the region as well as the need for development of new facilities in the future. All airports experience seasonal highs and lows in terms of their volume of activity.
Airports that cater to a high percentage of tourist traffic often exhibit more variability in their monthly traffic volumes. For example, airports near popular ski venues are used more often in winter than in the summer months. Understanding peaking patterns and seasonality characteristics is critical in the assessment of the ability of existing facilities to accommodate forecast increases in passenger and aircraft activity.
The objective of these forecasts is to size facilities so they are neither underutilized nor overcrowded too often. As previously mentioned, air cargo tends to be oriented toward high-value or time-sensitive goods. Indeed, air cargo is estimated to account for less than 10 percent of the world's freight volume, but over a third of the value of goods exchanged worldwide. The forecast analyst should seek to understand historical trade patterns, estimate future growth in trade, and evaluate the implications of trade growth for air cargo volumes at the subject airport.
It is clear that other modes of transport have the potential to affect air traffic volumes at the subject airport in both complementary and competitive manners. The forecast analyst should: Understanding the historical relationships between the economy demand and aviation activity supply at the subject airport will help form the building blocks of the forecast.
The objective of this chapter is to discuss the updating and compiling of historical data for passengers, air cargo, and aircraft movements. Passenger activity data should include all segments: Air cargo data should include all volumes for: Aircraft movement data should include: As discussed in the previous chapter, when evaluating historical activity, the analysis should include an evaluation of the importance of the airport's role in the region as well as an overview of current domestic and international air service offered at the subject airport.
The analysis should also include an evaluation of the competing air service offered at other airports serving the same catchment area.
Recommended sources for historical aviation activity data include, but are not limited to: The importance of these data sources are described below. Airport data is considered the most accurate source for historical aviation activity. It is assumed that the airport has access to historical activity statistics as well as previous forecasts that can be easily provided to the forecaster. Additionally, any future air service initiatives being implemented or considered should have been discussed with the airport.
Not all airports will have the same level of detail available. At minimum, the forecast analyst should gather historical activity data for monthly and annual enplanements by carrier as well as aircraft movements and total cargo tonnage.
The forward-looking flight schedules provide data up to 12 months in advance. Airline schedules are valuable sources for understanding air service trends at an airport in terms of: It is important to note that airline schedules capture scheduled activity i. They do not take into account flight delays or cancelations.
Freighter activity is also typically underrepresented in the airline schedules. As such, airline consultation is an important element in aviation forecasting. Airlines can provide input on market potential and how they plan to deploy aircraft in the market over the forecast period. Airline consultation is particularly important at transfer hubs where a significant proportion of the airport passenger base is a function of the dominant airline's strategy versus the economics of the local market.
This report is particularly useful when benchmarking the subject airport to other airports of interest. Available information may overlap what can be gathered from each airport, but it ensures a higher level of accuracy and consistency. The United States Department of Transportation collects arguably the most detailed set of aviation activity statistics.
It requires all operating U. Large U. This is a 10 percent sample of U. In countries where this level of detail is not available, the analyst can use the other data sources listed in this sub-chapter. Airlines and freight forwarders settle billions of dollars' worth of airfreight charges into CASS.
Because CargolS reflects actual transactions between carriers and their forwarders, the accuracy of that intelligence is indisputable. CargolS provides information on more than , airport-to-airport lanes covering over airlines and 15, agents. This database captures booking transactions from passenger name records to provide detailed information about the worldwide booking activities of airlines and travel agencies. MIDT was designed to provide airlines with competitive information to enable them to make well-informed decisions regarding existing and new route opportunities.
Data available through MIDT includes: The following factors need to be considered and examined when defining an airport's role: During this exercise, other airports in the region should be considered and studied to have a better understanding of their roles and competition within the catchment area. Defining airport roles provides insight into the capabilities of the subject airport and other airports in the region.
The purpose of this table is to determine trends over the historical period to use as context for developing the passenger forecast. To the extent data is available and reliable, the domestic and international passenger segments should be further disaggregated into historical originating and transfer connecting passengers. When analyzing historical passenger trends, it is essential to keep in mind that numerous factors may have caused demand to fluctuate over the historical period including: It is incumbent on the forecast analyst to provide not only the data time series, but also to tell the story of why demand and supply have changed over the historical period.
This will provide context for the forecasts. It answers questions such as what markets are served from the airport and why. It is imperative to research the airport's key domestic and international markets to have a better understanding of the current and future direction of air service at the airport.
This analysis also provides a geographic context for the forecast. The allocation of traffic between NMA and legacy segments is an important consideration from both a physical planning and financial feasibility perspective.
NMAs typically exhibit higher utilization, require fewer amenities, and place a significant emphasis on their costs including airport costs. In the cargo compartment, or belly, of passenger aircraft; 2.
On all-cargo aircraft freighters ; and 3. Most passenger airlines accommodate air cargo as a by-product to the primary activity of carrying passengers. They fill belly space in their aircraft that would otherwise be empty. The incremental cost of carrying cargo in a passenger aircraft is negligible, and includes only ground handling expenses and a modest increase in fuel consumption.
Road and sea substitution have become major components in the evolution of air cargo activity in the past few years. At the continental level, trucks have nearly replaced regional air freight service due to cost savings and increased efficiency. Truck services have expanded to provide transport of freight to gateway airports for consolidation. A number of air carriers also transport cargo by truck to build their own volumes.
Many air cargo facilities are operating more and more as truck terminals, yet requirements to report truck-to-truck tonnage are rare. At the intercontinental level, improved containerization has allowed sea shipments to become more competitive in terms of transportation time and reliability.
Technology advances in containerized shipping and the increasing speed of ocean-going vessels have been eroding the time advantage of air freight. Before the financial crisis, the tonnage carried by containerized ships grew at an average rate of around eight percent i. To determine historical trends for cargo tonnage at the subject airport, the forecast analyst should compile historical cargo tonnage in a time series, displaying domestic and international cargo for belly and freighter tonnage separately.
It should be noted that cargo volumes are very different from passenger volumes when it comes to directionality. Obviously, cargo does not require return flights. ATM forecasts will be developed separately for each segment; therefore, historical trends will need to be analyzed in the same manner. A time series should be developed for historical ATM volumes in each category. Forecast impact factors could include, but are not limited to: Other impact factors to consider include seasonal trends and special events that stimulate air travel.
It is recommended that all factors be considered and documented when analyzing historical trends and fluctuations at the subject airport. Defining historical and anticipated impact factors will improve the assumptions and accuracy of the aviation forecast.
A summary discussion should also be included to describe the trends and anticipated changes that may affect the development of projections of aviation activity at the airport. A competitive analysis assesses the strengths and weaknesses of current and potential competitors, including other modes of transportation.
It may be necessary to carry out different competitive analyses for each specific air traffic segment. For example: The purpose of this analysis is to display the competitive position of the subject airport versus other airports in the catchment area.
When developing a competitive analysis, consideration should also be given to the potential advantages, disadvantages, and practical limitations from the point of view of airline passengers using this airport.
An effective competitive analysis within a forecast document should provide a narrative overview with supporting graphics describing the competitive market within the region and nationally.
This is done in order to obtain an understanding of previous forecasting efforts, available data, the assumptions made, and the methodology employed. In particular, comparing the actual results with the forecast will show its predictive accuracy and validate the methodology used.
The most common techniques include: Each of these techniques has its own set of advantages and drawbacks, and they may be used independently or in combination.
The following sub chapters demonstrate appropriate forecasting techniques for various uses. In general, time series data can be described by trends, seasonal effects and cyclical effects. The first step in putting together a time series forecast is to analyze a time series of historical data for the specific market in order to determine the growth trend.
The easiest procedure for isolating the trend in a time series is to plot the historical data in graphic form, on an x and y axis. The traffic data is plotted on the vertical y axis. Time, the independent variable, is ploited on the horizontal x axis. Then a best-fit curve is obtained by minimizing the sum of the errors squared. Different curves may be tried to find the best fit, such as linear or exponential. In simple forecasts, it is possible to extend this line into the future to estimate future traffic.
Growth rates, positive or negative, can be calculated from the slope of the line. The time series technique is useful for the following situations: Time series analysis is a relatively expedient forecasting technique and, as such, is commonly used. However, one of the major limitations of a time series forecast is that there may be factors that can reasonably be expected to affect aviation activity at the subject airport in the future that are not reflected in the historical time series.
For example, many aviation markets have historically been tightly controlled by government policy and regulation, which has in turn limited growth in aviation activity. A future policy loosening these restrictions could result in aviation activity growing at a faster rate than has been experienced historically. A basic time series analysis is not able to reflect these changes in the underlying aviation environment. This approach is often used when there is a lack of historical information for the subject airport.
It is also useful to provide a context or cross-check to validate a subject airport's forecast that has been developed using more airport-specific techniques. While these forecasts are typically not developed at the airport level, they may provide a consensus outlook for aviation activity as a whole for the region where the subject airport is located.
The U. Federal Aviation Administration FAA , for example, publishes an annual aerospace forecast that contains forecasts for passengers, air cargo, and air traffic movements ATMs for the U. The growth rates promulgated in the annual forecasts are often used by planners, particularly at small U. Similarly, Airports Council International, Boeing and Airbus publish twenty year market outlooks for passenger and cargo volumes by world region. The growth rates published in these forecasts can be used as a guide as to how aviation demand may develop at the subject airport given its location and traffic mix.
It is important to be prudent when developing a forecast using the consensus forecast method. Industry forecasts may be predicting higher growth than is reasonable for the subject airport. The forecast analyst should adjust the industry growth rates accordingly when there is a disconnect between industry forecasts and historical activity at the airport.
The Delphi Method is a specific type of consensus forecast whereby a panel of experts is requested to provide their views on the future market growth through structured questionnaires. Several rounds of questionnaires are sent out. Responses are aggregated and shared anonymously with the panel after each round.
The experts are invited to adjust their answers in subsequent rounds based on the answers from the panel. This approach is used when the forecast for the larger market is more readily available or easy to produce than for the airport itself. This includes the case of large metropolitan areas with multiple airports. The market share for a specific airport can be calculated by taking the historical dataset for a specific period and dividing it by the amount of the total market over the same period.
If the share of the subject airport has exhibited relatively little variation over the historical period, extrapolating this share into the future is a reasonable and relatively efficient way of developing a forecast for the subject airport.
Equally, if the share analysis indicates increasing or decreasing shares of the larger benchmark that are readily explainable, the forecast analyst can estimate future changes in market share and apply these to the aggregate level forecast. Forecast impact factors, industry trends, and market outlooks should be considered when developing the market share forecast. By comparison, exogenous shocks such as political turmoil, terrorist attacks, weather- related disruptions e.
Air travel demand typically increases during periods of economic expansion and declines during economic contractions. Due to the strong correlation of air travel or air cargo demand with economic conditions, econometric or regression modeling is one of the most robust and commonly applied aviation forecasting techniques.
Econometric forecasting is used to demonstrate how predicted changes in the independent variables would affect future traffic. The following steps are used when developing an econometric forecast: Specify the independent variables for testing; 2. Collect data; 3.
Select a statistical model; 4. Determine the model's ability to accurately predict historical values; 5.
Evaluate combinations of independent variables in context of historical traffic patterns; 6. Use the model to derive forecast traffic values; 7. Evaluate the results in the context of historical traffic patterns; 8.
Introduce adjustments to the forecasts to reflect anticipated changes in the airport environment e. Compare with benchmarks i. The following is a list of potential independent variables that the forecaster may consider: A few additional variables may be used for air cargo, including: All data should be collected as a time series.
Economic data sets, including forecasts, can be obtained from a number of sources, such as: It is preferable to obtain the historical and forecast data from the same source. Common types are expressed either in linear or logistic format, as shown in the equations below: Linear Regression Model: The R2 statistic ranges from 0 to 1, with 1 indicating a perfect fit. The calculated predicted output of the regression model can be charted against the actual historical values for the dependent variable to provide a visual of how well the model predicts actual traffic.
There are also a number of statistical outputs that the forecast analyst should check when developing an econometric model to ensure its robustness: The goal is not necessarily to get the model with the best statistical fit, but to provide a model that is defensible based on a logical set of input assumptions independent variables and an overall understanding of the drivers of passenger demand at the subject airport. Specific models may be developed for different airport segments.
For instance, it is often observed that resident and visitor air traffic are driven by different variables. Regulation, airline strategies, airport competition and modal competition are a few of the many changes that may affect the airport future traffic. For instance, open-skies implementation or high-speed rail construction are likely not reflected in any forecasting model based on historical observations.
Therefore, the airport forecaster will identify and characterize changes that are not factored in the baseline traffic projections and study their potential impact in terms of traffic gain or loss compared to the baseline.
For long-term forecasts, the forecaster should use the most recent year reported as the base year and focus the report on planning level years, usually in five-year increments until the end of the forecast period. For short-term forecasts less than five years , a forecast should be developed for each year. It is important to identify the domestic and international breakdown between originating and transfer passengers to better evaluate the impact on the different terminal facilities at the airport i.
The level of originating passengers, both domestic and international, reflects the attractiveness of the air service region as a place to live and visit, and as a place to work and conduct business. The originating passenger forecast is a critical input to assess future demand for terminal and landside facilities i. The volume of connecting passengers reflects the quality and quantity of air service offered by domestic hub airlines and international gateway carriers, and is typically gauged by the frequency of departures and the number of destinations served.
When analyzing the results of the passenger activity forecast, the airport forecaster should incorporate: These factors will help explain the outcomes of the forecast and determine which passenger segments are being affected the most over the forecast period.
The current Boeing Current Market Outlook and Airbus Global Market Forecast passenger growth rates can be reviewed to identify benchmark forecast growth rates. In these forecasts, passenger and cargo tonnage growth is forecast by world region. These forecasts are particularly helpful when determining reasonableness for growth of international traffic, keeping in mind that they may be somewhat optimistic.
For airports in the U. The FAA TAF provides projected growth by airport for air carrier, commuter, total enplanements and aircraft movements by category. For a near-term global benchmark, IATA develops an annual airline industry forecast that can be used to analyze the latest passenger and freight traffic growth expectations for over 3, country pairs. This data source includes individual assessments of global and regional economic conditions, detailed rankings, and annual projections for the next five years.
Available in this data are detailed passenger and freighter volumes for international and domestic country pairs as well as aggregated values for region, sub-region, and country levels. Consequently, it is prudent to develop alternative scenarios that define the likely upper and lower ranges of potential demand at the subject airport. Small Airport Terminals Airline Communications Networks Passenger Processing Facilities Planning Concession Planning People Mover Systems Passenger Boarding Bridges Customs Processes Simplifying Passenger Travel Disabled Passengers and Staff Current and Future Aircraft Types Physical and Functional Requirements Gate Stands and Remote Stands Ground Handling Equipment Delivery to Apron Aviation Crisis Management Planning Principles Forecasting and Sizing Flows and Controls Perishable Cargo Mail Faciltities Aircraft Maintenance Hotels and Business Centers Road System and Curb Arrangements Checklist for the Successful Opening of a New Airport Future Technology Systems Terminal Processes Apron Processes Support Processes Baggage System User Requirements Departures Systems Transfer Systems Early Baggage Processes Arrivals Baggage Systems Control Systems Oversized Baggage Baggage Hall Design Hold Baggage Screening Project Cost Management Terminal Building Considerations Pier Area Considerations Airfield Area Considerations Airport Police Facilities Fire Response Category Frontline Operational and Security Building Services Flights by these airlines comprise more than 98 percent of all international scheduled air traffic.
Since these airlines face a rapidly changing world, they must cooperate in order to offer a seamless service of the highest possible standard to passengers and cargo shippers.
The section works to assist airlines in the development of airport facilities that will meet airline requirements in a cost-effective manner. The mandate of the section is: To take a leadership role in influencing airport planning and development orldide in order to achieve safe and efficient! Major activities of the section are defined within subsequent clauses A1. ACCs serve as a focal point for consultation between airlines and airport authorities concerning the planning of major airport expansions or the development of new airports.
Typical clients include airport authorities, private airport owners, airlines, governments, manufacturers, suppliers to the industry, consulting firms and other parties involved in airport infrastructure decisions.
For more information on the full range of lATA's Airport related activities, please visit www. The ADRM's information is an invaluable consolidation of best industry practice with respect to the development of world class airports through better design. The ADRM has been completely revised since the previous 8th edition.
These revisions and new content additions reflect recent changes within the civil aviation industry, and include entirely new chapters dedicated to security and anti-terrorism issues in particular. These address the need for authorities to run projects efficiently as they seek to create unique airport environments through world class design. Environmental issues have also been updated, primarily to promote savings in operational costs for airports which would then be passed-on to lATA's member airlines.
These recommendations have been included to focus the airport operator and designer on lATA-determined best practice design principles, and to help convey the expectations of the world's major airlines with respect to the development or refurbishing of airport facilities. To foster overall ease-of-use and help the airport planner to locate key information within the ADRM, the six chapters of the previous edition document have now been divided into twenty five more concise content sections.
The following new chapters with multiple sections have been included to broaden the coverage and scope of the publication and provide further essential airport planning guidance: Seeking additional guidance from the sources listed below will help the airport planner to ensure that best and safe practices are adhered to and built into the airport design and that national standards are observed and implemented where appropriate. While the ADRM should be the initial source of design guidance for airport developments, the airport designer should seek to clarify national mandatory standards and decide appropriately on any potentially conflicting standards.
Professional engineering and architectural guidance should be used to assess and resolve areas of conflict between the ADRM standards stated herein and any supplementary national standards. Particular reference should be made to national air transport and nationally recognized design standards, as well as to any pertinent national legislation or construction codes, as deemed applicable within the region.
The ADRM should be used in conjunction with the national legislation pertaining to the country where the airport resides. Examples of typical national legislation for consideration for the countries of Canada, United States of America and the United Kingdom include: Building Services: Fire Mitigation Engineering: Box Montreal Quebec Canada.
Experience has shown that the most useful and mutually beneficial course of action when considering airport development projects is to establish full, joint consultation between the airlines and an airport authority and its consultants. Once the principle of joint consultation has been agreed, an ACC will be established. The ACC will consolidate airline views and provide a focal point for consultation between the airlines and airport authorities concerned in the planning of major airport expansion projects or new airports in order to input airline considerations.
When considering proposals for new or additional airport facilities, ACC members must constantly bear in mind that capital and subsequent maintenance and operating costs of airport developments will be ultimately reflected in user charges. Furthermore, airline operating costs are often adversely affected by inefficient airport design orterminal construction. Airline Headquarters will be invited to nominate either a suitably qualified planning specialist or their local representative to participate in ACC meetings.
The level of expertise required will be dependent upon the scope of the project concerned.
Today, nearly all airlines are engaged in some form of partnership, code share, or marketing agreement. These have led to the formation of alliances among the world's major carriers.
Four or five global alliances dominate the airline industry, each with a need to rationalise its requirements to create the most efficient airport operations possible. To ensure that local airline views and requirements are included in the ACC proposals and effect appropriate co-ordination, the AOC will be invited to nominate a representative to participate in all ACC meetings. At airports with multiple terminal operations, individual terminal AOC Chairman will be invited to participate.
Because the ACC is the primary forum for consultation with the airport authority on all aspects of airport expansion programs, it may be necessary to obtain participation of airline representatives from other related disciplines where specific problems exist, as follows: A specialist working group of the ACC may be formed to undertake detailed studies of flight operational matters.
ATAG is a leading proponent of aviation infrastructure development, advocating the economic benefits of air transport, the industry's excellent environmental performance, and the need for major improvements in airport surface access and air traffic management capacity. ATAG's worldwide membership includes airlines, airports, manufacturers, air traffic control authorities, airline pilot and air traffic control authorities, chambers of commerce, tourism and travel associations, investment organisations, ground transport and communication providers.
Recognising that its goals need to be consistent with environmental expectations, ATAG: These include, but are not limited to: ACCs will concentrate on achieving a rational balance between: ACC activity will include an assessment of the capacity of existing facilities and a comparison against current and projected demand.
The ACC will seek as much financial information as possible to facilitate an economic assessment of various planning options in terms of layout, space requirements, labour, equipment, etc. The ACC will then meet independently to analyze the plans and develop an airline position including alternative proposals regarding the proposed project.
The ACC recommendations, which reflect the majority point of view, are presented verbally to the airport authority following the internal closed session. Every effort is made to resolve airline differences of opinion and to agree to a joint unified position. ACC meetings normally take place at the location of the proposed project. The dates of all proposed ACC meetings are usually co- ordinated to ensure adequate airline representation.
This is particularly important where very large airport development projects are concerned i. These WGs will be dissolved when a solution is found or when a satisfactory answer to a problem cannot be found. This position recognises the need for continuous airline consultation, as distinct from what may be limited consultation provided by formal and infrequent ACC meetings. The airlines may request the creation of an ACC PM position through the ACC, who will discuss the arrangements for airline funding and the budget to be allocated for the position.
They meet twice a year to review airport developments within their regions. The review includes: This includes representation from airport planning, operations and scheduling disciplines.
These committees are concerned with the day-to-day operation of the airport for which they are established. ACC representatives must ensure that their local airport managers are fully briefed regarding the work covered at each ACC meeting and the planned action for future meetings. This section provides an initial overview of the main considerations in any airport planning and development activity. Further detail on each of these elements is provided in later sections of the manual. These items impact the airport layout and the passenger terminal design and are considered to be of major importance by the airlines.
These key planning items include: Terminal Design. Check-in Hall. Airline Offices. Terminal Retail Space. Departure Gate Lounges. Baggage Claim Hall.
Apron Layout. Location of Support Facilities. The key items that affect runway capacity are a combination of: Where there are two or more runways, capacity is critically dependent upon the following aspects of the utilisation and configuration: All public roads should be clearly signposted. Clearly visible signs should be positioned on the roads and on the terminal curbside areas well in advance of desired destinations to allow drivers to make the necessary adjustments without abrupt changes.
Signs should be properly lighted for night use and lettering and background colours should enhance clarity and visibility. Messages should be concise, quickly identifiable and easily understood. Colour coding for multi-terminals, airlines, car parks, etc. Car park locations should be close to the passenger terminal.
The connection between the car park and the terminal should have weather protection and provide a safe environment with adequate lighting. Arrival and departure curbside should provide large weather protected areas for passengers getting out of and into vehicles.
Curbside check-in facilities may be required in some airports. The increasing use of rail systems should be encouraged by making it as widely available and as attractive as possible in terms of relative speed, reliability, price, convenience, safety and comfort. The airport rail station should be above ground, if possible.
The extent and location of these areas are governed by the master plan of the airport. Certain basic criteria should be observed in the planning of passenger terminals and the selection of a terminal concept.
All terminals should be interconnected to allow for horizontal passenger flows, and where walking distances may be too long for fast transfers then provision of powered walkways or other people mover systems should be considered.
Provision for multi-alliance hubbing should be respected, allowing for different alliances to be located strategically under a one-roof terminal concept. As alliances are not a stable element in planning, an appropriate factor of flexibility will need to be incorporated into any terminal space planning. Other terminal design criteria include: The airlines' acceptance of passengers and their checked baggage takes place at the check-in facility, which consists of a number of check-in counters with appropriate outbound baggage conveyance facilities.
Check-in counters may be either of the frontal type or of the island type. Within each of the two main types of counters, several variants exist. Each island, the axis of which is orientated parallel to the flow of passengers through the terminal concourse, may consist of up to individual check-in counters. The number of check-in counters per island can be doubled if two main baggage conveyor belts are installed in parallel back to back. Normally 26m separation face-to-face between adjacent islands is recommended.
The distance passengers must carry their baggage to the closest terminal check-in point should be kept to a minimum. Baggage trolleys should be available on the curbside, in the car park and at the railway station. Departure flight information displays must be available within the check-in area as well as information kiosks. Consideration should be given to the latest automatic self-service check-in kiosks with a view to maximising security, using biometrics, and minimising passenger check-in wait times.
Common Use Terminal Equipment CUTE is an airline industry term for a facility, which allows individual users to access their host computer s.
The basic idea of the CUTE concept is to enable airlines at an airport to share passenger terminal handling facilities. This includes such areas as check-in and gate counters on a common use basis, enabling airlines to use their own host computer applications for departure control, reservations, ticketing, boarding pass and baggage tag issuance, etc. CUTE may also be installed in airline offices if cost justified.
CUTE provides potential savings to the airlines and airport authorities by increased utilisation of check-in counters and gate space, thus lessening the need for airports to build additional counters and gates. The CUTE vendor should be selected in cooperation with the airlines. The system may be provided either by the airport authority or directly to the airlines. A powerful Local Area Network LAN infrastructure should be provided to allow data, video and voice transmission in both public and administrative areas of the passenger terminal.
The signage system may be a combination of fixed boards, panels and dynamic monitors signage. The signage system should be clearly separate from advertising. Airline brand name and logos should be clearly visible, allowing passengers to easily find the airline check-in or ticketing facilities. Consistent use of standard terminology in airports including pictograms will simplify the process of making the transition from the ground mode to the air mode and vice versa for the travelling public.
Message content must be understandable by the unsophisticated as well as the sophisticated traveller. Signposting should be in "mother tongue" and English. To do this, it is necessary to have clear government security standards which can be used by airport planners in such a way as to maintain the integrity of the local security programme, yet allow sufficient flexibility for them to be matched to the circumstances of each airport and its operations.
Security requirements must be realistic, economically viable and allow for a balance to be made between the needs of aviation security, safety, operational requirements and passenger facilitation. A centralized or semi-centralized passenger and carry-on baggage security check point design is favoured.
They must be properly sized, and manned, in order to avoid long queues. The baggage handling system must be able to sort large numbers of bags quickly and with a high degree of performance reliability.
With larger capacity aircraft anticipated in the next few years, the automated baggage system will become the most critical system in the airport terminal.
The baggage system to be installed must be considered early in the passenger terminal design process. Certain terminal concepts may require highly automated and costly systems, while others may need only simple conveyor belts. Where automated distribution and sorting systems are contemplated, it is generally desirable to select the baggage handling systems supplier early in the project.
This will enable the baggage handling supplier to participate in the system and facility design process, thereby avoiding expensive redesign and time consuming delays during construction and commissioning. The following principles will contribute to an efficient baggage handling system: Flow on the apron should not be impeded by any form of physical control or check. Facilities for oversized baggage must be provided. Check-in take away conveyors should be provided at each counter.
Plans for fallback handling in case of failure should be provided with all baggage handling systems. Airlines will also require administrative and additional offices located in other areas of the terminal with convenient access to the passenger processing areas.
Airline support offices are also required in the airside concourses close to their aircraft operation areas. The individual airline space requirements may be obtained using the questionnaire and procedure shown in Figure B1. Most airlines will require generously sized spaces for their exclusive use lounges. These lounges should be located on the airside of the terminal building and preferably on the departures level, with convenient access to the airlines' departure gates.
Larger airlines will tend to combine their exclusive requirements into multiple function rooms differentiated by passenger categories First Class, Business Class and others. Details of the airline space requirements for such lounges at a specific airport may be obtained using the questionnaire and procedure shown in Figure B1.
The airlines support the airport authorities in their plans to expand airport concessions provided: Claim units of a re-circulating type allow the passengers to remain stationary, while their bags are delivered to them. Separate claim units should be available for over-sized baggage. Passengers have high expectations that baggage delivery will be efficient and they will not have to wait an unreasonable amount of time to collect their bags. Once the first bag is delivered on the carousel or racetrack, passengers expect a steady flow of bags until the last bag is delivered on the claim unit.
An m separation between baggage claim units is recommended to allow enough space for passengers, trolley storage and circulation. A sufficient number of baggage trolleys should be available at the entry to the baggage claim hall. When passengers off international flights leave the baggage claim hall, they will pass through customs inspection. Once in the hall, arriving passengers may download local currency before proceeding to the curbside, car park or the train station.
Other important issues, relating to service standards, are: Service roadways should be clearly marked, with the width of each lane able to accommodate the widest piece of ground equipment. Areas such as equipment staging and parking must also be clearly marked. However, where the apron is used by a variety of aircraft, and with wide variations in aircraft servicing points, it is recommended that only the basic services catering to the majority of aircraft be provided.
Hydrant fuelling systems are preferred over mobile tankers, as they permit faster turnarounds. However, a decision to install any fixed aircraft servicing system should take place only after a careful and comprehensive appraisal of the economic return on investment prospects has been made.
The economic viability of such systems depends on a large variety of operational factors and should be assessed only in close co-operation and agreement with the headquarters specialists of the airlines serving the airport.
The following is a list of fixed aircraft servicing installations: The location of support facilities must take into account future expansion plans of the airport as shown in the airport master plan. The top rated airports usually have airport layouts that allow for efficient airline operations and passenger terminal designs that are passenger-friendly.
These airports are called "World-Class" Airports. The following lists show the items that passengers and the airlines consider important when rating an airport. Short walking distances from curbside to check-in and from check-in to aircraft gate, with no level changes.
Similarly short walking distances from the aircraft to the baggage claim area and then from Customs to the curbside or the rail station. Attractive architecture and landscaping to provide a pleasant, relaxing atmosphere. Short queues at all check points such as check-in, security, passport control and boarding. Good aircraft on-time departure performance. Fast baggage delivery and ample baggage trolleys. Clear and concise signage.
Good variety of retailers. Good selection of moderately priced eating establishments. A master plan that optimises the location of key functions on the airport and allows for orderly expansion. A runway layout that maximises runway capacity and allows adequate space for apron and terminal expansion. A runway and taxiway layout that minimises aircraft taxing distances. An apron layout with energy efficient aircraft ground support equipment, sufficient and well-located staging areas for baggage, cargo and ground equipment with enough space for several ground handlers, and no cul de sacs dead ends that impede aircraft manoeuvring.
An attractive work place for airline staff, but with a terminal that doesn't put architectural design ahead of an efficient airline operation and a terminal that provides sufficient and suitably located airline accommodation space including the needs of alliance airlines. Excellent airport shopping for airline passengers that doesn't interfere with passenger flows between the check-in area and the aircraft gate, and yet provides the airport with commercial revenues that help reduce airline user charges.
An airport with reasonable user charges. An airport authority that can see the mutual benefits of working with the airlines in planning major facility changes.
The airport staff should be friendly and the public areas of the passenger terminals, especially toilets, must be clean. Also, airline and government processes must allow passengers to move quickly through the terminal building, from the departures curbside to the aircraft door and from the aircraft door to the arrivals curbside. To guide airport authorities towards becoming a world-class hub airport, the following is a checklist of generic criteria that must be met: No restrictions on airspace capacity.
No conflict with other close airports or military traffic restrictions. No threat to schedule integrity or reliability from airspace or ATC issues. Runway capacity routinely in excess of 75 movements per hour.
No limiting curfews. All-weather operations. Regular and reliable transport links to closest major city; a rapid rail service is the preferred option, if economically viable. Capacity to handle large traffic peaks with high activity during the peaks. Spacing of runways, taxiways, taxilanes to allow Code F aircraft operations. Dedicated locations for competing ground equipment parking and container storage racking. Passenger erminals Sufficient airport and terminal facilities to allow airlines to meet their own airline service standards at a reasonable cost see Figure B2.
MCTs must be competitive with competing regional airports. Adequate facilities to allow single airlines or alliance airlines to complex flights within published MCT. Terminal facilities to accommodate complex peak demand. The following tables on Airport Passenger Terminal Planning Standards summarize airline requirements for a 'world-class' passenger terminal: A DA-D! Planning Element Planning! This benchmarking tool explores passengers' 'on-the-day' experience of an airport on a wide range of service elements on a worldwide basis.
The questionnaire is distributed to passengers in the departure lounges airside minutes prior to departure. Each airport receives approximately questionnaires per quarter.
The survey is carried out according to a precise sampling plan constructed with the airport management, ensuring the sample is representative of the airport's traffic mix. The 24 airport service attributes include: Flight information screens. Availability of flights to other cities. Ease of making connections with other flights. Availability of baggage carts. Courtesy, helpfulness of airport staff excluding check-in.
Shopping facilities. Business facilities i. Passport and Visa inspection. Security inspection. Customs inspection. Cleanliness of airport terminal. Speed of baggage delivery service, previous experience. Parking facilities. Sense of security. Ambience of the airport.
Overall satisfaction with airport. Value for money for shopping facilities. Value for money for parking facilities. Figure B shows the rankings of the Top 10 Airports from IO AI-E At an early stage in an airport project, specific airline space and facility requirements must be determined. Therefore, before circulation, the airlines and the airport authority should agree both on the sections to be used, and any variation in their content.
Responses from each airline are kept confidential. Estimates of rental rates for leasing space should be available to the airlines early in the planning process. The rental rates usually affect the amount of space that an airline will request. At airports where more than one terminal building is involved, it may be necessary to complete separate questionnaire sections for each building.
Requirements associated directly with staff numbers should be based on the maximum number of staff on duty on a particular shift. Care should be taken not to use cumulative figures of total staff employed, although provision must be included for shift changeover, when assessing car parking requirements, locker room areas, etc. Airlines intending to be handled by third parties should only specify those requirements which would not be provided by the handling agent.
Check-in Counters No. Self-Service Counters No. IR1 E'perience has shon that the most effective and mutuall" eneficial course of action for the airlines is to esta lish consultation ith the aiiport authorit" and its consultants as earl" as possi le to e'plore alternative airport plans and terminal concepts. An airport authorit" should ensure that its consultants planning the airport terminal incorporate these planning standards and recommended practices into the design of the airport passenger terminal.
The strategic proposal should look at existing air traffic control as well as runway and terminal capacities and then should define strategic objectives for the phased expansion or development of new or existing airports. An example whereby this holistic strategic approach has been well adopted can be cited by the British government Department for Transport , which created and developed The South East and East of England Regional Consultation Document.
This document included proposals for different amounts of new runway capacity as well as options that limit development in the South East of England at a strategic level.
While the SERAS document is specific to the region in question, it does demonstrate the necessary level of governmental strategic thinking that is required and represents an excellent benchmark in this regard for governments worldwide. Generally the formal planning sequence which is followed is denoted by the following stages. Stage 1. Stage 2. Stage 3. Review of Local Community's Sensitivities. Stage 4. Refinement of Master Plan.
Stage 5. Planning Application. Stage 6. Planning Appeal as necessary. Stage 7. Planning Decision. The traditional format has some obvious constraints; most notably the difficulty of responding quickly to what is an inherently dynamic, fast-changing industry as well as the editorial need to limit the published material to manageable proportions.
The latest manual adopts a completely different web-based approach which will allow both for regular updates and linkages to a vast array of material contained in other relevant articles, publications and databases prepared and monitored by recognized industry specialists, authorities and organizational partners.
In order to take full advantage of the opportunities offered by this new approach the structure of the new manual has been completed revised and reformatted though much of the material contained in earlier editions has been retained and developed as appropriate.
One of the key aspects of the new manual is the ability to offer a comprehensive overview of the many complex topics that are inevitable involved at any airport, especially large international airports. However the complexity associated with all airport developments means that the information contained within the manual must be treated with great care as frequently there are many variables from which it is possible to derive several different interpretations.
IATA strongly recommends that any commissioning airline, airport or government authority selects experienced professionals to assist them; there are many instances across the world where well-meaning but inexperienced architects and consulting engineers have misunderstood or misinterpreted complex data and consequently delivered wholly inappropriate solutions.
The web-based format allows the new ADRM to adopt a flexible structure that can be adjusted as and when required. Airlines and airports are very close business partners.
Intrinsically, best practice airport planning, including the affordability of major airport developments, is beneficial for airline customers and passengers. Toggle navigation Menu.