13 mar. Em , o povoado de Vilhena era subdistrito do distrito Rondônia e pertencia ao município de Porto Velho, tinha aproximadamente The State of Rondônia makes 6,16% of North Brazilian region and is located .. Campana A. “História e Geografia de Rondônia,” Composição. 1º Ciclo Da Borracha Historia de Rondônia. by lucas_cosma. Copyright: © All Rights Reserved. Download as DOCX, PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd.
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Esta é uma lista de governadores de Rondônia. O "Território Federal do Guaporé " foi criado . História de Rondônia · Governadores de Rondônia · Listas de governadores do Criar um livro · Descarregar como PDF · Versão para impressão. Os municípios de Rondônia são as subdivisões oficiais do estado brasileiro de Rondônia, . Referências. ↑ Brasil Chanel. «Rondônia (RO) - Dados gerais». Consultado em 1º de julho de ; ↑ «População dos Municípios » (PDF). Veronica Aguiar, Fundação Universidade Federal de Rondônia (UNIR), História Department, Adjunct. Studies Historical Sources, Goths, and Roman Epigraphy.
As mentioned previously, the outdoors HRB values are 5—10 folds greater than indoors. The number of annual bites per person was estimated to have been 2,—10, indoor and 10,—50, outdoor. More surprising was the absence of mosquitoes harboring sporozoites of malaria parasites resulting in the absence of significance Entomological Inoculation Rate EIR.
In the absence of a significant EIR, even considering the oocyst positivity, in other words, a very low transmission rate.
In consequence, each locality presents about clinical malaria cases per year, with a tendency of decreasing in recent years. Close prevalence's were observed in other riverside localities of the Madeira River, upstream or downstream to the HPP areas Katsuragawa, personnal communication.
The presence, in both localities of facilities for the diagnosis and treatment of malaria, results in the occurrence of only rare cases of severe malaria in need of hospitalization, and complete absence of mortality.
The situation could therefore be defined as of relative stability. The real calculated API would be, after correction, These figures still represent very high incidences, in contrast with much lower API values that we have defined for the permanent residents of the localities, between to Table 2 , that is still high, but much lower. A total number of malaria cases of in were P.
In our databank malaria incidence among residents could be re-calculated showing a total of cases, 82 being of P. They spent from few days to few weeks in the area, using camping tents or shacks which remain empty for part of the year. The rudimentary housing makes this temporary population very exposed to outdoor mosquito bites and malaria transmission.
The present investigation of localities of the Madeira river describes the process by which epidemic outbreaks of malaria can and do occur in riverside areas. The presence of asymptomatic malaria carriers, in addition to symptomatic malaria infections, provide an important source of parasites. Combined with the high density of Anopheles mosquitoes in the riverside areas they are responsible for malaria outbreaks, particularly due to the arrival of additional population groups.
The arrival of hundreds of fishermen, at the end of the rainy season, produces micro epidemic outbreaks that increased the malaria incidence by a 2. The arrival of thousands of newcomers in the near future, recruited by the Hydroelectric enterprise, to the riverside areas and the vicinity of Federal Highway BR , attracted by secondary jobs underscores the potential for extensive spread of malaria infections.
We will now consider the possible reasons for the high incidence and predominance of vivax malaria observed by us, as well as concentration of malaria cases in a fraction of the dwellings of permanent residents of both localities in relation to the vectorial capacity of An. We showed that malaria cases among the riverside residents in both localities are not distributed randomly amongst the dwellings, but concentrate in only a fraction of them. Other facts, however, consistent with indoors transmission were observed both in the present study and described in a previous paper 11 that may be summarized as follows: Female mosquitoes' absent until this time increase quickly to maximum densities at 10 p.
Experiments performed by our group eliminate the possibility of female mosquitoes returning to the same or nearby house Gil, personal communication , where they had previously fed.
Since the classical work of Colluzzzi and collaborators  , a large number of investigators have studied on the molecular identification of mosquito attractants. These efforts concentrated on Aedes and Culex , but some studies were also done on the African malaria vector, Anopheles gambiae. The crystal structure of an odorant-binding protein from An. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of ammonia, lactic and carboxylic acids, all components of human sweat, more actively secreted during fever episodes, has been described in the host-seeking behavior of A.
Our present observations and the factorial analysis of malaria cases clusters in a fraction of the residences suggest that other factors, besides the distance to the mosquitoes' breeding sites and the number of residents in the house contribute to concentration of cases in some of the houses.
This could be the sweating due to fever associated with the malaria infection might attract the additional mosquitoes bites. No data are available for An.
Meanwhile studies on other Anophele s species indicate that An. Interestingly, this Anopheles is consistently the predominant species in malaria endemic areas  ,  ,  ,  , . Laboratories studies on An. These studies, however, were done using human volunteers selected in view of their high number of circulating gametocytes Tada personal communication. Its real vectorial capacity has not been precisely defined in field studies.
Most fields studies using human based attraction for mosquitoes' capture indicate five to ten times higher outdoor than indoor densities of Anopheles darlingi  ,  , . This led to the notion that malaria transmission in the site region was mainly due to outdoor mosquito bites. However, when in the same studies, malaria transmission was evaluated by EIR, a surprisingly low rate usually less than 1 was found in areas with API values of to1, These numbers contrast with those found for An.
In that case EIR values of 10 that have been reported in urban areas and of 15 to77 in suburbs of African cities . In the present study, we emphasize the possible importance of indoor malaria transmission for the stable resident of the riverside localities, a possibility that needs further investigation. Outdoor transmission seems to be important only for temporary residents or visitors such as fishermen living in camping tents or provisory shacks.
Evidently night shift workers will be at risk of outdoor malaria transmission. In view of these observations new control measures of malaria transmission must be introduced in order to pursue two goals: The first objective must be the central goal of the new control program and must be developed taken into consideration the characteristics of endemic riverside malaria, using a permanent surveillance of the localities, demographic control of the population by Health Agents.
This implicate in active search of malaria infections. The observed high prevalence of asymptomatic malaria carriers in the area, as possible source of infections, would indicate also the interest in their treatment. However, to be done, this needs a considerably increase in qualified personnel and investments in new equipments for systematic use of PCR for diagnosis and engagements for continuity of the intervention.
However, it must be considered that all the sub urban and rural areas of Porto Velho municipality under study correspond to the area of impact by the construction of Hydroelectric Power Plans. The project has received important financial funds, from the Government and from the private enterprises in charge of the constructions, including for permanent investment in public health This would create a favorable opportunity to evaluate the impact of the treatment of asymptomatic carriers as well as the chemoprophylaxis of relapses of P.
The second objective will be reached when immigrant population will have access to Basic Primary Health Services in the localities to be settled. Special measures will be required for hydroelectric workers, at night shifts, working in riverside areas with large mosquito populations.
Periodic health control, with parasitological examination, by sensitive molecular diagnostic procedures PCR , will be essential. Night shift workers should be rotated and they should use chemoprophylaxis for P.
Conceived and designed the experiments: Performed the experiments: Analyzed the data: Wrote the paper: Revised the paper: Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field. February 16, Copyright: Figure 1. Porto Velho City and a general view of the Madeira River valley.
Study Design The study was based on combined demographic, clinical, parasitological, epidemiological and entomological analyses. Malaria Surveillance The baseline survey was continued by a prospective follow-up with the periodic visit 5 times a week of the inhabitants, asking particularly about febrile episodes followed by active search of malaria parasites in every individual who presented fever or other symptoms of malaria.
Malaria Incidence and Definitions Following the Brazilian Ministry of Health criteria, a malaria case was defined by the presence of clinical symptoms associated to the presence of parasites in the microscopic examination. Malaria Treatment Patients suffering of vivax or falciparum clinical malaria episodes were treated according to the instructions of the Brazilian Ministry of Health Malaria Treatment Manual . Statistical Analysis Exploratory analysis. Results Base Line Survey and Malaria Prevalence The clinical and parasitological base line survey performed by our team, after the preliminary demographic census, permitted to establish the parasite rate index of inhabitants with 5 years of age or more in both localities Table 1.
Table 1. Table 2. Table 3. Houses' Concentration of Vivax Clinical Cases As shown in Table 3 , malaria transmission occurred only in some of the households where they concentrate in number of cases. Table 4. Role of Vivax Relapses A partial explanation for the multiple numbers of P. Table 5.
Figure 4. Vivax and falciparum malaria cases monthly distribution. Table 6. Discussion The present investigation of localities of the Madeira river describes the process by which epidemic outbreaks of malaria can and do occur in riverside areas.
Nussenzweig for revision of the manuscript. Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: References 1. Accessed 22 August Am J Trop Med Hyg View Article Google Scholar 3. Sawyer DR Malaria on the site frontier: J Trop Med Public Health 17 3: View Article Google Scholar 4.
Accessed 30 September View Article Google Scholar 7. View Article Google Scholar 8. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 95 2: View Article Google Scholar Journal of Medical Entomology 42 5: High prevalence of asymptomatic carriers in an urban riverside district is associated with a high level of clinical malaria.
Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 3: J Am Mosq Control Assoc 6: Rev Soc Bras Med Trop Am J Trop Med Hyg 44 6: Rev Soc Bras Med Tropical 25 supl. Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz Mem Inst Oswaldo Cruz 91 6: Perennial transmissions with high anopheline densities are associated with human environmental changes. J Med Entomol 40 5: Acta Trop Um caso de escola. Estud av USP 22 Mol Biochem Parasitol Impresso MS, Brasilia.
Editora Fiocruz, Rio de Janeiro — Bichem Biophys Res 1: Chemical Senses 30 2: Deane LM Malaria vectors in Brazil. Avila-Pires et al. Bernarde, Obs. Posteriormente, Curcio et al.
O exemplar fotografado em Porto Velho Figura 6a possui 37 subcaudais, demonstrando ser A. Bibliografia: Avila-Pires et al. Bibliografia: Passos et al. Bibliografia: Jorge-da-Silva e Avila-Pires et al.
Bibliografia: Griffin e Jorge-da-Silva Bibliografia: Franco et al. Bibliografia: Fernandes et al. Entretanto, O. Bibliografia: Jorge-da-Silva Vanzolini registrou O. Bibliografia: Lema et al. Bibliografia: Keiser , Prudente et al. Bibliografia: Zaher et al. Bibliografia: Jorge-da-Silva , Prudente et al. Bibliografia: Bailey et al.
Bibliografia: Jorge-da-Silva , Yuki et al. Nome vulgar: Coral, cobra-coral e coral-verdadeira. Bibliografia: Vanzolini , Jorge-da-Silva , Fernandes et al.
Molecular phylogeny, classification, and biogeography of snakes of the Family Leptotyphlopidae Reptilia, Squamata. Zootaxa Taxonomic revision of the Neotropical water snake Hydrops triangularis.
Diet and feeding behaviour of the Neotropical parrot snake Leptophis ahaetulla in northern Brazil. Linhas Telegraph.