Graham hancocks underworld ebook


 

Read "Underworld The Mysterious Origins of Civilization" by Graham Hancock available from Rakuten Kobo. Sign up today and get $5 off your first download. Postscript 1 / The Underworld in the Gulf of Cambay Appendix 4 / Comments by Graham Hancock on the NIO Statement of 9 April Editorial Reviews. From Publishers Weekly. Already a huge success in England, this lengthy Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization by [Hancock, Graham]. Audible Sample. Audible Sample. Playing Playing Loading Loading.

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Graham Hancocks Underworld Ebook

Results 1 - 10 of 18 download Graham Hancock eBooks to read online or download in PDF or ePub on your PC, Underworld: The Mysterious Origins of Civilization. A worldwide exploration diving for the underwater ruins of a lost civilization. Underworld: Flooded Kingdoms of the Ice Age, by Graham Hancock. Underworld takes you on a remarkable journey to the bottom of the ocean in a thrilling hunt for ancient Underworld by Graham Hancock. download download the Ebook.

A physical and intellectual journey, a worldwide exploration diving for the underwater ruins of a lost civilization, this book follows clues in ancient scriptures and mythlogy and in the scientific evidence of the flood that swept the Earth at the end of the last Ice Age. This text explores the question of early humans swept away by the catastrophe. Who were these populations — pre-civilised hunter-gatherers or more sophisticated peoples altogether? The text is written as a personal adventure involving the reader in the travels, the practicalities and the risks while developing the larger themes along the way, building up to the explosive revelation of a global mystery. The question was, or is still, is it and, if yes, to what extent is it made by man or overworked by man? This is the question. I was in Tokyo in when the photojournalist Ken Shindo showed me the first images I had ever seen of an awe-inspiring terraced structure, apparently a man-made monument of some kind, lying at depths of up to 30 metres off the Japanese island of Yonaguni at the remote south-west end of the Ryukyu archipelago. I felt an immediate compulsion to explore the beautiful and mysterious structure that beckoned so alluringly from the photographs. And I realised that it would rewrite prehistory if it could indeed be proved to be man-made. I described in Chapter One how Santha and I learned to dive, and the remarkable synchronicities and good fortune that brought us to Yonaguni in March to begin a systematic programme of underwater photography and research there that was to continue until mid

How much work have you done on sea level change as a dating guide? And how big a factor is the possibility of sudden maybe recent land subsidence as a result of earthquake? If this area had subsided by movement it would be due to earthquakes and faulting, but there is no active fault nearby, the fringing coast is continuous, and between the beach and Iseki Point, there is no discontinuity or fault.

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WOLF: I see. GH: That makes things fairly clear then.

It leaves us with the sea level issue on its own to base a date on, without complicating factors, which is great. At least we can be clear on one thing. WOLF: I think that questions for sea level rise are very fairly proved by scientific evidence here in the area.

WOLF: No, no not at all. No, the question was, or is still, is it and, if yes, to what extent is it made by man or overworked by man? This is the question. WOLF: Yes. But almost nobody else is working on it, I think, at the moment? So that is a marvel. It is a very beautiful formation. I prompted.

It stands in 18 metres of water metres to the west of the terraces of the main monument. When above sea level or 10, years ago I suggest that it was originally a natural and untouched rocky knoll rising about 6 metres above ground level. A curving sloped ramp 3 metres wide was then cut into the side of the knoll and a retaining wall to the full height of the original mound was left in place enclosing and protecting the outside edge of the ramp.

I lead Wolf to the base of the ramp and as we swam up it I pointed out how the outer curve of the inner wall — which rises two metres above the floor of the ramp and is formed by the body of the mound — is precisely matched by the inner curve of the outer wall, which also rises to a height of two metres above the ramp floor, so that both walls run perfectly parallel. Moreover when we swam up and over the rim of the outer wall we could see that its own outer curve again exactly matches the curves within and that it drops sheer to the sea-bed — as it should if it is indeed a purposeful wall and not simply a natural structure.

I showed Wolf that the ramp floor itself, though battered and damaged in places, must originally have had a smooth, flat surface. I also showed him what I believe may have been the function of the ramp. And it rises from here around to this corner and, in fact, if we follow it all the way round it leads us to a view of the megaliths. Now this wall is not a bank.

Underworld

It is a wall. GH: Above this above this ramp, whatever you want to call it. So I simply cannot understand the combination of clean bedrock here [indicates the ramp floor], admittedly very eroded and damaged — but clean bedrock here, and these heavily overgrown walls, which are definitely wall-like in appearance and rather high in the sense that they have an outer and an inner edge, and the curve of the outer edge matches the curve of the inner edge; and the same on the other wall.

He therefore drew my attention now to a place on land on Yonaguni called Sananudai that we had taken a look at the day before where he had shown me wall-like formations — admittedly only half a metre high — that had been formed entirely naturally: WOLF: Okay, this is a real challenge to solve. But if you remember, the day before we have been on a platform on land — I forgot the name of the point — GH: Sananudai?

WOLF: Right, correct. And by chance we went further down near the sea, and I showed you these encrustation patterns and maybe you remember that I.. GH: I remember distinctly; you told me that a hard patina formed on the outside of the rock and that the water softened out the inside, leaving a wall -like shape in place.

WOLF: Correct. And on the other side, the relatively soft sandstone had already begun to be removed. I mean what I saw at Sananudai was actually no curved walls running in parallel with each other, but rather straight and they were about half metre high.

WOLF: They were at beginning stage. And if you had a look closer down, you would have seen that there was a little curving, not as clear as this, I have to admit. GH: So would you want to explain those walls [on either side of the ramp] that way, as a hard patina which was preserved, and the soft part was cut out? WOLF: At first, and then subsequently overgrown by organisms as we saw. But to get clear what that really is, so I underline repeatedly, it is a challenge, and this is the first and only explanation I have for this.

Are they made of single patterns like stones or something? I think they cut down into the living rock, and they created the walls by cutting, and then later on the encrustation came and grew on top of the walls. WOLF: I mean, if this was the case, then it would still be very useful to have a look on the core of these. It would tell us exactly what sort of material it was — was it soft sandstone, was it hard mudstone or what else?

And we would be possibly able to find any marks on them, which then would give us the clear proof GH: So what we have here is a bit of a puzzle which needs some serious research done on it. The Tunnel and The Megaliths On our second dive we visited the twin megaliths, weighing approximately tonnes each, stacked side by side like two huge slices of toast in a west-facing alcove in the northwest corner of the main monument.

As noted earlier, a prime side-on view of these hulking rectangular blocks unfolds from the top of the curved sloping ramp explored on the first dive. The knoll in turn co-joins other massive, heavily overgrown structures presumed to be outcrops of natural bedrock which form an almost continuous barricade, three metres high and five metres thick, thrown out in a loose semi-circle in front of the megaliths — all at roughly metres water depth.

The barricade is penetrated at only one point, and there only by a narrow tunnel a little over a metre wide and about a metre and a half high through which a scuba diver swimming horizontally may pass comfortably.

There is insufficient room to stand up within the tunnel, indeed barely enough even to crouch, so when it was above water or 10, years ago any human entering it would have been obliged to crawl through to the other side. The swim ahead to the base of the megaliths is a matter of 20 metres and you observe immediately at this point that they do not stand on the sea-bed but are elevated about two metres above it, with their bases resting on a platform of boulders, and framed in a cleft.

The side of the cleft to your right is formed by the rear corner of the main terraced monument; the side to your left is formed by a lower ridge of rock which also shows signs, though to a lesser degree, of terracing.

Both megaliths slope backwards at the same angle against the cleft and both are the same height just over six metres. Both megaliths taper at top and bottom so that the gap between them, about the width of a fist at the midpoint, is not constant. Although roughened, eroded and pitted with innumerable sea-urchin holes, the megaliths can still be recognised as essentially symmetrical blocks, all the faces of which appear originally to have been smoothed off to match — although, again, whether the process that brought this effect about was entirely natural, or at some point involved the input of human skill and labour, remains thus far a matter of a very few contradictory professional opinions and no facts.

I allowed myself to float up, towards the surface, along the slope of the megaliths, resting my hand in the gap between them as a guide. The light was good and I could see right into the gap; looking back at me from the far recesses a plump red fish eyed me with horror and hoped that I would go away. As I neared the top of the megaliths, submerged under just five metres of water, I began to feel the ferocious wash of waves pounding against the surrounding rocks.

I clung on and for a few moments allowed my body to be tugged back and forth by the swell. Enshrouded in a cloud of foam I could see the northwest corner of the main monument still rising above me the final few metres towards the surface. After the dive Wolf and I again discussed what we had seen and quite soon, after some fruitless trading of opinion, our argument began to focus around a single — potentially decisive — issue. Had these very striking parallel megaliths been quarried, shaped and lowered into position beside the northwest corner of the main monument by human beings?

Or had they arrived there through wholly natural processes? Explain to me how those blocks got there. WOLF: Okay. You have seen lots of blocks fallen down — GH: All over the place. WOLF: — from beddings which have been broken, which were harder than the underlying layers; because what happens is that you get an an undercurving and undercutting of softer material under harder banks. So in my belief, these two blocks have been once one block of two sandstone banks, with either softer material in between or nothing in between, just only the bedding limits.

GH: Well, I want to know how they got where they are now. My opinion is that these blocks have fallen down from a very, very high level, relative to their present situation. GH: But no high point overlooks them. GH: Well, yes, fair enough, nowadays. Nowadays you would have to go back in a northward direction some 50 or 60 meters, maybe more, horizontally, before you reached the cliff.

GH: That we agree on. WOLF: So then there could have been places of a higher position from which these stones could have fallen down. GH: So you are hypothesizing a pre-existing higher place from which these fell? So what this may be then — GH: Do you agree with me that this place[Indicates top of northwest corner of main monument metres above top of megaliths] is not sufficiently high? The place we see immediately above it now? You could feel the swell hitting you quite hard and the foam above your head very strong.

GH: No? GH: So we need a hypothetical high place to do it? GH: — capable of moving it here. WOLF: Yes, of course, yes, yes no doubt about it. GH: So we have two hypotheticals there.

Add to Cart. About Underworld What secrets lie beneath the deep blue sea? Also by Graham Hancock. See all books by Graham Hancock. Product Details. Inspired by Your Browsing History. Related Articles. Looking for More Great Reads? Download our Spring Fiction Sampler Now. Download Hi Res. LitFlash The eBooks you want at the lowest prices. Read it Forward Read it first. Pass it on! The human head and associated platform with an approach road are suggestive of an area of worship or community gatherings.

The entry to these caves was possible only through the large 1 metre radius holes on the cave roof. Inside the cave a boulder about 1 metre diameter engraved with carvings was observed.

About m towards the eastern side of the caves more rock engravings were noticed on the bedrock. These rock engravings are believed to be man-made. Once upon a time these caves were probably on the land and were later submerged. The rock engravings inside the cave and on the bedrock were probably carved out by means of a tool of some sort. However, it is very difficult to say that these are rock art of this or that period, or a script. Diving operations revealed two big rectangular blocks measuring 6 metres in height, about 2.

These blocks have been located in between two natural rock outcrops. The approach way to these megaliths is through a tunnel measuring about 3 m long, 1 m high and 1 m width. The shape, size and positioning of these megaliths suggest that they are man-made.

In light of this practice, it may be worthwhile to suggest that, these megaliths might have been used as objects of worship. However a thorough investigation in this regard is necessary before assigning a definite purpose to these megaliths.

The terraced structures with a canal are undoubtedly man-made, built by cutting an existing huge monolithic outcrop. The monolith rock-cut human head and associated platform might have served as an area of worshiping or community gatherings. I also have one marine geologist, Masaaki Kimura, who believes the same thing, a second, Robert Schoch, who is undecided, and a third, Wolf Wichmann who is convinced that they are natural.

I decided when I got the opportunity that I should try to dive at Yonaguni with Wichmann and see if I could change his mind. To this end, a few months after the Der Spiegel article appeared, I made the following statement on my website:.

I would like to offer a challenge to Wolf Wichmann Let us agree a mutually convenient time to do, say, 20 dives together at Yonaguni over a period of about a week. I will show you the structures as I have come to know them, and give you every reason why I think that the monuments must have been worked on by human beings.

You will do your best to persuade me otherwise. In March , on a mini-expedition funded by Channel 4 Television, Wichmann took up my challenge. A small, wiry, dark-haired, unpretentious man, I liked him the moment I met him, and continued to do so throughout the week that we spent diving in Japan and arguing, in a mood of amiable disagreement, about what we were seeing underwater. Predictably we did not reach a consensus: Wolf left Yonaguni still holding most of the opinions with which he had arrived, and so did I.

But I think that we each gave the other some worthy points to ponder. I started the ball rolling with a general question for Professor Kimura concerning the age of the structure:. People can argue for the next five centuries about whether what we see underwater at Yonaguni is manmade or artificial. But one thing which we can hopefully get clear is how old it is when it was submerged? So the first question I want to ask you is what is your view of the age of this structure?

The last time that it was above water? This construction has been submerged since years ago, because the coralline algae attaching to the wall of this structure shows years. It dates the organism, not the structure. So then you can only say that the structure is older than that, but how much older is not sure. How much work have you done on sea level change as a dating guide? And how big a factor is the possibility of sudden maybe recent land subsidence as a result of earthquake?

If this area had subsided by movement it would be due to earthquakes and faulting, but there is no active fault nearby, the fringing coast is continuous, and between the beach and Iseki Point, there is no discontinuity or fault. That makes things fairly clear then. It leaves us with the sea level issue on its own to base a date on, without complicating factors, which is great.

At least we can be clear on one thing. I think that questions for sea level rise are very fairly proved by scientific evidence here in the area. No, no not at all. No, the question was, or is still, is it and, if yes, to what extent is it made by man or overworked by man?

GH [speaking to Prof Kimura]: But almost nobody else is working on it, I think, at the moment? So that is a marvel. It is a very beautiful formation.

On our first dive at Yonaguni I took Wolf to a very curious structure that I had discovered in late June It stands in 18 metres of water metres to the west of the terraces of the main monument.

When above sea level or 10, years ago I suggest that it was originally a natural and untouched rocky knoll rising about 6 metres above ground level.

A curving sloped ramp 3 metres wide was then cut into the side of the knoll and a retaining wall to the full height of the original mound was left in place enclosing and protecting the outside edge of the ramp.

I lead Wolf to the base of the ramp and as we swam up it I pointed out how the outer curve of the inner wall — which rises two metres above the floor of the ramp and is formed by the body of the mound — is precisely matched by the inner curve of the outer wall, which also rises to a height of two metres above the ramp floor, so that both walls run perfectly parallel.

Moreover when we swam up and over the rim of the outer wall we could see that its own outer curve again exactly matches the curves within and that it drops sheer to the sea-bed — as it should if it is indeed a purposeful wall and not simply a natural structure. I showed Wolf that the ramp floor itself, though battered and damaged in places, must originally have had a smooth, flat surface.

I also showed him what I believe may have been the function of the ramp. And it rises from here around to this corner and, in fact, if we follow it all the way round it leads us to a view of the megaliths. Now this wall is not a bank. It is a wall. Above this above this ramp, whatever you want to call it. So I simply cannot understand the combination of clean bedrock here [indicates the ramp floor], admittedly very eroded and damaged — but clean bedrock here, and these heavily overgrown walls, which are definitely wall-like in appearance and rather high in the sense that they have an outer and an inner edge, and the curve of the outer edge matches the curve of the inner edge; and the same on the other wall.

The most impressive thing for me was the wall, the wall which is totally covered by living organisms nowadays, which should be removed to have a look at the structure of that wall, which can also be explained as having been done possibly by nature, but to get it sure we have to do deep research on that. Nevertheless Wolf would not have been Wolf if he had not at least attempted to comeup with a calm, level-headed and unsensational geological explanation for the problem.

He therefore drew my attention now to a place on land on Yonaguni called Sananudai that we had taken a look at the day before where he had shown me wall-like formations — admittedly only half a metre high — that had been formed entirely naturally:.

Okay, this is a real challenge to solve. But if you remember, the day before we have been on a platform on land — I forgot the name of the point —. Right, correct. And by chance we went further down near the sea, and I showed you these encrustation patterns and maybe you remember that I.. I remember distinctly; you told me that a hard patina formed on the outside of the rock and that the water softened out the inside, leaving a wall -like shape in place.

And on the other side, the relatively soft sandstone had already begun to be removed. I mean what I saw at Sananudai was actually no curved walls running in parallel with each other, but rather straight and they were about half metre high. They were at beginning stage. And if you had a look closer down, you would have seen that there was a little curving, not as clear as this, I have to admit.

So would you want to explain those walls [on either side of the ramp] that way, as a hard patina which was preserved, and the soft part was cut out?

At first, and then subsequently overgrown by organisms as we saw. But to get clear what that really is, so I underline repeatedly, it is a challenge, and this is the first and only explanation I have for this.

Are they made of single patterns like stones or something? I think they cut down into the living rock, and they created the walls by cutting, and then later on the encrustation came and grew on top of the walls. I mean, if this was the case, then it would still be very useful to have a look on the core of these.

It would tell us exactly what sort of material it was — was it soft sandstone, was it hard mudstone or what else?

And we would be possibly able to find any marks on them, which then would give us the clear proof. On our second dive we visited the twin megaliths, weighing approximately tonnes each, stacked side by side like two huge slices of toast in a west-facing alcove in the northwest corner of the main monument.

As noted earlier, a prime side-on view of these hulking rectangular blocks unfolds from the top of the curved sloping ramp explored on the first dive. The knoll in turn co-joins other massive, heavily overgrown structures presumed to be outcrops of natural bedrock which form an almost continuous barricade, three metres high and five metres thick, thrown out in a loose semi-circle in front of the megaliths — all at roughly metres water depth.

The barricade is penetrated at only one point, and there only by a narrow tunnel a little over a metre wide and about a metre and a half high through which a scuba diver swimming horizontally may pass comfortably. There is insufficient room to stand up within the tunnel, indeed barely enough even to crouch, so when it was above water or 10, years ago any human entering it would have been obliged to crawl through to the other side.

The swim ahead to the base of the megaliths is a matter of 20 metres and you observe immediately at this point that they do not stand on the sea-bed but are elevated about two metres above it, with their bases resting on a platform of boulders, and framed in a cleft. The side of the cleft to your right is formed by the rear corner of the main terraced monument; the side to your left is formed by a lower ridge of rock which also shows signs, though to a lesser degree, of terracing.

Both megaliths slope backwards at the same angle against the cleft and both are the same height just over six metres. Both megaliths taper at top and bottom so that the gap between them, about the width of a fist at the midpoint, is not constant. Although roughened, eroded and pitted with innumerable sea-urchin holes, the megaliths can still be recognised as essentially symmetrical blocks, all the faces of which appear originally to have been smoothed off to match — although, again, whether the process that brought this effect about was entirely natural, or at some point involved the input of human skill and labour, remains thus far a matter of a very few contradictory professional opinions and no facts.

I allowed myself to float up, towards the surface, along the slope of the megaliths, resting my hand in the gap between them as a guide. The light was good and I could see right into the gap; looking back at me from the far recesses a plump red fish eyed me with horror and hoped that I would go away. As I neared the top of the megaliths, submerged under just five metres of water, I began to feel the ferocious wash of waves pounding against the surrounding rocks.

I clung on and for a few moments allowed my body to be tugged back and forth by the swell.

Enshrouded in a cloud of foam I could see the northwest corner of the main monument still rising above me the final few metres towards the surface. After the dive Wolf and I again discussed what we had seen and quite soon, after some fruitless trading of opinion, our argument began to focus around a single — potentially decisive — issue. Had these very striking parallel megaliths been quarried, shaped and lowered into position beside the northwest corner of the main monument by human beings?

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Or had they arrived there through wholly natural processes? Explain to me how those blocks got there. So in my belief, these two blocks have been once one block of two sandstone banks, with either softer material in between or nothing in between, just only the bedding limits. My opinion is that these blocks have fallen down from a very, very high level, relative to their present situation. Well, yes, fair enough, nowadays.

Nowadays you would have to go back in a northward direction some 50 or 60 meters, maybe more, horizontally, before you reached the cliff. So then there could have been places of a higher position from which these stones could have fallen down.

So what this may be then —.