Cooling water treatment principles and practice ebook


 

Get this from a library! Cooling water treatment: principles and practice. [Colin Frayne] -- Annotation This comprehensive book is the only one that addresses. This comprehensive book is the only one that addresses theory, practice, management, downloading and marketing of cooling water systems in one volume. COOLING WATER TREATMENT, PRINCIPLES AND PRACTICE Through a practical and international approach, this comprehensive reference addresses.

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Cooling Water Treatment Principles And Practice Ebook

Cooling Water Treatment Principles and Practices: Charts and Notes for Field Use [Colin Frayne] on ruthenpress.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. Cooling. Maintenance of cooling water systems is WATER based on specialty chemicals, Boiler Water Treatment: Principles and Practice This classic book has been. eBook format help Cooling Towers: Principles and Practice, Third Edition, aims to provide the A Electromagnetic and electrostatic water treatment.

This comprehensive book is the only one that addresses theory, practice, management, downloading and marketing of cooling water systems in one volume. The approach of this essential reference is practical and international, and it is based on 30 years of professional experience. Maintenance of cooling water systems is based on specialty chemicals, and this invaluable handbook contains information on chemical formulations and programming, considered "taboo" and never published before. Specially important to decision-makers, water treatment field personnel, and cooling water systems marketing personnel are the chapters on downloading and Selling Cooling Water Programs; Surveys, Inspections and Cooling Water Program Selection. An indispensable source for: Chemical, Plant, Maintenance, Operations, Process and Utility Services Engineers; specialty chemicals companies personnel and cooling water systems marketing personnel. Read more

Concentration Cycles-Comparison of dissolved solids in makeup water witli solids concentration in the circulating water. Cooling Factor-The ratio of the pounds of water circulated per unit of time to the pounds of dry air cooling the water per unit of time. Cooling Tower Institute-International organization of cooling tower engineers, manufacturers and users, dedicated to improving the professional and technical state of the art. Counterflow-A system in which air encounters the hot water at a angle.

Air enters near the base of the tower and moves upwards through the fill and falling water.

Crossflow- A system in which air encounters the hot water at a 90 angle. Air enters through the entire sidewall and moves horizontally through the fill and falling water. Design Conditions-Thermal parameters for which the cooling tower is downloadd. They consist of a given gpm flow of water entering the tower at a specific temperature, cooling through a given range, leaving the tower at the required temperature, and having a designated approach to a stated wet-bulb temperature.

Diffusion Redistribution Deck-A device below the hot water distribution basin of a crossflow tower to break up the water going through the orifices before it goes through the fill. Distribution System-Mechanical method of passing hot water over the fill uniformly.

Low-pressure spray-through piping and nozzles are usually used in counterflow towers; gravity drop is normally utilized in crossflow towers. Drift-Entrained water droplets that escape from the tower with the exhaust air, expressed as a percentage of water circulated. Drift Eliminator-Baffling that causes discharging hot air containing entraining water droplets to change direction a number of times. Droplets hit the eliminator surface and fall back into the tower. Enthalpy -Total heat content; the sum of the sensible heat of the air and water vapor and of the latent heat of vaporization.

Two classes of materials are used: splash bars of wood, metal transite or plastic and film pack cellular fill. The splash type cools the water as the droplets bounce down a series of bars in the air stream; film packing converts droplets into a thin film..

Fog-A mist formed where the ambient air cannot absorb all the plume's moisture. The intensity of the fog is a function of the heat rise of air passing through the tower and the temperature and humidity of the ambient air.

Fog plumes are normally permissible since there are no droplets of water raining out of the discharge area; however, fog may cause icing of nearby roads and may restrict visibility. Forced Draft-Air introduced at the bottom of the tower is forced to the top by a centrifugal blower. Heat Load-Amount of heat in Btu dissipated in a cooling tower.

It is equal to the weight of water circulated per unit of time multiplied by the cooling range. Induced Draft-Air mover, usually an aerial fan, on top of the tower pulls air up through the fill and out the stack. Latent Heat of Vaporization-The heat required to change a liquid into a vapor without a change in the temperature or pressure. Louvers-Baffles used for changing the direction of air flow into the tower in a uniform, parallel manner, and for preventing water droplets from splashing out of the tower as they fall through the structure.

It is expressed as a percentage of the water circulated and normally is automatically controlled by a float valve. Net Effective Volume-A portion of the total structural volume in which the circulating water is in intimate contact with the air flowing through the tower expressed in cubic feet. Performance-The measure of the tower's ability to cool water. It is usually expressed in terms of cooling a quantity of water gpm from a specified hot water temperature to a specified cold water temperature at a stated wet-bulb temperature.

Performance Curve-A graphic representation of the relationship of water temperature, approach, wet-bulb temperature, range, static pressure and air movement.

Plenum-An enclosed chamber in which pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. Plume-Visible manifestation of water vapor condensing as warm, moist air mixing with the cooler, outside air. Psychrometer-Instrument used to measure the wet-bulb temperature. It is expressed in feet of liquid the pump must move and is equal to the total friction loss, static head and pressure drop through the distribution system.

Range-The numerical difference between the temperature of the hot water entering the cooling tower at the distribution system and the ' temperature of the colder water leaving the sump basin. Recirculation Recycle -Hot exhaust air forced downward and back into the cooling tower raises the wet-bulb temperature of the entering air above dry-bulb temperature, impairing tower performance.

It is usually caused by design, wind or placement problems. Sensible Heat-The heat requIred to change the temperature of air or water. Static Pressure Drop-The reduction of air movement through the tower resulting from resistance of internal components such as air-intake louvers, fill packing, water distribution system, internal supporting beams, drift eliminators and fan stack configuration.

Sump-Depressed section of the cold water collecting basin, from which cooled water retlfrns to the heat source.

ISBN - Cooling Water Treatment : Principles and Practice Direct Textbook

Water Load-Circulating rate of water over the tower, expressed in gallons per minute. Wet-Bulb Temperature-The temperature of saturated air. The lower the wet-bulb temperature, the more exchange of heat a cooling tower can do. A tower cannot cool the water to a temperature below the wet-bulb temperature of the entering air. Windage-The loss of water through the air-intake louvers as a result of malfunctioning of the wind check walls in the lower section of the tower.

In this design, air was drawn to the bottom of the tower and then moved vertically upward through the fill packing. Distribution System-Mechanical method of passing hot water over the fill uniformly. Low-pressure spray-through piping and nozzles are usually used in counterflow towers; gravity drop is normally utilized in crossflow towers.

Drift-Entrained water droplets that escape from the tower with the exhaust air, expressed as a percentage of water circulated. Drift Eliminator-Baffling that causes discharging hot air containing entraining water droplets to change direction a number of times.

Droplets hit the eliminator surface and fall back into the tower. Enthalpy -Total heat content; the sum of the sensible heat of the air and water vapor and of the latent heat of vaporization. Two classes of materials are used: splash bars of wood, metal transite or plastic and film pack cellular fill. The splash type cools the water as the droplets bounce down a series of bars in the air stream; film packing converts droplets into a thin film.. Fog-A mist formed where the ambient air cannot absorb all the plume's moisture.

The intensity of the fog is a function of the heat rise of air passing through the tower and the temperature and humidity of the ambient air. Fog plumes are normally permissible since there are no droplets of water raining out of the discharge area; however, fog may cause icing of nearby roads and may restrict visibility.

Forced Draft-Air introduced at the bottom of the tower is forced to the top by a centrifugal blower. Heat Load-Amount of heat in Btu dissipated in a cooling tower. It is equal to the weight of water circulated per unit of time multiplied by the cooling range. Induced Draft-Air mover, usually an aerial fan, on top of the tower pulls air up through the fill and out the stack. Latent Heat of Vaporization-The heat required to change a liquid into a vapor without a change in the temperature or pressure.

Louvers-Baffles used for changing the direction of air flow into the tower in a uniform, parallel manner, and for preventing water droplets from splashing out of the tower as they fall through the structure. It is expressed as a percentage of the water circulated and normally is automatically controlled by a float valve.

Net Effective Volume-A portion of the total structural volume in which the circulating water is in intimate contact with the air flowing through the tower expressed in cubic feet. Performance-The measure of the tower's ability to cool water. It is usually expressed in terms of cooling a quantity of water gpm from a specified hot water temperature to a specified cold water temperature at a stated wet-bulb temperature. Performance Curve-A graphic representation of the relationship of water temperature, approach, wet-bulb temperature, range, static pressure and air movement.

Plenum-An enclosed chamber in which pressure is higher than atmospheric pressure. Plume-Visible manifestation of water vapor condensing as warm, moist air mixing with the cooler, outside air.

Heating and Cooling of Buildings: Principles and Practice of Energy Efficient Design, Third Edition

Psychrometer-Instrument used to measure the wet-bulb temperature. It is expressed in feet of liquid the pump must move and is equal to the total friction loss, static head and pressure drop through the distribution system.

Range-The numerical difference between the temperature of the hot water entering the cooling tower at the distribution system and the ' temperature of the colder water leaving the sump basin. Recirculation Recycle -Hot exhaust air forced downward and back into the cooling tower raises the wet-bulb temperature of the entering air above dry-bulb temperature, impairing tower performance. It is usually caused by design, wind or placement problems. Sensible Heat-The heat requIred to change the temperature of air or water.

Static Pressure Drop-The reduction of air movement through the tower resulting from resistance of internal components such as air-intake louvers, fill packing, water distribution system, internal supporting beams, drift eliminators and fan stack configuration.

Cooling Towers Selection, Design and Practice

Sump-Depressed section of the cold water collecting basin, from which cooled water retlfrns to the heat source. Water Load-Circulating rate of water over the tower, expressed in gallons per minute. Wet-Bulb Temperature-The temperature of saturated air. The lower the wet-bulb temperature, the more exchange of heat a cooling tower can do. A tower cannot cool the water to a temperature below the wet-bulb temperature of the entering air.

Windage-The loss of water through the air-intake louvers as a result of malfunctioning of the wind check walls in the lower section of the tower.

In this design, air was drawn to the bottom of the tower and then moved vertically upward through the fill packing. During the fluid-fluid mixing, both air and water flowed counter to each other, thus the term counterflow tower.

To meet other requirements, such as increased water throughput, lower architectural profile demands and greater utilization of electrical energy, as well as to improve cooling efficiency, crossflow designs were developed. In the crossflow design, hot water is brought to the top of the tower and pumped into basins or pans where it falls through specially designed orifices on top of the fill area. In crossflow designs, air travels horizontally through the fill region of the tower and at a 90 angle Le.

Cooling water treatment : principles and practice

Figure 1. Air movers on many industrial installations usually consist of propeller-type air foils. These induce air through the tower and discharge the hot moist air through cylinders that surround the propellers. Such systems generally consists of electric motors connected by flexible-shaft couplings and gearreducing trains to provide the driving force.

Fan blade technology has advanced such that more efficient systems are now available in lightweight materials such as plastics. Due to this weight reduction as well as to the high strength associated with plastics and reinforced plastics, fan usage has been extended to larger diameter towers [3].

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