C language tutorial in hindi pdf


 

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C Language Tutorial In Hindi Pdf

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Mid-level programming language 1 C as a mother language C language is considered as the mother language of all the modern programming languages because most of the compilers, JVMs, Kernels, etc. It provides the core concepts like the array, strings, functions, file handling, etc. C language is a system programming language because it can be used to do low-level programming for example driver and kernel. It is generally used to create hardware devices, OS, drivers, kernels, etc. For example, Linux kernel is written in C. It can't be used for internet programming like Java,. Net, PHP, etc. A procedural language specifies a series of steps for the program to solve the problem. A procedural language breaks the program into functions, data structures, etc. C is a procedural language. In C, variables and function prototypes must be declared before being used. Structure means to break a program into parts or blocks so that it may be easy to understand. In the C language, we break the program into parts using functions. It makes the program easier to understand and modify.

Many data types, such as trees , are commonly implemented as dynamically allocated struct objects linked together using pointers. Pointers to functions are useful for passing functions as arguments to higher-order functions such as qsort or bsearch or as callbacks to be invoked by event handlers.

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Dereferencing a null pointer value is undefined, often resulting in a segmentation fault. Null pointer values are useful for indicating special cases such as no "next" pointer in the final node of a linked list , or as an error indication from functions returning pointers. In appropriate contexts in source code, such as for assigning to a pointer variable, a null pointer constant can be written as 0, with or without explicit casting to a pointer type, or as the NULL macro defined by several standard headers.

In conditional contexts, null pointer values evaluate to false, while all other pointer values evaluate to true. Since the size and type of the pointed-to object is not known, void pointers cannot be dereferenced, nor is pointer arithmetic on them allowed, although they can easily be and in many contexts implicitly are converted to and from any other object pointer type.

Because they are typically unchecked, a pointer variable can be made to point to any arbitrary location, which can cause undesirable effects.

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Although properly used pointers point to safe places, they can be made to point to unsafe places by using invalid pointer arithmetic ; the objects they point to may continue to be used after deallocation dangling pointers ; they may be used without having been initialized wild pointers ; or they may be directly assigned an unsafe value using a cast, union, or through another corrupt pointer.

In general, C is permissive in allowing manipulation of and conversion between pointer types, although compilers typically provide options for various levels of checking. Some other programming languages address these problems by using more restrictive reference types.

See also: C string Array types in C are traditionally of a fixed, static size specified at compile time. The more recent C99 standard also allows a form of variable-length arrays.

However, it is also possible to allocate a block of memory of arbitrary size at run-time, using the standard library's malloc function, and treat it as an array.

C's unification of arrays and pointers means that declared arrays and these dynamically allocated simulated arrays are virtually interchangeable. Since arrays are always accessed in effect via pointers, array accesses are typically not checked against the underlying array size, although some compilers may provide bounds checking as an option.

If bounds checking is desired, it must be done manually.

C does not have a special provision for declaring multi-dimensional arrays , but rather relies on recursion within the type system to declare arrays of arrays, which effectively accomplishes the same thing. The index values of the resulting "multi-dimensional array" can be thought of as increasing in row-major order.

Multi-dimensional arrays are commonly used in numerical algorithms mainly from applied linear algebra to store matrices. The structure of the C array is well suited to this particular task.

However, since arrays are passed merely as pointers, the bounds of the array must be known fixed values or else explicitly passed to any subroutine that requires them, and dynamically sized arrays of arrays cannot be accessed using double indexing. A workaround for this is to allocate the array with an additional "row vector" of pointers to the columns.

C99 introduced "variable-length arrays" which address some, but not all, of the issues with ordinary C arrays.

April 15, , 5: April 13, , April 14, , 3: April 13, , 2: April 15, , April 13, , 9: April 15, , 6: April 14, , 7: April 14, , April 13, , 3: Structure means to break a program into parts or blocks so that it may be easy to understand. In the C language, we break the program into parts using functions.

It makes the program easier to understand and modify.

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C language program is converted into assembly code, it supports pointer arithmetic low-level , but it is machine independent a feature of high-level.

A Low-level language is specific to one machine, i. It is machine dependent, fast to run. But it is not easy to understand.