Ancient Rome: city planning and administration.—New edn. I. Title. Library of Congress Cataloguing in Publication Data. Robinson, O.F.. Ancient. Ancient Rome: city planning and administration / O.F. Robinson . Table of contents at http://ruthenpress.infodms/bowker/toc/pdf · Table. ancient world. Download Ancient Rome: City Planning and Administration pdf · Read Online Ancient Rome: City Planning and Administration pdf.
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Ancient Rome. FULL ACCESS. Full Access: You have City Planning and Administration DownloadPDF MB Read online. Rome was a. Ancient Rome: City Planning and Administration by O.F.. Robinson (review). Garrett G. Fagan. Echos du monde classique: Classical views, Volume XLIII, n.s. O. F. Robinson, Ancient Rome: City Planning and Administration. London: Routledge, Pp. x + , 1 map. ISBN £
In this way, the Temple of Romulus and Remus became the basilica of the twin saints Cosmas and Damian. During the Gothic Wars of the mid-6th century, Rome was besieged several times by Byzantine and Ostrogoth armies. Ostrogoths of Totila entered through this gate in , because of the treason of the Isaurian garrison. In , the last Western Roman emperor, Julius Nepos , was murdered and a Roman general of barbarian origin, Odoacer , declared allegiance to Eastern Roman emperor Zeno.
Meanwhile, the Senate, even though long since stripped of wider powers, continued to administer Rome itself, with the Pope usually coming from a senatorial family.
This situation continued until Theodahad murdered Amalasuntha , a pro-imperial Gothic queen, and usurped the power in The Eastern Roman emperor , Justinian I reigned — , used this as a pretext to send forces to Italy under his famed general Belisarius , recapturing the city next year.
The Byzantines successfully defended the city in a year-long siege , and eventually took Ravenna. Belisarius was replaced by Narses , who captured Rome from the Ostrogoths for good in , ending the so-called Gothic Wars which had devastated much of Italy.
The continual war around Rome in the s and s left it in a state of total disrepair — near-abandoned and desolate with much of its lower-lying parts turned into unhealthy marshes as the drainage systems were neglected and the Tiber's embankments fell into disrepair in the course of the latter half of the 6th century. The aqueducts except for one were not repaired.
The population, without imports of grain and oil from Sicily, shrank to less than 50, concentrated near the Tiber and around the Campus Martius , abandoning those districts without water supply. There is a legend, significant though untrue, that there was a moment where no one remained living in Rome.
He also styled himself the patron of its remaining scholars , orators , physicians and lawyers in the stated hope that eventually more youths would seek a better education. After the wars, the Senate was theoretically restored, but under the supervision of the urban prefect and other officials appointed by, and responsible to, the Byzantine authorities in Ravenna.
However, the Pope was now one of the leading religious figures in the entire Byzantine Empire and effectively more powerful locally than either the remaining senators or local Byzantine officials. In practice, local power in Rome devolved to the Pope and, over the next few decades, both much of the remaining possessions of the senatorial aristocracy and the local Byzantine administration in Rome were absorbed by the Church.
The reign of Justinian's nephew and successor Justin II reigned — was marked from the Italian point of view by the invasion of the Lombards under Alboin In capturing the regions of Benevento , Lombardy , Piedmont , Spoleto and Tuscany , the invaders effectively restricted Imperial authority to small islands of land surrounding a number of coastal cities, including Ravenna , Naples , Rome and the area of the future Venice. The one inland city continuing under Byzantine control was Perugia , which provided a repeatedly threatened overland link between Rome and Ravenna.
In and again in , the Senate, in some of its last recorded acts, had to ask for the support of Tiberius II Constantine reigned — against the approaching Dukes, Faroald I of Spoleto and Zotto of Benevento. Maurice reigned — added a new factor in the continuing conflict by creating an alliance with Childebert II of Austrasia reigned — The armies of the Frankish King invaded the Lombard territories in , , and Rome had suffered badly from a disastrous flood of the Tiber in , followed by a plague in The latter is notable for the legend of the angel seen, while the newly elected Pope Gregory I term — was passing in procession by Hadrian's Tomb , to hover over the building and to sheathe his flaming sword as a sign that the pestilence was about to cease.
The city was safe from capture at least. Agilulf , however, the new Lombard King reigned to c.
With the Emperor preoccupied with wars in the eastern borders and the various succeeding Exarchs unable to secure Rome from invasion, Gregory took personal initiative in starting negotiations for a peace treaty.
This was completed in the autumn of —later recognised by Maurice—lasting until the end of his reign. The position of the Bishop of Rome was further strengthened under the usurper Phocas reigned — Phocas recognised his primacy over that of the Patriarch of Constantinople and even decreed Pope Boniface III to be "the head of all the Churches ".
The settlers of the new towns generally were attracted by fiscal, economic, and juridical advantages granted by the founding lord, or were forced to move from elsewhere from his estates. The newly founded towns often show a marked regularity in their plan form, in the sense that the streets are often straight and laid out at right angles to one another, and that the house lots are rectangular, and originally largely of the same size.
Only in the parts of Europe where the process of urbanisation had started relatively late, as in eastern Europe, was it still to go on for one or two more centuries.
It would not be until the Industrial Revolution that the same level of expansion of urban population would be reached again, although the number of newly created settlements would remain much lower than in the 12th and 13th centuries. This model was widely imitated, reflecting the enormous cultural power of Florence in this age; "[t]he Renaissance was hypnotised by one city type which for a century and a half— from Filarete to Scamozzi — was impressed upon utopian schemes: this is the star-shaped city".
The Ideal City probably by Fra Carnevale , c. The Roman archway and colosseum suggest the value of military victory and mass entertainment. The ideal centrally planned urban space: Sposalizio by Raphael Sanzio , Only in ideal cities did a centrally planned structure stand at the heart, as in Raphael 's Sposalizio Illustration of As built, the unique example of a rationally planned quattrocento new city centre, that of Vigevano —95 , resembles a closed space instead, surrounded by arcading.
Filarete 's ideal city, building on Leon Battista Alberti 's De re aedificatoria, was named " Sforzinda " in compliment to his patron; its twelve-pointed shape, circumscribable by a "perfect" Pythagorean figure , the circle, took no heed of its undulating terrain in Filarete's manuscript.
Following the bombardment of Brussels by the French troops of King Louis XIV , in which a large part of the city centre was destroyed, Governor Max Emanuel proposed using the reconstruction to completely change the layout and architectural style of the city. His plan was to transform the medieval city into a city of the new baroque style, modeled on Turin , with a logical street layout, with straight avenues offering long, uninterrupted views flanked by buildings of a uniform size.
This plan was opposed by residents and municipal authorities, who wanted a rapid reconstruction, did not have the resources for grandiose proposals, and resented what they considered the imposition of a new, foreign, architectural style.
In the actual reconstruction, the general layout of the city was conserved, but it was not identical to that before the cataclysm. Despite the necessity of rapid reconstruction and the lack of financial means, authorities did take several measures to improve traffic flow, sanitation, and the aesthetics of the city.
Many streets were made as wide as possible to improve traffic flow. Enlightenment Europe and America[ edit ] During the Second French Empire , Haussmann transformed the medieval city of Paris into a modern capital, with long, straight, wide boulevards.
The planning was influenced by many factors, not the least of which was the city's history of street revolutions. Illustration of Savannah, Georgia on the Oglethorpe Plan in During this period, rulers often embarked on ambitious attempts at redesigning their capital cities as a showpiece for the grandeur of the nation. Disasters were often a major catalyst for planned reconstruction. An exception to this was in London after the Great Fire of when, despite many radical rebuilding schemes from architects such as John Evelyn and Christopher Wren , no large-scale redesigning was achieved due to the complexities of rival ownership claims.
However, improvements were made in hygiene and fire safety with wider streets, stone construction and access to the river. The Great Fire did, however, stimulate thinking about urban design that influenced city planning in North America. The Grand Model for the Province of Carolina , developed in the aftermath of the Great Fire, established a template for colonial planning.
Model of the seismically protective wooden structure, the " gaiola pombalina" pombaline cage , developed for the reconstruction of Pombaline Lower Town In contrast, after the Lisbon earthquake , King Joseph I of Portugal and his ministers immediately launched efforts to rebuild the city. The architect Manuel da Maia boldly proposed razing entire sections of the city and "laying out new streets without restraint". This last option was chosen by the king and his minister. The Pombaline buildings were among the earliest seismically protected constructions in Europe.
An even more ambitious reconstruction was carried out in Paris.
Beyond aesthetic and sanitary considerations, the wide thoroughfares facilitated troop movement and policing. His objectives were to improve the health of the inhabitants, towards which the blocks were built around central gardens and orientated NW-SE to maximise the sunlight they received, and assist social integration.
The industrialised cities of the 19th century had grown at a tremendous rate, with the pace and style of building largely dictated by private business concerns. The evils of urban life for the working poor were becoming increasingly evident as a matter for public concern. The laissez-faire style of government management of the economy, in fashion for most of the Victorian era , was starting to give way to a New Liberalism that championed intervention on the part of the poor and disadvantaged.
Around , theorists began developing urban planning models to mitigate the consequences of the industrial age , by providing citizens, especially factory workers, with healthier environments. Modern zoning , which enabled planners to legally demarcate sections of cities for different functions, originated in Prussia, and spread to Britain, the USA, and Scandinavia.
This was inspired by earlier planned communities built by industrial philanthropists in the countryside, such as Cadburys ' Bournville , Lever's Port Sunlight and George Pullman 's eponymous Pullman in Chicago. All these settlements decentralised the working environment from the centre of the cities, and provided a healthy living space for the factory workers.
Howard generalised this achievement into a planned movement for the country as a whole. He was also influenced by the work of economist Alfred Marshall who argued in that industry needed a supply of labour that could in theory be supplied anywhere, and that companies have an incentive to improve workers living standards as the company bears much of the cost inflicted by the unhealthy urban conditions in the big cities.
His garden cities were intended to be planned, self-contained communities surrounded by parks, containing proportionate and separate areas of residences, industry, and agriculture. Inspired by the Utopian novel Looking Backward and Henry George 's work Progress and Poverty , Howard published his book Garden Cities of To-morrow in , commonly regarded as the most important book in the history of urban planning. The garden city would be self-sufficient and when it reached full population, another garden city would be developed nearby.
During this period, the cohesion of the empire was furthered by a degree of social stability and economic prosperity that Rome had never before experienced. Uprisings in the provinces were infrequent, but put down "mercilessly and swiftly" when they occurred. Vespasian became the founder of the brief Flavian dynasty , to be followed by the Nerva—Antonine dynasty which produced the " Five Good Emperors ": Nerva , Trajan , Hadrian , Antoninus Pius and the philosophically-inclined Marcus Aurelius.
Fall in the West and survival in the East See also: Barbarian kingdoms The Barbarian Invasions consisted of the movement of mainly ancient Germanic peoples into Roman territory.
Even though northern invasions took place throughout the life of the Empire, this period officially began in the 4th century and lasted for many centuries, during which the western territory was under the dominion of foreign northern rulers, a notable one being Charlemagne.
Historically, this event marked the transition between classical antiquity and the Middle Ages. In the view of the Greek historian Dio Cassius , a contemporary observer, the accession of the emperor Commodus in AD marked the descent "from a kingdom of gold to one of rust and iron"  —a famous comment which has led some historians, notably Edward Gibbon , to take Commodus' reign as the beginning of the decline of the Roman Empire. But despite this gesture of universality, the Severan dynasty was tumultuous—an emperor's reign was ended routinely by his murder or execution—and, following its collapse, the Roman Empire was engulfed by the Crisis of the Third Century , a period of invasions , civil strife , economic disorder , and plague.
Aurelian reigned — brought the empire back from the brink and stabilized it. Diocletian completed the work of fully restoring the empire, but declined the role of princeps and became the first emperor to be addressed regularly as domine, "master" or "lord". Diocletian's reign also brought the empire's most concerted effort against the perceived threat of Christianity , the "Great Persecution".
The state of absolute monarchy that began with Diocletian endured until the fall of the Eastern Roman Empire in Order was eventually restored by Constantine the Great , who became the first emperor to convert to Christianity , and who established Constantinople as the new capital of the eastern empire.
During the decades of the Constantinian and Valentinian dynasties , the empire was divided along an east-west axis, with dual power centres in Constantinople and Rome. The reign of Julian , who under the influence of his adviser Mardonius attempted to restore Classical Roman and Hellenistic religion , only briefly interrupted the succession of Christian emperors. Theodosius I , the last emperor to rule over both East and West, died in AD after making Christianity the official religion of the empire.
It survived for almost a millennium after the fall of its Western counterpart and became the most stable Christian realm during the Middle Ages. But within a few years of Justinian's death, Byzantine possessions in Italy were greatly reduced by the Lombards who settled in the peninsula.