Likewise, principles and techniques of management are applied in the organizations ―Publish 20 books this quarter‖ are examples of operational goals. 6. The contingency approach focuses on applying management principles and each week” or “Publish 20 books this quarter” are examples of operational. MG PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT. SCE. DEPARTMENT OF She has referred more than five books among them minimum one is from aboard author.
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Anna University, Chennai Common to All Departments MG Principles Of Management Lecture Notes - All Units (Regulation ). 8th edition. 2. Charles W L Hill, Steven L McShane, 'Principles of Management', Mcgraw Hill. Education, Special Indian Edition, REFERENCE BOOKS: 1. MG/PRINCIPLES OF MANAGEMENT DEPT: MECH YEAR: III YR/ VI SEM BY ruthenpress.infoKSHMI A.P-MBA DEPT.
Monitoring, comparing, and correcting work. Art refers to creative skills and talent which people require to conduct certain activities effectively. Art is an Inborn talent. However it can be refined through Learning and Practice. Initiative 3. Innovative 36 6.
Result Oriented 4. Individual Approach 5. It is a theoretical body of knowledge. Has Personalized Application. As a Science Based on Experimentation.
It is a systematized body of knowledge. Has Universal Application. The reason is that division of work helps to specialize in an activity which increases the output with perfection.
It also avoids wastage of time. Division can be applied to both technical and managerial kind of work. Authority gives them this right. Note that responsibility arises wherever authority is exercised.
It is incumbent upon management to reduce conflict between the individual and the general well being wherever possible. In leading the people, the manager performs the following three distinct tasks: Communication - the process of passing information from one person to another Leadership - the process of directing the activities of the people by explaining them what they have to do.
Motivation - the act of stimulating the people so that they give their best to the organisation Leading is a function predominantly interpersonal in nature. In the organisational context many problems arise because of the failure of managers to understand the people, their aspirations, attitudes, behaviour as individuals and in groups. If the manager fails in leading the people towards better performance, any amount of planning and organising, however effective they are, may not help the organisation.
Controlling While plans of the organisation spell out the objectives to be achieved, control as a managerial function facilitates to know whether the actual performance is in conformity with the planned one.
So that, in the event of deviations, appropriate corrective measures can be taken. In the absence of adequate control mechanism, unexpected changes in the environment may push the organisation off the track. Thus, controlling implies measuring and correcting the activities to assure that events conform to plans. It involves four main elements: a. Establishing standards of performance; b.
Measuring the actual performance and comparing it against the standard performance; c. Detecting deviations, if any, in order to make corrections before it is too late; and d. Taking appropriate corrective measures. Please use headphones Though the term 'manager' is used to mean anyone who gets the things done through other people, we find the managers in any organisation with varying authority and responsibilities.
In any company the total management job requires many skills and talents.
Obviously, therefore, the job of manager is divided and subdivided. Such an arrangement implies different levels of management. As a matter of custom and convenience, we normally visualise a company's management as a pyramid as shown in EXHIBIT 2 The three levels of management that are commonly found in any organisation are lower or front-line, middle and top managers.
Front-Line Managers This is the entry level job in the management. Managers at this level direct the operating employees workers. They are close to the action, for their job involves supervising the activities of operatives. Front-Line managers are called foreman, supervisor, inspector and so on in any organisation.
Middle Level Managers Middle management level includes, in many organisations, more than one level. Managers who work at all the levels between the lower arid top levels constitute the middle management, departmental heads and regional managers.
Zonal managers and so on fall in this category. They report to top managers. Their principal responsibilities are to direct the activities of lower level managers who implement the organisation's policies. This level consists of a small group of executives.
Board of Directors, Chairman, Managing Director and the top functional heads and divisional managers comprise this level.
Top managers are responsible for the overall management of the organisation. They decide the enterprise objectives, policies and strategies to be pursued to achieve those objectives.
They provide direction to the organisation by guiding the organisation's interactions with its environment. It requires elements of stewardship and commitment to the purpose. It involves the obligation to make prudent use of human and material resources. It requires resourcefulness and capacity for judgment to handle complex situations. Further, the nature of the job becomes increasingly complex at each higher level because of the increase in the scope of authority and responsibility.
Therefore, each higher level requires increased knowledge, broader perspective and greater skills. For purpose of analysis, skills required of any manager are classified under three different heads - technical, human Employee relations skill and conceptual skill as shown in Exhibit 3. The exhibit helps in understanding the levels of management responsibility, the principal skill requirements, and the extent to which each kind of skill is required at each level. Technical Skill Technical skill is the ability to use the procedures, techniques, and knowledge of a specialised field.
It is primarily concerned with the ways of doing the things. It implies proficiency in a specific field of activity. Technical skill is most important for the lower level managers because by nature their job involves supervision of the workers. Effective supervision and coordination of the work of the subordinates, therefore, depends on the technical skill possessed by the lower level manager. Any supervisor without a sound knowledge of the job cannot make an effective supervisor.
Such supervisors are not respected by the subordinates at the shop floor. The relative importance of the technical skill as compared to the other skills diminishes as one moves up to higher levels of management. Human Skill Human skill is the ability of the manager to work effectively as a group member and to build cooperative effort in the team he leads.
It is the ability to work with, understand and motivate people. This skill is primarily concerned with persons, as contrasted with "things". When a man is highly skilled in employee relations, he is aware of his own attitudes, assumptions, and beliefs and recognizes their limitations as well as their usefulness.
He accepts as an important fact of life the existence of viewpoints and feelings different from his own. He understands why people behave as they do and is able to make his own behaviour understandable to them. He can foresee their reactions to possible courses of action and, is able to take their attitudes into account. His skill in working with others is natural and continuous. He does not apply it in random or in inconsistent fashion. It is a natural ingredient of his every action.
Conceptual Skill This skill is also called design and problem-solving skill.
It involves the ability to see the organisation as a whole, to understand how its various parts and functions mesh together, and to foresee how changes in any one of these may affect all the others.
Conceptual skill extends to visualising the relation of the organisation to industry, to the community and to the political, economic and social forces of the nation as a whole, and even to forces which operate beyond the national boundaries.
It is the creative force within the organisation. A high degree of conceptual skill helps in analyzing the environment and in identifying the opportunities and threats. All the three types of skills discussed so far are not mutually exclusive.
In other words, management job always requires all the three skills but in different proportions depending upon the level of management. There is a gradual shift in the emphasis from the bottom to the top of the pyramid. Technical skill and human skill are always in greater demand at the base of the pyramid, for it is there the productive processes and operations are carried out. It is there where you find most of the people.
It is there where the action takes place. The need for conceptual skill is greatest at the peak of the pyramid. Obviously, the top managers are not often involved in the direct application of specific methods, procedures and techniques than those at the lower echelons of management. Although, each of these skills is needed in some degree at every level of management, there are successful executives who have no great amount of technical skills.
But they are able to compensate the lack of that skill through superior creative ability and skill in selecting, planning and effectively motivating subordinates who are strong in technical skill. As you have understood by now, at every level, management job is different from all other jobs in respect of the skills required.
At the entry level into the management job, that is, at the supervisory level, besides technical skills, you have to realise the need to acquire human skill and the problem-solving skills conceptual. To climb up the organisational ladder, you must not only be good at the skills required for the present job.
But also learn and acquaint yourself with the skills required at the next level. As a result, in the event of promotion to the next higher level, you would feel at home and discharge the responsibilities with ease. Please use headphones Organisations engaged in business or non-business use the inputs to produce the output may be products or services.