by Edward Boden, Anthony andrews March Black's Veterinary Dictionary has been a bestseller for over 80 years. It is an essential reference tool for all. Black's Veterinary Dictionary - Free ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File ( .txt) or read book online for free. Generations of veterinary practitioners, students, farmers and pet owners have relied on Black's Veterinary Dictionary as a primary reference on animal health.
|Language:||English, Spanish, German|
|Distribution:||Free* [*Register to download]|
Dictionary of veterinary terms. Pet Med Encyclopedia of Terms ruthenpress.info com/veterinaryterms. Veterinary terms and their definitions. Veterinary. Get master knowledge into the most recent life-sparing strategies and methods from pioneers in equine neonatal drug. This extraordinary reading material and. PDF | On Jan 1, , Rima Morshed and others published Veterinary Dictionary.
However, animal welfare groups argue that the vast majority of free-range hens are still intensively confined bottom and are rarely able to go outdoors. Issues include the limited opportunities for natural behaviors, for example, in battery cages , veal and gestation crates , instead producing abnormal behaviors such as tail-biting, cannibalism, and feather pecking , and routine invasive procedures such as beak trimming , castration , and ear notching.
More extensive methods of farming, e.
Farm animals are artificially selected for production parameters which sometimes impinge on the animals' welfare. For example, broiler chickens are bred to be very large to produce the greatest quantity of meat per animal.
Broilers bred for fast growth have a high incidence of leg deformities because the large breast muscles cause distortions of the developing legs and pelvis, and the birds cannot support their increased body weight.
As a consequence, they frequently become lame or suffer from broken legs. The increased body weight also puts a strain on their hearts and lungs, and ascites often develops.
In the UK alone, up to 20 million broilers each year die from the stress of catching and transport before reaching the slaughterhouse.
While the killing of animals need not necessarily involve suffering, the general public considers that killing an animal reduces its welfare. To enhance their welfare, humans feed them fish which are dead, but are disease-free, protect them from predators and injury, monitor their health, and provide activities for behavioral enrichment.
Some are kept in lagoons with natural soil and vegetated sides. Military dolphins used in naval operations swim free during operations and training, and return to pens otherwise.
Research on wild cetaceans leaves them free to roam and make sounds in their natural habitat, eat live fish, face predators and injury, and form social groups voluntarily. However boat engines of researchers, whale watchers and others add substantial noise to their natural environment, reducing their ability to echolocate and communicate. Other harms to wild cetaceans include commercial whaling , aboriginal whaling , drift netting , ship collisions , water pollution , noise from sonar and reflection seismology , predators , loss of prey , disease.
Efforts to enhance the life of wild cetaceans, besides reducing those harms, include offering human music. Research in wild animal welfare has two focuses: the welfare of wild animals kept in captivity and the welfare of animals living in the wild. The former has addressed the situation of animals kept both for human use, as in zoos or circuses , or in rehabilitation centers. United Kingdom[ edit ] The Animal Welfare Act  makes owners and keepers responsible for ensuring that the welfare needs of their animals are met.
These include the need: for a suitable environment place to live , for a suitable diet, to exhibit normal behavior patterns, to be housed with, or apart from, other animals if applicable , and to be protected from pain, injury, suffering and disease.
The Act defines "regulated procedures" as animal experiments that could potentially cause "pain, suffering, distress or lasting harm" to "protected animals". Initially, "protected animals" encompassed all living vertebrates other than humans, but, in , an amendment added a single invertebrate species, the common octopus.
Revised legislation came into force in January This has been expanded to protect " Fish and amphibia are protected once they can feed independently and cephalopods at the point when they hatch.
Embryonic and foetal forms of mammals, birds and reptiles are protected during the last third of their gestation or incubation period. The ASPA also considers other issues such as animal sources , housing conditions, identification methods, and the humane killing of animals.
The project must also pass an ethical review panel which aims to decide if the potential benefits outweigh any suffering for the animals involved. United States[ edit ] In the United States, a federal law called the Humane Slaughter Act was designed to decrease suffering of livestock during slaughter. Decisions regarding animal care, use, and welfare shall be made by balancing scientific knowledge and professional judgment with consideration of ethical and societal values.
Animals must be provided water, food, proper handling, health care, and an environment appropriate to their care and use, with thoughtful consideration for their species-typical biology and behavior. Animals should be cared for in ways that minimize fear, pain, stress, and suffering. Procedures related to animal housing, management, care, and use should be continuously evaluated, and when indicated, refined or replaced. Conservation and management of animal populations should be humane, socially responsible, and scientifically prudent.
Animals shall be treated with respect and dignity throughout their lives and, when necessary, provided a humane death. The veterinary profession shall continually strive to improve animal health and welfare through scientific research, education, collaboration, advocacy, and the development of legislation and regulations. An animal is in a good state of welfare if as indicated by scientific evidence it is healthy, comfortable, well nourished, safe, able to express innate behaviour, and if it is not suffering from unpleasant states such as pain, fear, and distress.
Animal welfare refers to the state of the animal; the treatment that an animal receives is covered by other terms such as animal care, animal husbandry, and humane treatment. This state includes how much it is having to do to cope, the extent to which it is succeeding in or failing to cope, and its associated feelings.
It believes the animals can be exploited if the animal suffering and the costs of use is less than the benefits to humans. An example of welfarist thought is Hugh Fearnley-Whittingstall 's meat manifesto. Are you at all concerned about how they have been treated? Have they lived well?
Have they been fed on safe, appropriate foods? Have they been cared for by someone who respects them and enjoys contact with them? Would you like to be sure of that? Perhaps it's time to find out a bit more about where the meat you eat comes from.
Or to download from a source that reassures you about these points. Robert Garner describes the welfarist position as the most widely held in modern society. So that we can easily refer to it, let us label this position "utilitarianism for animals, Kantianism for people. Human beings may not be used or sacrificed for the benefit of others; animals may be used or sacrificed for the benefit of other people or animals only if those benefits are greater than the loss inflicted.
Francione in Thus, for instance, new welfarists want to phase out fur farms and animal experiments but in the short-term they try to improve conditions for the animals in these systems, so they lobby to make cages less constrictive and to reduce the numbers of animals used in laboratories. If an animal in a laboratory is suffering stress or pain it could negatively affect the results of the research.
Augustine of Hippo seemed to take such a position in his writings against those he saw as heretics : "For we see and hear by their cries that animals die with pain, although man disregards this in a beast, with which, as not having a rational soul, we have no community of rights.
Animal rights advocates, such as Gary L. Francione and Tom Regan , argue that the animal welfare position advocating for the betterment of the condition of animals, but without abolishing animal use is inconsistent in logic and ethically unacceptable. However, there are some animal right groups, such as PETA , which support animal welfare measures in the short term to alleviate animal suffering until all animal use is ended. Everybody should be able to agree that animals should not suffer if you kill them or steal from them by taking the fur off their backs or take their eggs, whatever.
Once a sufficient number of viruses have been replicated, the newly formed viruses lyse or break open the host cell and move on to infect other cells. Consequently viruses were named haphazardly.
The nuclear protein contains RNA. However, colony morphology is not a reliable way to identify bacteria, as many different types of bacteria have similar colony morphology. January 29, A Marine viruses — major players in the global ecosystem Curtis A.
Parasites at genetic level. Requires host cell to reproduce E. The chlamydia, which are incorrectly called the PLT viruses or Bedsonia or basophilic viruses, are bacteria which are obligate intracellular parasites of higher animals mammals and birds. Describe how staining and biochemical tests are used to identify bacteria. Morphology: Viruses are grouped on the basis of size and shape, chemical composition and structure of the genome, and mode of replication. This assumption was radically challenged by the discovery of Pandoraviruses 9 , which show different and somewhat opposite characteristics.
They are unique because they are only alive and able to multiply inside the cells of other living things. Morphology of Virions: The knowledge about the structure of virions could be gathered mainly by electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies.
Viruses must use the ribosomes of their host cells to translate viral mRNA into viral proteins. This is mainly due to the pseudo-living nature of viruses, which is to say they are non-living particles with some chemical characteristics similar to those of life, or non-cellular life.
Botany B. In some viruses for eg. All viruses were purified by banding then moves via microtubules to the cell surface, where the after sucrose gradient centrifugation 43, Chapter 3 - General properties of virus. Each is made up of negative-sensed, single-stranded RNA viruses. Viroids C. Department of Pathology. Bacteriology and Parasitology is a dynamic field, as these worms constantly change the morphology, hosts, and host relationships.
Head and tail viruses infect bacteria and have a head that is similar to icosahedral viruses and a tail shape like filamentous viruses. Jennings, T. Kyriakis,a Martin J. Horticultural Research Laboratory Ft. The Ebola virus is a member of Filoviridae family. Pemberton, R. Most of the vertebrate viruses have been named according to: Cell Culture Cell culture is one of the major tools used in cellular and molecular biology, providing excellent model systems for studying the normal physiology and biochemistry of cells e.
All evidence suggests that most cancers are not the result of one single event or factor. Virus is a smallest infectious particle, Unicellular, Obligate Intracellular parasite. Host preference Beginning on June 5, , many children developed acute respiratory infections in Cambodia. The nucleic acid and proteins of each class of viruses assemble themselves into a structure called a nucleoprotein, or nucleocapsid. Systematic Veterinary Virology.
Many of the cases were noted to be co-infections of RSV and influenza B. DNA viruses cause human diseases, such as chickenpox, hepatitis B, and some venereal diseases, like herpes and genital warts.
We do not have the detailed knowledge of the physiology, genetics, metabolism and structure of viruses to classify them according to evolutionary development as has been done with the larger micro-organisms e.
History II. All these genera include arthropod-borne viruses, with the exception of hantavirus, which is rodent-borne. List the types of approaches used to cultivate viruses, noting which types of viruses are cultivated by each method. That is, viruses infect specific cells or tissues of specific hosts, or specific bacteria, or specific plants. The estimated viruses in the ocean, if stretched end to end, would span farther than the nearest 60 galaxies.
Whereas in prokaryotes, only the nucleic acids enter the cell, in animal viruses, often the entire virus enters the cell by means of endocytosis, and so the virus must also uncoat. Viral hepatitis is a cause of considerable morbidity and mortality in the human population, both from acute infection and chronic sequelae which include, in the case of hepatitis B, C and D, chronic active hepatitis and cirrhosis.
Society for. Kingdom Archaebacteria What is the cell type? In addition, nematodes cre-ate openings in roots through which other micro-organisms can enter, and some species are able to transmit viruses from one plant to another. Durham, NC In , Friedrich Loeffler and Paul Frosch found evidence that the cause of foot-and-mouth disease in livestock was an infectious particle smaller than any bacteria. The capsid has either a helical or icosahedreal shape or aThe capsid has either a helical or icosahedreal shape or a combination of shapes.
This shell often is surrounded by an envelope that consists of protein and lipid. Plant-parasitic nematodes are frequently pres-ent in vineyards. Prions B.
Host population density is limited by virus infection, and host genetic diversity is increased. How are Viruses Identified? This suggests that pandoravirus-like particles may correspond to an unexplored diversity of unconventional DNA virus families.
Tobacco mosaic virus TMV is a positive-sense single stranded RNA virus in genus Tobamovirus that infects a wide range of plants, especially tobacco and other members of the family Solanaceae.
In this regard, a defective virus is a virus whose replication is conditional upon another virus. For these viruses, attachment is a requirement for later penetration of the cell membrane, so they can complete their replication inside the cell. The best studied TMV but many animal viruses and phage use this general arrangement.
This is the currently selected item. Cover different classification schemes for grouping bacteria, especially the use of the Gram stain 2. Outline the events that lead to the formation of a plaque in a lawn of bacterial cells. Size of Bacteria.
Viruses in that family consist of single, linear, negative-sense ssRNA genomes. As parasites, they rely on the host cell for life-sustaining functions, including reproductive and metabolic processes.
Each viral RNA segment Viral hepatitis has emerged as a major public health problem throughout the world affecting several hundreds of millions of people.
For these viruses, attachment Bats harbor a myriad of viruses and some of these viruses may have spilled over to other species including humans. Some say that lions are to fear, or guns or poison. This paradox may be a result of high diversity of viruses and prokaryotes or large-scale resistance of prokaryotes to co-occurring viruses in the lake. Explain the scientific naming Differentiate between culture, clone, and strain. What kind of environment do they like?
Thermacidophile means what? Where do methanogens live? What is a halophile?
Kingdom Eubacteria What is the cell type? NiV was initially isolated and identified in during an outbreak of encephalitis and respiratory illness among pig farmers and people with close contact with pigs in Malaysia and Singapore.
Smith Viruses are noncellular genetic elements that use a living cell for their replication and have an extracellular state. Ultrastructural Pathology. Taxonomy: Synonym s : Flavivirus group.