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When planning furniture arrangements, allowances for clearances should take into account the human dimension as well, as illustrated in Figs. It should be noted that these diagrams are not intended as models for complete living room layouts. They are intended only as guidelines to illustrate minimum clearances for preliminary planning purposes.

The design of the cabinet should take into account the actual electronic and other equipment to be housed and the clearances involved for operation. Power outlets should be coordinated and located so as to conceal unsightly wires and cables. Based on these drawings and inspection and measurement of existing conditions, the contractor prepares and submits shop drawings for the designer's approval.

Since at least two trades are involved, coordination of the trades by the contractor and a thorough review of the shop drawings by both contractor and designer are essential.

It is important, also, that modifications conform with all applicable codes. The extent of hearth extension, the materials used, and the distance of combustible materials from the fire box are among the numerous items governed by codes.

This area may be combined with the living room or kitchen, or may be a separate room. Criterion The amount of space allocated to dining should be based on the number of persons to be served and the proper circulation space.

Appropriate space should be provided for the storage of china and large dining articles either in the dining area itself or in the adjacent kitchen. Space for accommodating the following sizes of tables and chairs in the dining area should be provided, according to the intended occupancy, as shown: Department of Housing and Urban Development. Commentary Size of the individual eating space on the table should be based upon a frontage of 24 in and an area of approximately 2 ft'.

In addition, table space should be large enough to accommodate serving dishes. Desirable room for seating is a clear 42 in all around the dining table. The following minimum clearances from the edge of the table should be provided: In sizing the separate dining room, provision should be made for circulation through the room in addition to space for dining.

The location of the dining area in the kitchen is desirable for small houses and small apartments. This preference appears to stem from two needs 1 housekeeping advantages ; 2 the dining table in the kitchen provides a meeting place for the entire family. Where only one dining location is feasible, locating the dining table in the living room is not recommended. A hutch or buffet is typically about 18" deep. A 42" wide table is common.


There is space behind the chairs to edge past one side and one end, and to walk past on the other side and end. Table space is 24" per person, the minimum place setting zone. With arm chairs at the ends, allow an extra 2"for each ; add 4" to the room length. Minimum width for table and chairs. Dining space with benches. A 48" long table seats 4 and requires 26 ft'.

Figures 8 and 9 show clearances and room sizes for various dining arrangements. Since these data come from two sources, there maybe slight disparities in suggested dimensions for similar conditions.

Since these illustrations are intended only as guidelines for preliminary planning purposes, either set of any differing dimensions can be used. Some building codes permit rooms of even smaller sizes, while rooms in many private homes and luxury apartments are much larger.

Moreover, in the final analysis lifestyle, the size and scale of furniture, the activities to be accommodated, and barrier-free design are all factors that should be taken into account during the design process. Ideally, the recommended minimum bedroom size should be 10'0"x 12"0" exclusive of closets, while the recommended minimum size for a larger bedroom or master bedroom should be 12'0" x 16'0" exclusive of closets.

A larger proportion of the bedroom floor area is occupied by furniture than is the case with any other room ; windows and doors account for a large percentage of the wall and partition space. These two factors complicate the planning of bedrooms, especially when the rooms are small. Because of the room layout, some bedrooms with smaller areas better meet the needs than larger ones.

The location of doors, windows, and closets must be properly planned to allow the best placement of the bed and other furniture. Privacy, both visual and sound, are desir- able for the bedroom. Children's bedrooms should be located away from the living room, because conversation in the living room prevents the children from sleeping.

Closets should be used between all bedrooms wherever possible. Each child needs a space that is his or her own to develop a sense of responsibility and a respect for the property rights of others. The ideal plan would provide a bedroom for each child, but since this is not always possible, there should be a bed for each. The minimum room width shall be determined by the space required for the bed, activity space, and any furniture facing the bed.

Widths less than 9'0"will usually require extra area to accommodate comparable furniture. Aside from sleeping, the bedroom is the center of dressing and undressing activities. An interrelationship exists between dressing, storage of clothes, and the bedroom. Inevitably, in a small apartment, it is not only economical but necessary to plan the use of the bedroom for more than one activity. It is essential to incorporate in the bedroom other functions such as relaxation, work, or entertainment.

A master bedroom should accommodate at least one double bed 4'6" x 6'6" or two single beds 3'3" x 6'6" each, one crib 2'4" x 1'5" if necessary, one dresser 3'6" x 1'10", one chest of drawers 2'6" x 1'10", one or two chairs 1'6" x 1'6" each, two night tables, and possibly a small desk or table 1'6" x 3'0".

Figures 1 to 3 illustrate three configurations and the furniture clearances and room sizes required. Ample storage is essential. Each bedroom requires at least one clothes closet. For master bedrooms, at least five linear feet of closet length is needed. For secondary bedrooms, at least three linear feet is needed.

Clothes closets require a clear depth of two feet. Each bedroom shall have at least one closet that meets or exceeds the following standards 1.

Length for primary bedroom: At least 5'4" clear hanging space b. Lowest shelf shall not be over 6'2" above the floor of room 4. One shelf and rod with at least 12 inches clear space above shelf 5. The U. Department of Housing and Urban Development recommends the arrangement illustrated in this diagram. Net area: The most likely occupants of this type of bedroom are adults, school-age children of the same sex, children of different sexes who are less than 9 years old, and preschoolers.

The bathroom should be convenient to the bedroom zone, and accessible from the living and work areas. Linen storage should be accessible from the bathroom, but not necessarily located within the bathroom. Each complete bathroom should be provided with the following: Grab-bar and soap dish at bathtub 2. Toilet paper holder at water closet 3. Soap dish at lavatory may be integral with lavatory 4.

Towel bar 5. Mirror and medicine cabinet or equivalent enclosed shelf space 6. In all cases where shower head is installed, provide a shower rod or shower door Each half-bath should be provided with items 2 to 6 listed above. A lavatory height above the floor of 37 to 43 in, or 94 to It should be noted, however, that common practice is to locate the lavatory in the neighborhood of 31 in above the floor In order to establish the location of mirrors above the lavatory, eye height should be taken into consideration.

Figure 2 explores, in much the same manner, the anthropometric considerations related to women and children. Given the great variability in body sizes to be accommodated within a single family, a strong case can be presented for the development of a height adjustment capability for the lavatory. Until that is developed, there is no reason, on custom installations, why the architect or "" interior designer cannot take anthropometric measurements of the client to ensure proper interface between the user and the lavatory.

There is a proliferation of state and local legislation in this regard, and, more recently, federal legislation Americans with Disabilities Act of , that provides design guidelines and requirements. The designer should become familiar with those codes and other requirements in her or his area prior to initiation of design and, where possible, go beyond the very minimum standards. The design of the bathroom is perhaps one of those areas where the interface between the physically disabled and the interior space is the most critical.

Accordingly, on this page and the following pages are design guidelines prepared by the Veterans Administration and the U. More space should be allocated when possible. All must be responsive to human dimension and body size if the quality of interface between the user and the components of the interior space are to be adequate.

In establishing clearances between counters, the maximum body breadth and depth of the user of larger body size must be taken into account as well as the projections of the appliances. Refrigerator doors, cabinet drawers, dishwashing machine doors, and cabinet doors all project to some degree in their open position into the space within which the user must circulate and must be accommodated. Standard kitchen counter heights manufactured are all about 36 in, or But such a height does not necessarily accommodate the body dimension of all users for all tasks.

Certain cooking activities, for example, maybe more efficiently performed from a standing position, but with a counter height less than 36 in. In overhead cabinets the upper shelves are usually inaccessible to the smaller person, while the lower shelves are usually inaccessible to most without bending or kneeling.

The logical answer is the development of kitchen cabinet systems capable of total adjustability to accommodate the human dimension of the individual user. Such a system could accommodate not only those of smaller and larger body size, but also elderly and disabled people. Figure 1 provides some general anthropometric data for establishing basic heights of cabinetry and appliances above the floor Figures 2 and 3 show in more detail the interface of the human body and the kitchen environment.

Figure 2 indicates a minimum clearance between appliances of 48 in, or The anthropometric basis for the clearances are amplified in Fig. The in, or The range workzone clearance, also 40 in, is adequate to accommodate the open range door and the body size of the kneeling user. An extremely important, but frequently overlooked, anthropometric consideration in kitchen design is eye height.

In this regard, the distance from the top of the range to the underside of the hood should allow the rear burners to be visible to the user. When not broken, it provides the opportunity and floor space for several simultaneous activities. The corridor or gallery kitchen is typically accessible from both ends, often converting it from a work space to a corridor It sometimes is closed off on one end, thereby creating a variation of the U-plan, which although small can produce a fairly comfortable kitchen.

The broken U-shaped plan often results from the necessity of locating a door along one or two of the three walls of a typical Ushaped scheme. The resulting through traffic reduces the compactness and efficiency of the plan. The typical L-shaped kitchen allows for the location of a small breakfast area in the opposite corner.

A'riargle perimeter of 23'0" or less is usually indicative of a relatively efficient kitchen layout. Minimum counter frontage. For combined work centers.

Work centers for the following equipment, cabinets, and space for their use should be provided: Range space with base and wall cabinet at one side for serving and storage of utensils and staples. Sink and base cabinet with counter space on each side forcleanup. Wall cabinets for storage f dinnerware. Refrigerator space with counter space at latch side of the refrigerator door. Mixing counter and base cabinet for electrical appliances and utensil storage.

Wall cabinet for staple storage. Recommended minimum edge distance Equipment should be placed to allow for efficient operating room between it and any adjacent corner cabinet.

At least 9 in from the edge of the sink and range and 16 in at the side of the refrigerator is recommended. Circulation space A minimum of 40 in should be provided between base cabinets or appliances opposite each other This same minimum clearance applies when a wall, storage wall, or work table is opposite a base cabinet. Traffic Traffic in the kitchen should be limited to kitchen work only.

Serving circulation to the dining area should be without any cross traffic. Height of shelving and counter tops 1. Maximum height of wall shelving 74 in. Height of counter tops should be 36 in.

Minimum clearance height between sink and wall cabinet 24 in ; between base and wall cabinets in clearance. Dimension B: Dimension C: Dimension D: Dimension E: Dimension F: Minimum clearance should be not less than 3 in. Cabinet protection should be at least in asbestos millboard covered with not less than gauge sheet metal 0.

Since the wall behind a sink often holds a window, measurement for a cabinet is academic. But if wall space is minimal, a cabinet over the sink makes good sense. The use of large pans, pancake flips and similar cooking maneuvers dictate a distance of 30 in. A fan mounted in the wall is the means here to exhaust cooking fumes to the outside.

Utensil and General Storage Kitchen activities become tiresome in poor light. A single fixture, centered on the ceiling is insufficient. Your need for light is greatest over the work centers A good light there reduces the danger of cutting yourself ; eases the task of monitoring color changes during a mix, and so on.

The best place to install fixtures for this purpose is beneath the wall cabinets with a shield to prevent glare when you're seated in the kitchen. A workable alternative is found in fixtures installed in an extended soffit. Plan for light above a rangetop and over the sink, as well.

Choose incandescent, deluxe warm white or deluxe cool white lamps for the fixtures to avoid poor color rendition. With the increased use of such electrical appliances, their storage becomes a significant problem. General storage requires space for linens, towels, and kitchen supplies.

Included in this category are brooms, mops, and other cleaning equipment and supplies. Minimum Kitchen Storage Required Item Total shelving in wall and base cabinets Shelving in either wall or base cabinets Drawer area Countertop area , Item Total shelving in wall and base cabinets Shelving in either wall or base cabinets Drawer area Countertop area A range of 15 in.

Opt for the 15 in. The highest shelf: Drawer and countertop space shall also be provided. No room count is allowable for this type facility. Framed wall cabinets are 12" deep not including doors.

Most are available in widths ranging from 9" to 48 ;' in 3" increments. Framed base cabinets are 24" deep, not including doors. Frameless are ',3Y2" deep with door,, Four-drawer base cabinets are available in widths ranging from 12" to 24 ; in 3" increments. Most are available in widths of Some of the larger ranges consist of modular cooktops providing anywhere from two to seven heating elements as well as modular grills, griddles, and even downdraft built-in ventilators.

Normally, a minimum clearance of 30" is required above any range or cooktop, but the designer is cautioned to carefully verify local code requirements. Manufacturers' specifications should be carefully reviewed for rough opening requirements and any venting requirements, particularly for self-cleaning ovens. Dishwashers Built-in, freestanding, and undersink dishwashers are fairly well standardized in terms of overall dimensions.

Access to plumbing and waste lines is the major consideration, as is the method of securing the dishwasher in order to minimize vibration. Refrigerators Refrigerator door swings and clearances are of critical importance.

This is particularly true of the side-by-side door configuration.

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In addition, adequate clearance should be allowed between the sides and top of the refrigerator and any adjoining cabinetwork, especially if a built-in look is desired. The designer should check requirements with the manufacturer. While these drawings can be used for preliminary planning, final dimensions and clearance must be verified with the manufacturer Often overlooked are clearances for refrigerator handles or pulls as well as coils mounted at the rear of the refrigerator.

Dimensions shown are for planning purposes only. The fixed accessible features specified in ANSI 4. The adaptable features are removable base cabinets at knee spaces and counters that can be adjusted in height or fixed at a lower than standard height. The adaptable features for kitchens specified in the standards are shown in Figs. In Fig. No other changes have been made to the kitchen.

Since removable base cabinets and adjustable height counters are not now products that are readily available for download, they are usually custom-made items.

The standards ANSI 4. The wider work surface provides space for pots, dishes, and other utensils as well as small appliances, and makes it easier to work on several things at once or to cook using many ingredients. The standards specify that when the wall oven is not self-cleaning, a knee space must be located next to the oven to permit a disabled person in a wheelchair to pull up close enough to clean the oven. Even if a self-cleaning oven is installed, locating the knee space next to the oven makes it easier and safer for a disabled person to remove hot items from the oven.

When an oven with a side-opening door is used, a pull-out shelf located beneath the oven must be installed. The shelf is used as a transfer surface for dishes as they are placed into or taken out of the oven.

When not needed, the shelf is pushed back into the oven cabinet Fig. When an oven with a drop-front door is used Fig. See ANSI 4. The controls must be placed along the front or the side of the range so that a seated person need not reach across a hot burner to adjust the controls Fig. Some wheelchair users cannot use conventional ranges because the surface is too high and there is no knee space for maneuvering. Cooktops in lowered counter segments with knee space below allow some wheelchair users to get close enough to operate the controls and move heavy pots and pans Fig.

Cooktops with smooth surfaces are preferred by people with limited hand and arm strength because they can slide pots of hot food on and off the cooktop rather than lifting them over raised burners and knobs.

When a cooktop is installea in a lowered counter, the width of the counter segment and knee space should be at least 30 inches and should provide space to the side of the cooktop for utensils and maneuvering. An additional 30 inches to the side is recom- mended Fig. When the knee space is under a cooktop, the standards require that the bottom of the cooktop be insulated to protect against accidental burns.

People who pull up beneath the cooktop must exercise extreme care and cool hot foods before moving them. The size of books, the types of books and other reading materials, the reach limitations of the user, etc. It is possible, however, for preliminary planning purposes, to apply the broad guidelines indicated in Figs. Seven volumes per foot of shelving can be used as a rule-of-thumb to project capacity. The height of the highest shelf above the floor should be limited to between 78 and 81 in ; 24 in is the minimum height above the floor to gain access to a shelf without squatting.

Limitations for shelving to serve children will differ and are indicated in Fig. The front of the shelf is supported by the vertical members and the back of the shelf is nailed to the plywood back. These built-in bookshelves and bar unit were developed for a residence on the Eastern Shore of Maryland. Not all games occupy floor areas indicated as necessary for those diagramed on this page.

But if interiors are planned to accommodate large units of equipment such as that required for table tennis, and provide necessary playing clearances, spaces will be adequate for many other uses as well. Dimensions of game equipment and floor areas required for its use are both subject to variation.

Sizes noted here are comfortable averages, not absolute minima. Note how the recessed fluorescent tube fixtures indirectly light up all the glasses and the 2" open slot in the bottom shelf indirectly lights up the liquor bottles on the back bar shelf. The entire front bar has recessed light fixtures in the ceiling above ; this allows for two different methods of lighting the bar area.

Note also that the bar front is slightly padded with foam rubber and the entire bar top is finished with dark brown leatherette. General Planning Suggestions 1. It is desirable to plan space for specific laundry processes.

Moistureproof surfaces are needed for pretreating and sprinkling of clothes. Drying areas should be accessible for use under all climatic conditions. To control moisture in the room, dryers should be located to permit venting to the outside of the house. Adequate storage for washing equipment and supplies should be located near the place of first use.

Facilities for hanging drip-dry garments after washing should be provided. In locating the washing equipment consideration should be given to convenience of inter-related household activities, distances from the source of soiled clothes and the drying areas, and the isolation of clutter. Space needed by a single worker in front of equipment or between equipment placed opposite is indicated. Overall dimensions of areas will vary with type and size of equipment selected.

No allowance has been made between the back of equipment and the wall for electrical, plumbing, and dryer vent connections. The space required will depend on the type of installation used.

Counter space is provided for sorting and folding three washer loads of clothes. The Total floor area, in Work area, in Wi dt h Depth 43 x 37 43 63 36 x 59 62 76 36 x 66 62 66 space under the counters has been used for bins, one for soiled clothing and the other for dry, clean articles that require further treatment before use or storage. Additional counter space can be provided by the tops of the dryer and washer, depending upon the type selected.

A tall storage cabinet for laundry supplies would complement each arrangement. In this cabinet, an ironing board, iron, mops, and buckets needed for cleaning the laundry area may also be stored. The laundry area may be separate or combined with the bathroom, the kitchen, the utility space, or the corridor. The most frequently mentioned advantages and disadvantages of these various options are listed below.

Separate Laundry Advantages A separate space can be used for other activities such as sewing and hobbies, if it is large enough. Clothes may be hung for air drying without interfering with other household activities.

Noise from laundry appliances can be shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Temporary holding or storage of clothing to be washed or ironed is made easier. Disadvantages Providing this extra room increases the cost of the dwelling. Laundry in Combination with Bathroom Advantages When the bathroom is located near the bedrooms, the washer and dryer are close to where most laundry originates. This facili tates gathering soiled articles and putting away clean linen and clothing.

Combining the laundry space with a half bathroom adjacent to the kitchen provides many of the advantages of a separate laundry room. The tops of the laundry appliances provide useful horizontal space on which to lay clothes. Floor and wall finishes in bathrooms are usually resistant to high humidities.

Usually, additional plumbing costs are minimal. The bathroom sink may be used for hand washing. Mechanical ventilation can be provided economically for both functions. Disadvantages A bathroom will usually accommodate only washing and drying facilities. Other laundry related activities such as ironing, will have to be carried out elsewhere in the dwelling. Occupants may wish to use the bathroom when laundry is being washed or dried.

KEY I, Z. Direct access to the outside for clothes drying is likely to be easier than from laundries located in a basement or on a second storey. Kitchen sinks are usually sizeable and can be used for laundering. Additional plumbing costs are usually small. Disadvantages Danger of cross-contamination through the handling of dirty washing during food preparation. Grease and cooking smells can be passed on to clean clothes.

Noise generated by running appliances cannot easily be shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Noise generated by running appliances can be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling. Disadvantages Laundry must be carried up and down stairs, although automatic dryers have eased the problem of carrying heavy baskets of damp clothes to outdoor clotheslines.

The space above the appliances may be used as a linen closet. The appliances can be hidden from sight when they are not in use; they can be recessed into the wall and enclosed with doors. Disadvantages Noise generated by running appliances cannot be easily shut off from the rest of the dwelling. An alcove adjacent to a corridor will accommodate only a minimum-sized laundry area. Other laundry related activities, such as ironing, will have to be carried out elsewhere in the dwelling.

Convenience and time-and-step saving are easily achieved by placing the elements in their natural order of use: KEY I. An area especially planned for sewing, convenient to other activity areas, is desirable.

Most houses need storage space for sewing materials and equipment. The amount and kind of storage required varies according to the quality and frequency of sewing. A minimum sewing area should include the machine, auxiliary work surfaces, a chair that permits freedom of motion, and storage arrangements. The work surface for layout and cutting may be outside the area for sewing machine operations and serve multiple purposes.

Consideration should be given to work surfaces at comfortable heights for the varying activities of sewing. Light should be adequate for the activity. Wherever possible or practical, the closet shelf should be located within human reach.

The height shown for the high shelf has been established based on fifth percentile male and female data in order to place it within reach of individuals of smaller body size. Any shelf located at a greater distance should be used primarily for storage that requires only infrequent access.

The location of the shelf just above the rod is essentially a function of rod height. The clearance between the bottom of the shelf and the top of the rod should allow for easy removal of the hanger. Figure 3 illustrates two various types of walk-in storage facilities. Undoubtably, it can be argued that the in, or The authors contend, however, that in order to achieve any degree of comfort in the selection and removal of the desired garment, a minimum of 36 in should be maintained.

The degree to which this dimension can be reduced is a question of the level of comfort the user is prepared to tolerate in exchange for the floor space saved. The two drawings of the plan view of the human figure illustrate clearances required for donning a coat or putting on a pair of stockings.

Three types of closets are common. Walk-in closet This type provides rods on one or both sides of an access path at least 20" wide. A wider access space within the closet may be used as a dressing area.

Reach-in closet The minimum front-to-back depth of space for hanging clothes is 24". The accessible rod length is equal to the width of the door opening plus 6" on each side. Shelf Space and Lighting The shelf is normally located 2" above the rod, and another shelf may be located 12" higher.

Shelves higher than the rod may also be installed at the end of the closet. A fluorescent fixture over the door is recommended for lighting a closet. Deluxe cool white tubes match daylight for selecting clothes.

Rod Lengths and Heights Edge-in closet By providing an edge-in space of at least 18", the accessible rod length can be much longer than the door width. This requires less wall space than a full front opening. Recommended heights of rods are 68" for long robes, 63" for adult clothing, and 32" for children's clothing. The Minimum Property Standards of HUD require that each bedroom have a closet, with rod and shelf, with minimum dimensions of For double-occupancy bedrooms: This diagram shows dimensions for rods, shelves, and drawers to hold underwear, sweaters, shoes, hats, purses, and ties.

Research shows that each person needs at least 48 inches of rod space for hanging clothing. Optional baskets and door racks. Optional full-height door storage rack.

Sliding baskets hold fruit, vegetables and other kitchen supplies. Optional door racks maximize storage area by utilizing all available space. Top View Standard pantry design provides ample shelving and storage for canned goods and other food items. Center pole gives extra support. Optional door racks provide easy access to your most needed items. Plenty of shelving space for cloths, detergents and brushes.

Wide storage area holds vacuum cleaner, brooms, mops and small appliances. Storage baskets pack brushes, cloths and sundry items. Bottled detergents and cleaning products can be stored neatly and safely in optional door racks. The perfect his and hers closet. Extra wide shelf space for clothing, linen and blankets in your master bedroom. Plus lots of room for her long dresses and coats - his shirts, suits and slacks. Shoe racks on both sides. Front View Full-width, double hanging with lower shelving height.

Sliding basket system and shoe racks. Extra lowhanging shelf makes it easy for kids to reach. Stores toys and sports equipment in easy-access sliding baskets. Shoe rack keeps sneakers and other footwear neatly organized. Front View Walk-In. Single and double hang with upper storage and central shelving unit with additional clearance and shoe racks.

Double hanging convenience for shorter garments. Full shelves with central storage unit allow easy storage of sweaters, boots, sports equipment, tall and over-sized items.

Tailor-made for couples with a 2nd bedroom. Front View StandardDouble. Plenty of storage space for footballs, beach equipment, basketballs, skates and other cumbersome items. Doubles as storage area for dresses and coats. Conveniently placed hanging rod for all your teenager's clothing. M'14 16 and 20" widths available Top View Four extra-wide shelves for linen and blankets. Storage baskets slide out and hold dish cloths, pillowcases and smaller items.

The perfect linen closet. Fullwidth, upper storage holds hats, gloves and sweaters. Off-center storage for umbrellas and winter items. Shelves, shoe racks and generous hanging space lets guests know they're welcome. Front View Single hang with halflength shoe racks and upper storage. Upper storage area for visitor's bags and small cases. Singleand double hang with upper storage, central shelving and shoe racks.

Sliding baskets for easy access to linen, underwear, etc. Fulllength clothes storage for dresses, shirts and suits. Ideal for master bedroom. Top View Front View Single hang with upper storage and central shelving and basket unit, additional clearance and shoe racks. Four sliding baskets provide multiple storage capacity for shirts, underwear, socks and sweaters. Full-length clothes hanging space, fullwidth shoe racks and lots of shelf space make this system a must for your 2nd bedroom.

Hang dresses and coats on one side, suits and shorter garments on the other. Central shelving actually replaces a piece of furniture in the master bedroom! Single hanging for clothes, coats, shirts and jackets. Expands easily to accommodate future needs. Within these buildings, workers spend nearly half their waking hours and a third of their entire lives.

Over the life span of a typical office building, the same spaces may be occupied by a succession of different tenants, each with their own programmatic requirements.

Consequently, interior spaces may be recycled and redesigned many times, simply to accommodate the changing needs of new corporate users. In many instances redesign may be necessitated solely by the effect of technological change on the methodology of transacting business. Moreover, the escalating costs of land acquisition and construction and the increasing scarcity of urban building sites make it essential that the redesign reflects an efficient, cost-effective utilization of space, as well as one that is responsive to the human factors involved.

It is necessary, therefore, for the designer to be familiar not only with the general planning criteria associated with office design, but with the architectural detailing of some of the typical interior elements contained within these spaces.

Accordingly, this section includes general planning criteria and examples of actual working drawings of typical interior conditions, prepared by various design professionals. The details alluded to include such items as trading desks, elevated computer floors, library furniture, built-in storage cabinets, work counters, wall paneling, vanities, reception desks, and conference room elements. Also included are illustrations and dimensional data pertaining to typical office furniture, equipment, and electronic media storage.

Basic Workstations The so-called general office takes on a variety of forms and configurations. In its simplest variation it may be nothing more complex than several standard desks with returns located within a room or space. In its more sophisticated and ergonomically designed form, the general office may be based on an open planning or office landscaping concept, involving a system of workstations.

The workstations include desk surfaces, files, acoustic partitions, and a host of other optional components to suit the nature of the particular work tasks involved. The systems are extremely flexible, allowing the workstations to be configured in a variety of shapes.

Provision for power and lighting is quite common. The design of the general office, like the design of the private office, requires a knowledge of the basic dimensional requirements and clearances of the workstation and, where applicable, of the visitor seating to be accommodated.

Accordingly, this part includes basic planning criteria for general office design, in addition to examples of architectural woodwork details in connection with some of the more common customized components of general office spaces.

The basic workstation, as illustrated in plan in Fig. The worktask zone must be large enough to accommodate the paperwork, equipment, and other accessories that support the user's function. In no case should this distance be less than the 30 in, or The visitor seating zone, ranging in depth from 30 to 42 in, or The specific type and size of the seating i.

Figure 2 shows the typical workstation expanded into the basic U-shaped configuration.

Not only does it provide more storage, the lateral file unit is generally the same height as that of the worksurface and is often utilized as a supplementary worksurface. The distance between this unit and that of the primary worksurface must be sufficient to allow for movement and rotation of the chair.

Square footage workstation standards for the nonautomated task are developed primarily according to task profile, equipment, conferencing, and privacy requirements. Task Profile: Processing paper on work surface with quick turnaround. Telephone tasks may require concentration. Typewriter the primary tool for processing paper. Tasks may require concentration. Storage for permanent files and reference materials minimal. Limited conferencing required at the workspace.

Same as 1 with addition of extended conferencing requirements at individual workstation. Same as 3 with addition of extended conferencing requirements at individual workstation.

Data Entry. Multiple Workstations Fig. Size of worksurface, length and depth of return, chair size, and circulation patterns all influence the gross square footage requirements. Clustering of workstations will ultimately result in the use of less floor area, but at the expense of majorergonomic considerations. Decisions relative to both acoustical privacy and personal space are often sacrificed in the name of economy.

Multiple Workstations Multiple workstations can result in efficient utilization of space and sharing of expensive computer terminals and equipment. If use of computer terminals is intensive, individual CRTs should be provided.

Figures 5, 6, and 7 each show eight workstations, yet the setups range in area from to ft 2. Furniture size, function, and ergonomic considerations all affect setup. Office Layout It is not unusual to have two or more persons share an enclosed office space. In planning this type of office space, both circulation and clearance become critically important. Door swings, the extension of file drawers, and points of entry must all be carefully considered. This page and the following pages include the necessary planning criteria required, as well as details of certain customized components.

Desks are also available in generally accepted standard sizes. It is these standard desks that are most used in the design of the private office. Figure 1 illustrates the range of desk dimensions, chair dimensions, and clearances involved.

Such a situation is illustrated in Fig. Such a desk is often selected if the executive in question plans to hold conferences within the office and prefers the psychology of having either visitors or employees gather around the worksurface in an egalitarian fashion. While a minimum desk size of 48 in, or A circular executive desk must be supported by supplementary credenza or file storage within easy reach of the executive chair. Figure 3 illustrates a typical circular lounge grouping found within an executive office.

Providing for the appropriate leg clearance of 12 to 18 in, or Buttock-knee length must also be considered. Typical Room Arrangements The private offices illustrated in Figs. Each office layout should be carefully reviewed with the client to ensure that all programmatic functions have been met.

Offices of this size do not easily accommodate an independent conference function. These architectural working drawings reflect the custom design of a storage wall for a partner in a law office. Careful analysis shows the incorporation of file, book, and coat storage within a floor-to-ceiling mahogany wood unit.

Careful attention must be given to integration of electronic equipment, electrical wiring, and task lighting. Other cost-saving devices illustrated here are the application of a wood panel to a standard metal file and the use of a fabricwrapped tack board. The incorporation of an undercabinet task light is almost always required.

These drawings are particularly helpful when the office project for which these wall units are intended consists of many offices, and each office is to be customized within certain constraints. The sophistication and complexity of such details can significantly influence the budget for the space as well as the time of installation.

Figure 25 represents a "high-end" approach, while Fig. Anthropometrics New electronic technologies, together with the advent and proliferation of the microcomputer and the availability of inexpensive packaged software, have changed the complexion of the office workplace.

The ergonomic considerations related to this new work environment have necessitated a reevaluation of the traditional interface between the seated office worker and his or her workplace.

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It is essential that the design of this electronic workstation be responsive to human factors in order to avoid physical discomfort for the user. The location of the Keyboard, angle of the visual display terminal, adjustability of the chair, field of vision, provisions for back support, and height of the seat above the floor are a few of the considerations in the design process. This page and the following pages provide a variety of anthropometric and ergonomic planning data and details for use as reference in the design of the electronic workstation.

Figure 1 illustrates guidelines for use in establishing preliminary design assumptions for a workstation display console. Since the types of displays and the nature of the tasks associated with those displays can vary considerably, Fig. The configuration shown, however, is fairly representational. Certain basic factors should be noted anthropometrically.

The use of an adjustable chair will permit the eye height of the seated viewer to be raised or lowered to view the display, as may be required depending on body size. An adjustment range between 15 and 18 in, or Adjustability, however, will be of little value if the vertical distance between the underside of the desk and the floor is insufficient to accommodate the knee height and thigh clearance when the seat is adjusted to the appropriate position.

If such distance is not less than The location of the top of the display should align with the standard sight line for optimum viewing conditions. Since the eye and the head can rotate within certain limitations and, in so doing, increase the area that can be scanned, displays can be located above the standard sight line when absolutely necessary. It should also be noted that the more perpendicular the normal sight line is to the display plane, the greater the viewing comfort.

Stature is the vertical distance from the floor to the top of the head, measured while the subject stands erect, looking straight ahead. Elbow height is the distance measured vertically from the floor to the depression formed at the elbow where the forearm meets the upper arm.

Eye height is the vertical distance from the floor to the inner corner of the eye, measured with the subject looking straight ahead and standing erect.

Sitting height erect is the vertical distance from the sitting surface to the top of the head with the subject sitting erect. Sitting height normal is the vertical distance from the sitting surface to the top of the head, measured with the subject sitting relaxed.

Eye height is the vertical distance from the inner corner of the eye to the sitting surface. Shoulder height is the distance taken vertically from the sitting surface to a point on the shoulder midway between the neck and acromion. Shoulder breadth is the maximum horizontal distance across the deltoid muscles. Elbow to elbow is the distance across the lateral surfaces of the elbows measured with elbows flexed and resting lightly against the body with the forearms extended horizontally.

Hp breadth is the breadth of the body as measured across the widest portion of the hips. Note that a hip breadth measurement can also be taken with the subject in a standing position, in which case the definition would be the maximum breadth of the lower torso. Elbowrestheight istheheightfromthe top of the sitting surface to the bottom of the tip of the elbow. Thigh clearance is the distance taken vertically from a sitting surface to the top of the thigh at the point where the thigh and the abdomen intersect.

Knee height is the vertical distance from the floor to the midpoint of the kneecap. Popliteal height is the distance, taken vertically, from the floor to the underside of the portion of the thigh just behind the knee while the subject is seated with body erect.

The knees and ankles are usually perpendicular, with the bottom of the thigh and the back of the knees barely touching the sitting surface. Buttock-popliteal length is the horizontal distance from the rearmost surface of the buttock to the back of the lower leg.

Buttock-knee length is the horizontal distance from the rearmost surface of the buttocks to the front of the kneecaps. Buttock-toe length is the horizontal distance from the rearmost surface of the buttocks to the tip of the toe. Buttock-heel length is the horizontal distance from the base of the heel to a wall against which the subject sits erect with his leg maximally extended forward along the sitting surface. This is sometimes referred to as buttock-leg length.

Vertical reach is the height above the sitting surface of the tip of the middle finger when the arm, hand, and fingers are extended vertically. Vertical grip reach is usually measured from the floor to the top of a bar grasped in the right hand while the subject stands erect and the hand within which the bar is grasped is raised as high as it can be conveniently without experiencing discomfort or strain. Side arm reach is the distance from the center line of the body to the outside surface of a bar grasped in the right hand while the subject stands erect and the arm is conveniently outstretched horizontally without experiencing discomfort or strain.

Thumb tip reach is the distance from the wall to the tip of the thumb measured with the subject's shoulders against the wall, his arm extended forward, and his index finger touching the tip of his thumb. Maximum body depth is the horizontal distance between the most anterior point on the body to the most posterior. Anterior points are usually located on the chest or abdomen while the posterior points are usually found in the buttock or shoulder region.

Maximum body breadth is the maximum distance, including arms, across the body. C p F In cm Anthropometrics Both the work surface and the display monitors must be lowered and raised as a unit with This lets the user adjust the screen to avoid reflective glare, and it accommodates various working positions of different lines of sight. Adjustment controls designed for hand operation must be located within the operator's extended reach envelope.

This reduces the likelihood of reflective glare. The digitizing surface must accommodate standard European and American D size drawings, m Screen depth of view must allow alphanumeric characters to be viewed at an angle between 20 and 28 arc minutes.

Square footage Open Screened workstation standards for the automated task No requirement of equipment or task for Privacy required for reading, working, thinking, are also developed primarily according to task privacy, concentration calculating, meetings, confidential phone calls, profile , equipment, conferencing, and privacy elimination of visual and acoustical distractions requirements.

Data Retrieval. Shared Tasks. Reference materials used may be used frequently. Storage requirements vary according to task. Word Processing.

Li Tasks are complex enough to require concentration for analysis, or heavy equipment operations require acoustical screening. More than one task may be performed concurrently. Multiple reference sources may be used on a task. Typewriter and electronic equipment VDT, printer, and so on may be used to expedite processing and administrative tasks. With little, if any, margin for error when designing and detailing multiple workstations of this type, a full-size mockup is always required.

Table Sizes and Seating Capacities Consideration must be given to clearances and circulation around the larger conference table, as indicated in Figs.


A minimum of 48 in, or This dimension under ordinary circumstance allows for a circulation zone beyond the sitting zone of 30 to 36 in, or The greater dimension is recommended to allow for the chair in a pulled-out position. The actual dimensions of the conference table are a function of the number of people to be seated. The square table illustrated in Fig. The larger dimension is more appropriate to accommodate people of larger body size and to allow for a more generous work zone for each person.

This translates into 30 in, or The circular table shown in Fig. To accommodate both sitting zone and circulation zone, a space with a radius ranging from 72 to 81 in, or Table Sizes and Seating Capacities Round conference tables offer the advantages of intimacy, "equality," and compact, ness. On the other hand, if status is an issue, or if one wall within the space is an audiovisual wall, this table shape can be less than satisfactory.

The same problems can arise with a square conference table. In both instances, however, the total seating around each table shape must be viewed in the context of chair size, chair spacing, and tasks to be performed at the table.

Table Sizes and Seating Capacities Rectangular and boat-shaped conference sables lend themselves toward formal set: Both table shapes are also more suitable in a room where an audiovisual wall is oiaced at one end of the space, or where speakers are making presentations. The coat-shaped table also offers greater visibility cf others seated at the table, as well as ease: Seating 5'0 22'0 22 - 24 1 j'0" X 32'0 5 0 20'0 22 15'0"x 30'0" 4'0 13 '0" 12 14 12'0 " X 21 '0" 4'0 10'0 " 4'0 9'6" 10 - 12 8- 1 o 12'0 x 1 7' 0 12 1 o- x WW, 3 'o 6'6 10'0 " X 13 '6.

Table Sizes and Seating Capacities Fig. They are useful in client discussions and in making preliminary area allocations. Chair size and circulation areas behind the chairs will, of course, cause overall dimensions to vary. The base treatments shown in Fig. Perhaps even more important to consider are the finished edges of glass and wood conference tables, representative details of which are shown in Figs. Other edge details could be made of marble, granite, or even leather Fingers, hands, and arms make intimate contact with these edge details, something that should be carefully considered.

They serve multiple functions, including storage, incorporation of electronic media equipment, display, and as a work surface. This exciting new edition includes new international examples and metrification — and provides you with full coverage of healthcare spaces, educational spaces; home offices; videoconferencing spaces; green design; project forms and schedules.

Two outstanding sections cover historic styles and woodworking.

Architecture Nonfiction Publication Details Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education Imprint: McGraw-Hill Professional Edition: We want your feedback! Click here. Subjects Architecture Nonfiction. Architecture Nonfiction. Publication Details Publisher:

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