Sumita arora informatics practices class 12 ebook


 

Results 1 - 16 of 33 Informatics Practices: ATextbook for Class XII Computer Science With C++ (Set of 2 Volume) by Sumita Arora ( Session) for. An author of computer science books and school books, Sumita Arora has . CBSE Chapterwise Solved Papers Informatics Practices Class 12 for Sumita Arora Informatics Practices Class 12 Pdf ->>> DOWNLOAD , informatics,practices,ebook,free,download,xi,,sumita,arora,ebook,class,xii,full, mega.

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Sumita Arora Informatics Practices Class 12 Ebook

Informatics Practices A text book for Class 12 by Sumita Arora, , available at Book Depository with free delivery worldwide. Informatics Practices Textbook For Class Cbsew/Cd. Front Cover. Sumita Arora. Dhanpat Rai Publishing Company (P) Limited, 1 Review. SUMITA ARORA IP CLASS 12 PDF - File size: Kb Version: Date practices class 12 pdf notes, ebook, guide & study material sumita arora to download sumita arora informatics practices class 12 pdf, sumita arora.

Electromagnetic waves are used for wireless communication over computer networks. Frequencies of waves are measured in Hertz Hz. As the frequencies of electromagnetic waves change, their properties also change. Based on their frequencies, electromagnetic waves are categorized into various categories. These categories are in increasing order of frequencies : radio waves, microwaves, infrared radiation, visible light, ultraviolet radiation, X-rays, and Gamma rays. Out of these only radio waves, microwaves, and infrared rays are used for wireless communication. Let us now study about these waves in some details. Radio waves have a frequency range of 3 KHz to 3GHz. Radio waves are used for communication over distances ranging from a few meters in walkie-talkies upto covering an entire city. These waves are easy to generate, can travel long distances and can penetrate buildings easily. That's why they are widely used for communication, both indoors and outdoors. Recall when you throw a stone in a pond, circular waves are generated and spread outwards. Similarly, radio waves are generated by the transmitter and spread in all the directions. Relatively inexpensive than wired media. It offers ease of communication over difficult terrain The transmission can be interfered by motors or other electrical equipment Permission from concerned authorities is required for use of radio wave transmission Less secure mode of transmission Micro waves have a frequency range of MHz 0.

Getting a change incorporated into an open source project is thus rather like getting an article published in a scientific journal. Open source software is more heavily tested than their commercial counterparts as it can be downloaded by anybody around the world and any one of them can discover a bug or security flaw and submit those reports back to the project.

Also the loop-hole or bug is available to every one and the customer can take the preventive measure accordingly and fix comes faster. The Open Document format ODF is a format for office documents, such as spreadsheets, databases, presentations and word-processing documents. Open Document is a free and open format. For governments, businesses, archivists and others, it's critical to store documents in a way that can be read for years to come. Proprietary digital file formats are typically changing with every new version of the software, so there should be some format which supports files created in any application.

The data should be the center of importance not the application. Office suite applications, as always, need a file format that is designed to organize the data when it moves away from the application.

People with different machines in different places should be able to open and edit the data in a file. ODF offers an open alternative to the formats used by all of the existing Office application versions for text, spreadsheet, presentation, and other kinds of documents.

Open Document's main file extensions are. These will be more commonly recognized when more people and organizations adopt Open Document-ready software. Ogg Vorbis is a new audio compression format developed by Xiph. It is an open, patent-free, professional audio encoding and streaming technology with all the benefits of Open source. Let us recall from Annexure I of Class XI that in order to communicate with the computers some kind of a binary code is required.

In this regard, a detailed study was made on BCD code which is a 4 bit code. However, BCD code is not sufficient enough to accommodate even all the characters of English alphabet and digits.

To accommodate all these, a higher bit code is required. In the earlier days most computers were using an 8 bit system. This extra bit gave computer developers lot of empty spaces which was used for different purposes.

In order to work with Indian languages, these unspecified spaces were used for Indic characters. The efforts were very creative and gave good results despite the fact that there was no or very little support from the operating systems.

Since no general rules and methodologies were adopted in developing Indic characters, different developers developed these characters in their own ways. This created compatibility issues across different programs and across different operating systems.

For example browsers like Internet Explorer did not support all Indic characters and displayed distorted texts. On one hand, more and more work had been undertaken to facilitate the use of Indian languages on computers but on the other hand it was becoming difficult to maintain consistency across different programs developed for the same set of Indic characters.

In such a scenario, it was important to have a common standard for coding Indian scripts. The Indic scripts are a family of abugida alphabetic-syllabary writing systems.

They are used by languages of several linguistic families: They were also the source of the dictionary order of Japanese kana. Similarly, to work with other languages of the world, people were making efforts to use ASCII along with the extra 8th bit. Unicode was developed with the aim to conceive a single standard code which could manage to represent all languages of the world.

Unicode characters are represented in one of the three encoding forms: With the usage of Unicode, single versions of software were developed instead of language-specific versions that reduced the complexity.

This ensures platform, vendor and application independence. Incorporating Unicode into applications and websites offers significant cost savings than proprietary solutions. It allows data to be transported through several different systems without distortion. This font format was developed by Adobe in 's. This font consists of two parts which are both necessary for the font to be properly printed and displayed on screen.

With most operating systems, these fonts can be installed simply by being placed in the system's folder. This format was jointly developed by Apple and Microsoft in the late 80s. These fonts contain both the screen and printer font data in a single component, making the fonts easier to install.

And that is why these are a good choice for those who find the installation of fonts difficult. This is the latest font format which is a joint effort by Apple and Microsoft. Like True Type fonts, this contains both the screen and printer font data in a single component.

However, open type fonts support multiple platforms and expanded character sets. Additionally, open type format allows the storage of upto 65, characters. This additional space provides freedom to include add-ons such as small caps, old style figures, alternate characters and other extras that previously needed to be distributed as separate fonts. However, not all open type fonts contain additional characters. Many fonts have been converted from either PostScript or TrueType formats without expanded character sets to take advantage of the cross-platform functionality benefits of Open Type.

OpenType fonts that do contain expanded character sets are referred to informally as OpenType Pro fonts. Support for OpenType Pro fonts is increasing, but the format is yet to be fully supported by all applications. Every time printing takes place, same character will appear with same shape e.

Times New Roman, Arial etc. Dynamic font is a web browser technology used when visiting any website that uses fonts which are not installed on client's machine. The web browser would not be able to display the page properly, but will select one of fonts available on client machine. In this the characters are redefined at each occurrence everytime they are displayed or printed.

All hand written fonts such as handwritten alphabets, calligraphic letters, graffiti etc are dynamic fonts because of individual variations. This technology is helpful in displaying multilingual websites. Many tools have been developed to facilitate the typing of Indian language text. These tools broadly support two types of text entries: But while typing, the Indian alphabets are written phonetically i. For e. The whole arrangement of mapping the keyboard keys to specific language characters is known as keymap.

A keymap is internally stored as a table. Multiple keymaps are used to store complete keymapping e. Entering Indian language text. When Nukta "-" is typed after character, the character shown to its left on the key, is obtained. Future Trends You can get more information on Indian script keymaps from http: At present very few open source endeavors which involve few people are there and are largely unstructured and undisciplined.

But as this concept matures in future more OSS projects will come up and will adopt more structured methodologies to code, control and coordinate. In future this concept will be adopted at a big level by private and government sector. This will force companies to embrace open source and will force the open source community to innovate in line with more complex need of government and business.

ODF Open Document Format offers an open alternative to the formats used by all of the existing software. Ogg Vorbis is open audio compression format. Post Script font consists of two parts which are both necessary for the font to be properly printed and displayed on screen. True type fonts contain both the screen and printer font data in a single component. Open type fonts support multiple platforms and expanded character sets.

Information Practices: A Text Book for Class XII

On the basis of their configuration, fonts are categorized as static fonts and dynamic fonts. For entering text in Indian script keymap based or phonetic text based entry can be done. Give at least two examples of OSS. Justify that free software is not open source software. Write down its components, their areas of applications, their file extensions. Identify and name the various methods and properties associated with the various form controls Create simple applications in Java using NetBeans IDE.

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Create GUI applications using the concepts of variables and control structures. The GUI builder automatically takes care of the correct spacing and alignment of the different components relative to each other. The JFrame acts as a container for the elements like the JLabel, JButton, JTextArea and allows direct editing of their associated properties at the design time and run time.

The related methods are used in the code to develop applications for a specific task. The concept of variables and control structures are used to simplify the code of the applications.

This group of phrases has something amazing hidden in it. Try and find out what is so unusual about this group of phrases? Is there any specific pattern in each line? Delia failed. Evil olive Pull up if I pull up.

Step on no pets. Ten animals I slam in a net. Was it a bat I saw? Was it a car or a cat I saw? We found an interesting pattern in the puzzle and we will use this concept to develop an application in netbeans. Let us take a journey back in time and think as to what the world was like 15 years ago. site was a large river in South America. Yahoo was a term from Gulliver's Travels. A googol was a very large number one followed by a hundred zeroes and to get our tickets booked we had to go to shops called 'travel agents'.

In case we fell sick and went to a hospital, our records were maintained on paper. If the doctor wanted to refer to a particular patient's record, he had to instruct a assistant to hunt for information from the pile of files. Nowadays hospitals use computers to keep the records of patients - medical history, details on what medication to give to a patient, the prescribed dosage and also personal details that can be accessed at the click of a button.

The entire information is entered into a computer using a front end that accepts the different patient details.

This chapter will help us recapitulate all the concepts learnt in class XI. Figure 3. Title Bar 2. Menu Bar with pull down menus 3. Toolbars 4. GUI builder: It is an area to place components on the form visually. We can switch over from one view to another by simply clicking on the source and design tabs directly above the Design Area. Palette contains controls or components used to create GUI applications.

Inspector Window: This window is used to display a hierarchy of all the components or controls placed on the current form. Properties Window: Using this window we can make changes in the properties of currently selected control on the form. Code Editor Window: Components also known as "widgets" are the basic interface elements the user interacts with: Components are placed on a container like the jFrame.

There are two types of controls: They act as a background for other controls. For example-Frame. When we delete a parent control, all its child controls get deleted. When we move a parent control all its child controls also move along with it. For example-Text Field, Label, Button etc. Components Parent or container controls: Child controls:. Parent or container controls Child controls Figure 3. Select New Project from the File menu. In the Categories pane, select the General node.

In the Projects pane, choose the Java Application type. Click the Next button. Enter the name of the project in the Project Name field and specify the project location. Do not create a Main class here. Click the Finish button. Let us recap the relation between a Project, Form and Components. Each application is treated as a Project in NetBeans and each project can have one or multiple forms and this fact is clear from the Projects window as shown in Figure 3. The visible components are all shown under the Frame Component and the non-visible components are part of Other components.

We use the drag and drop feature of NetBeans to place components on the form to design an effective interface for our applications. The first step that we undertook while designing our applications was adding a new jFrame form. Some of the properties of the jFrame form are defaultCloseOperation and Title. Title Sets the text to be displayed in the Title bar of the form window. Each of these objects belongs to its corresponding class predefined in Java.

For example, a form is an object of JFrame class, all the textfields are objects of JTextField class, and so on. Each object has some properties, methods, and events associated with it using which you can control the object's appearance and behaviour. Properties of an object are used to specify its appearance on the form. For example to set the background colour of a textfield you change its background property; to set its font you change its font property; and so on.

Methods are used to perform some action on the object. For example to display something in a textfield you can use its setText method, to extract the contents of a textfield you can use its getText method. Methods can be divided into two categories- getters and setters.

Getters are the methods which extract some information from the object and return it to the program. Getters start with the word get. Examples of getters are: Setters are the methods which set some properties of the object so that the object's appearance changes. Setters start with the word set. Examples of setters are: Events are the actions which are performed on controls. Examples of events are: When the user performs any action on a Property Description.

After setting the properties of the jFrame we can start placing components like jButton on the jFrame form. A button is a component that the user presses or pushes to trigger a specific action. When the user clicks on the button at runtime, the code associated with the click action gets executed. The various methods and properties associated with the jButton are summarized in Figure 3. Background Sets the background color. Enabled Contains enabled state of component - true if enabled else false.

Font Sets the font. Foreground Sets the foreground color. Label Sets the display text. Text Sets the display text getText Retrieves the text typed in jButton.

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It displays a single line of read-only text, an image or both text and image. The various methods and properties associated with the jTextField and jLabel are summarized in Figure 3.

Border Sets the type of border that will surround the text field. Default is true. Well can you recall the name of the component. Exactly the component is Text Area component. This component allows us to accept multiline input from the user or display multiple lines of information.

This component automatically adds vertical or horizontal scroll bars as and when required during run time. The various methods and properties associated with the jTextArea are summarized in Figure 3. Default is false rows Sets number of rows preferred for display. That's right the component is jPassword. We can suppress the display of input as this component allows us to input confidential information like passwords.

Each character entered can be replaced by an echo character. The properties of jPassword are summarized below: But radio buttons occupy a lot of space. Thus, in case of too many options we used Combo boxes as they help save space and are less cumbersome to design as compared to radio button.

We used check box and list when we wanted to display multiple options like selecting favourite sports or ordering multiple food items in a restaurant. The list is a preferred option over check box in situations wherever multiple options are required to be selected from a large number of known set of options as they help save space and are less cumbersome to design as compared to check boxes.

The properties and methods of jRadioButton are summarized below: Selected Sets the button as selected, if set to true, default is false. When you click on it, it changes from checked to unchecked or vice versa automatically. The properties and methods of jCheckBox are summarized below: The properties and methods of jComboBox and jList are summarized below: It required an import statement at the top of the program.

Well can you recollect the import statement? That's right it is: JOptionPane; OR import javax. The difference is that the latter will import the entire library as denoted by the star whereas the first statement will just import the JOptionPane library.

User can respond by pressing any of the suitable buttons. It prompts the user with a text box in which the user can enter the relevant input.

Well, we used variables when we required containers to store the values for some input, intermediate result or the final result of an operation. The characteristics of a variable are: It has a name.

It is capable of storing values.

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It provides temporary storage. It is capable of changing its value during program execution. Variables help us to hold value for some input coming from the user or to hold intermediate result of some calculation or the final result of an operation.

In other words, variables are like containers that can be used to store whatever values are needed for a specific computation. However, as different materials require different containers, and so we used different data types to hold different values. When programming, we store the variables in our computer's memory, but the computer has to know what kind of data we want to store in them, since it is not going to occupy the same amount of memory to store a simple number or to store a single letter or a large number, and they are not going to be interpreted the same way so variables were used along with datatypes.

The data types supported by java are summarized as follows: Data type states the way the values of that type are stored, the operations that can be done on that type, and the range for that type.

These data types are used to store integer values only i. The storage size and range is listed below: These data types are used to store characters. Character data types can store any type of values - numbers, characters and special characters. When we want to store a single character, we use char data type and when we want to store a group of characters we use string data type. For example to store grades A, B, C, D, E of a student we will use char type but to store name of a student, we will use string type.

The char data type value is always enclosed inside ' ' single quotes , whereas a string data type value is enclosed in " " double quotes. Operators are symbols that manipulate, combine or compare variables. Character Data Types: Operators With the introduction of variables and constants there arose a need to perform certain operations on them. We performed operations on variables and constants using operators.

The operators available in java are summarized below: We assign the value given on the right hand side to the variable specified on the left hand side. The value on the right hand side can be a number or an arithmetic expression. These symbols are similar to mathematical symbols. Arithmetic Operators: A mathematical expression created using a relational operator forms a relational expression or a condition. The following table lists the various relational operators and their usage: Logical operators and relational operators are used together to form a complex condition.

Logical operators are: Operator Meaning Usage Logical Operator: The unary operators perform different kind of operations on a single operand.

In both conditions 1 is added to the value of the variable and the result is stored back to the variable. However, in a prefix expression, value is incremented first then this new value is restored back to the variable. In postfix expression the current value is assigned to a variable then it is incremented by 1 and restored back to the original variable.

Let us now try and recollect the conversion methods that we have used in java. When a Java program receives input data from a user, it must often convert it from one form e. To convert a string value to a number For example, to convert the String value in a text field jTextField1 to an int, long, float or double , we can use parse methods. Assume the following declarations: Assume the following code: To convert a number to string, we also used toString method. If either operand of a concatenation is a string, the other operand is converted to string.

We learnt two types of control structures in class XI namely, Selection statements and Iteration statements. Control structures allow us to control the flow of our program's execution. If left unchecked by control-flow statements, a program's logic will flow through statements from top to bottom. We can have some control on the flow of a program by using operators to regulate precedence of operations, but control structures provide the power to change statement order and govern the flow of control in a program.

A selection statement selects among a set of statements depending on the value of a controlling expression. The selection statements are the if statement and the switch statement, which are discussed below: The if statement allows selection decision making depending upon the outcome of a condition.

If the condition evaluates to true then the statement immediately following if will be executed and otherwise if the condition evaluates to false then the statements following the else clause will be executed. The selection statements are also called conditional statements or decision statements.

The syntax of if statement is as shown below: The conditional expression is always enclosed in parenthesis. The conditional expression may be a simple expression or a compound expression. Each statement block may have a single or multiple statements to be executed. The else clause is optional and needs to be included only when some action is to be taken if the test condition evaluates to false.

These control structures are used to test for multiple conditions as against the simple if statement which can be used to test a single condition. The syntax of nested if else is as follows: Nested if.

Add a label set its Text as Enter Number 3. Add a jTextField and set its initial Text as "" 4. Add three radio buttons on the form - Set the text of each of them as "Multiple of 3", "Multiple of 5" and "Multiple of 7". Group the radio buttons so that only one can be selected. In this application we ask the user to enter a number and then the user will select one of the radio buttons and depending upon the button selected the multiple check for that number will be performed. Let us now write the code for the above mentioned application.

Code to check for multiple of 3 is given. Try and write the code to perform a similar check for multiple of 5 and multiple of 7. This value by default is treated as a string and not as a number so it needs to be converted to a double type and this is achieved using the parseDouble method. The value is then stored in the variable Number.

If the remainder is zero then the number is divisible by 3 else it is not. This selection statement allows us to test the value of an expression with a series of character or integer values. On finding a matching value the control jumps to the statement pertaining to that value and the statement is executed, till the break statement is encountered or the end of switch is reached.

The expression must either evaluate to an integer value or a character value. It cannot be a string or a real number. The syntax of the switch statement is as follows:.

If we are handling specific coded values eg, the number of the button that was clicked in a JOptionPane , or processing characters whose codes are treated like numbers , then switch is useful. The limitations of switch are as follows: It doesn't allow ranges, eg case It requires either integers or characters and doesn't allow useful types like String. ParseInt jTextField. Let us look at the example given above, when a selection is to be made based on a single value, the switch statement is generally easier to read.

It has a shorter syntax and is more appropriate in this case. Let us now design an application in which we will calculate the selling price depending upon the profit percent selected by the user. Design the application as shown in figure 3. Set the relevant properties of the components. Let us now write the code. The value is then stored in the variable CP. This value is saved in a variable profit. In the above application the profit margin is obtained from the Index value of the selected item of the combo box but what happens if the values in the combobox are as shown in the figure 3.

Only the code using switch case is given below but it is recommended that you think and try writing the code on your own. Iteration statements are also called looping statements. The loop has four different elements that have different purposes. These elements are: Before entering in a loop, its variables must be initialized. The test expression decides whether the loop body will be executed or not. If the test condition is true, the loop body gets executed otherwise the loop is terminated.

The statements, which are executed repeatedly while the test expression evaluates to true form the body of the loop. The syntax of the for loop is: Using this fact an infinite loop can be created as follows: While Loop - The while loop is an entry-controlled loop.

It means that the loop condition is tested before executing the loop body. If the loop condition is initially false, for the first iteration, then loop may not execute even once. The main characteristic of the while loop is that it can be used in both cases i. The syntax of the while loop is as follows: While loop is an exit-controlled loop.

In the do.. This ensures that the do.. After the first execution of the statement, it evaluates the test expression. If the expression evaluates to true, then it executes the statements of the loop body again. Like if and while statements, the condition being checked must be included between parenthesis. The while statement must end with a semicolon. The syntax of the loop is as follows: Therefore, the statements within the do block are always executed at least once.

Do- while is an exit controlled loop and while is an entry controlled loop. In do while counter is checked at the end of loop body,therefore loop body is executed at least once. Let us now design an application in which we will generate the series and its sum. This value by default is treated as a string and not as a number so it needs to be converted to an integer type and this is achieved using the parseInt method. The value is then stored in the variable Start.

This value is saved in a variable Step. The value is then stored in the variable Terms. Now we have the value from where the user wants to start the series, the terms in the series and the step between numbers of the series.

Index -1 indicates that no item is selected. The pattern that we found in the phrases was that each line had a palindrome hidden in it. This value by default is treated as a string and not as a number so it needs to be converted to long type and this is achieved using the parsetLog method. In this loop we divide temp by 10 and obtain the remainder. The remainder is then added to the value in the variable RevNumber multiplied by The value of variable temp is divided by 10 every time the loop is executed.

These waves are easy to generate, can travel long distances and can penetrate buildings easily. That's why they are widely used for communication, both indoors and outdoors. Recall when you throw a stone in a pond, circular waves are generated and spread outwards.

Similarly, radio waves are generated by the transmitter and spread in all the directions. Relatively inexpensive than wired media. It offers ease of communication over difficult terrain The transmission can be interfered by motors or other electrical equipment Permission from concerned authorities is required for use of radio wave transmission Less secure mode of transmission Micro waves have a frequency range of MHz 0.

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