Gujarat State School Textbook Board. Education Department - Government of Standard Science 10, Chapter 9, English · Gujarati. Science. NCERT/CBSE class 10 Science book Science · ScienceUrdu. NCERT/ CBSE class 10 Science book ScienceUrdu · Vigyan. NCERT/CBSE class Download NCERT Science book for Class 10 in PDF. Also download the chapetr -wise NCERT Solutions for class 10 Science.
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NCERT Books For Class 10 Science (Free PDF Download) NCERT Books For Class 10 Science Latest New Edition NCERT Books For Class 10th std science textbook in pdf (१० वी विज्ञान आणि Maharashtra state board 10th std science textbooks in pdf are as follows in two. GSEB Standard Gujarati Medium/English Medium Textbook Download, Download GSEB Standard 's Gujarati Medium/English Medium Textbook.
The biological process involved in the removal of these harmful metabolic wastes from the body is called excretion. Different organisms use varied strategies to do this. It is discussed in details for human beings. Chapter 7 - Control and Coordination System Earlier, we had started with a notion we all have, that if we see something moving, it is alive.
Some of these movements are in fact the result of growth, as in plants.
A seed germinates and grows, and we can see that the seedling moves over the course of a few days, Control and coordination are the functions of the nervous system and hormones in our bodies.
The responses of the nervous system can be classified as reflex action, voluntary action or involuntary action. The nervous system uses electrical impulses to transmit messages. The nervous system gets information from our sense organs and acts through our muscles. Chemical coordination is seen in both plants and animals.
Hormones produced in one part of an organism move to another part to achieve the desired effect. A feedback mechanism regulates the action of the hormones. Chapter 8 - How do organisms reproduce? Reproduction, unlike other life processes, is not essential to maintain the life of an individual organism. It involves creation of a DNA copy and additional cellular apparatus by the cell involved in the process.
Various organisms use different modes of reproduction depending on their body design such as fission, fragmentation, regeneration, budding, spore formation and vegetative propagation.
Sexual reproduction involves two individuals for the creation of a new individual.
Modes of sexual reproduction allow for greater variation to be generated. Reproduction in flowering plants involves transfer of pollen grains from the anther to the stigma which is referred to as pollination followed by fertilisation. The male reproductive system in human beings consists of testes which produce sperms, vas deferens, seminal vesicles, prostate gland, urethra and penis.
The female reproductive system in human beings consists of ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus and vagina. Sexual reproduction in human beings involves the introduction of sperm in the vagina of the female. Fertilisation occurs in the fallopian tube. Chapter 9 - Heredity and Evolution We have seen that reproductive processes give rise to new individuals that are similar, but subtly different.
We have discussed how some amount of variation is produced even during asexual reproduction. Heredity and evolution deals with the fact — the long-term consequences of the accumulation of variations.
The fact of sex determination in newborn individual is completely solved. Evolution can be worked out by the study of not just living species, but also fossils. Complex organs may have evolved because of the survival advantage of even the intermediate stages. Changes in the non-reproductive tissues caused by environmental factors are not inheritable indicates about different traits like Acquired and Inherited.
Speciation may take place when variation is combined with geographical isolation. Evolutionary relationships are traced in the classification of organisms. Study of the evolution of human beings indicates that all of us belong to a single species that evolved in Africa and spread across the world in stages. Chapter 10 - Light: Reflection and Refraction Light is source of energy which generates sensation of vision in human beings.
In this chapter first reflection of light is discussed. Reflection is governed by its laws. The chapter is concerned with laws of reflection. Here we are basically concerned with the spherical mirrors. After that image formation by spherical mirrors are discussed.
The different types of spherical mirror, convex and concave are taught. The various terms related with spherical mirrors like centre of curvature, radius of curvature etc, focus, pole etc are discussed with ray diagrams. Uses of spherical mirror has been discussed in chapter. Mirror formula is the way to relate object distance, image distance and focal length of mirror.
Magnification is the ratio of size of image by size of object. This is related to ratio of image distance and object distance. Distances are majored from pole of mirror. Sign convention is kept in mind to find relative distances of image and object.
Refraction is the phenomena of bending of light when light travels from one medium to another. The phenomena of refraction can be understood easily by the concepts of refractive index and optical density.
This is better explained by an example of rectangular glass slab. This example is dealt. After that concept of Lens is explained. It is transparent medium bounded by refractive index. Types of Lens —converging and diverging is discussed. Example of converging lens double convex lens and diverging double concave lens. Image formation and terminology is discussed for both convex and concave lens.
Lens formula relates focal length of lens with image distance and object distance. Magnification is related with image and object distance. Sign convention is kept in mind. Power of lens is also discussed. Numerical based on lens formula and mirror formula are to be solved. Chapter 11 - Human Eye and colorful world Human eye, its components, are discussed.
The process of by which human eye can see objects is discussed. The ability of the eye to focus on both near and distant objects, by adjusting its focal length, is called the accommodation of the eye. The smallest distance, at which the eye can see objects clearly without strain, is called the near point of the eye or the least distance of distinct vision.
For a young adult with normal vision, it is about 25 cm. Defects of vision is discussed with their corrective measures using suitable ray diagrams. The common refractive defects of vision include myopia, hypermetropia and presbyopia.
Myopia short-sightedness — the image of distant objects is focussed before the retina is corrected by using a concave lens of suitable power. Hypermetropia far-sightedness — the image of nearby objects is focussed beyond the retina is corrected by using a convex lens of suitable power. The eye loses its power of accommodation at old age. The splitting of white light into its component colours is called dispersion.
Scattering of light causes the blue colour of sky and the reddening of the Sun at sunrise and sunset. Chapter 12 - Electricity Electricity is required for many thing around us. What is electricity? It is phenomena related to flow of charge. The concept of electric current and electric potential difference voltage is taught. Flow of electrons moving through a conductor constitutes an electric current.
Conventionally, the direction of current is taken opposite to the direction of flow of electrons. The SI unit of electric current is ampere. To set the electrons in motion in an electric circuit, we use a cell or a battery. A cell generates a potential difference across its terminals. It is measured in volts V. Resistance is a property that resists the flow of electrons in a conductor.
It controls the magnitude of the current. Ohms Law, which establish relationship between potential difference and current is discussed. Concept of resistance and resistivity is studied. Resistance is property of any conductor to resist flow of current.
The resistance of a conductor depends directly on its length, inversely on its area of cross-section, and also on the material of the conductor. Resistance of conductor having unit length and cross section is defined specific resistance. Series and parallel combination of resistors are discussed. In series current is same and in parallel potential difference is same across resistors. The unit of power is watt W. One watt of power is consumed when 1 A of current flows at a potential difference of 1 V.
The commercial unit of electrical energy is kilowatt hour kWh. Chapter 13 - Magnetic effects of Current In this chapter relationship between magnetism and electricity is discussed. At first some basics of magnetism is discussed with magnetic field lines. A compass needle is a small magnet. Its one end, which points towards north, is called a north pole, and the other end, which points towards south, is called a south pole. Magnetic Field lines are used to represent a magnetic field. A field line is the path along which a hypothetical free north pole would tend to move.
The direction of the magnetic field at a point is given by the direction that a north pole placed at that point would take. The denser magnetic field lines indicate more magnetic field strength. After that, magnetic field due to current carrying conductor is discussed.
A metallic wire carrying an electric current has associated with it a magnetic field whose direction is given by right hand thumb rule. An electromagnet consists of a core of soft iron wrapped around with a coil of insulated copper wire. A current-carrying conductor when placed in a magnetic field experiences a force. Phenomena related to this are explained. This is the basis of an electric motor. An electric motor is a device that converts electric energy into mechanical energy.
Working and construction of electric motor is discussed. Electricity generation through magnet is discussed.
The phenomenon of electromagnetic induction is the production of induced current in a coil placed in a region where the magnetic field changes with time.
The magnetic field may change due to a relative motion between the coil and a magnet placed near to the coil. If the coil is placed near to a current-carrying conductor, the magnetic field may change either due to a change in the current through the conductor or due to the relative motion between the coil and conductor.
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