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Public relations: strategies and tactics. by Dennis L Wilcox; Glen T Cameron; Bryan H Reber. Print book. English. Updated eleventh edition. Boston. PowerPoint Presentation (Download Only) for Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics, Updated Edition, 11th Edition. Dennis L. Wilcox, San Jose State. Public Relations: Strategies and Tactics, 11th Edition. Dennis L. Wilcox, San Jose State University. Glen T. Cameron, University of Missouri. Bryan H. Reber.
It received extensive media munity for its support over the years. The anniversary celebration was a sary celebration to thank the com. During the Cuban community. A block party was also organized that gave custom- ers items from its original l menu at prices.
Its goals were 1 cel. An invitation to a second event. Or they may also include direct mail. Twitter handles. A public relations professional. In other words. The channels and platforms used may be a combination of traditional media outlets—newspapers. Other differences between public relations activities and advertising include: Publicity—information about an event.
Rise of Public Relations ment will be used. Such research allows messages to be tailored to audience needs. Organizations and indi- viduals contract with the advertising department of a media outlet —Al and Laura Ries.
By definition. An organization writes the content. This can include newsletters. This is called earned media the superiority of PR over because editors. Advertising Just as many people mistakenly equate publicity with public relations. Facebook brand pages. Public relations.
Baltimore thinks the solution is lower pricing or better packaging. The latter calls for dealing with economic. Marketing Public relations is distinct from marketing in several ways. Public relations and marketing. Advertising campaigns on network television. They may include investors.
The major disadvantage of advertising is the cost. One poll by Opinion Research Corporation. When meeting opposition to a product. Providing inexpensive sales literature. Creating an environment for a new product by raising an issue or situation that can be solved through using the new product or service 5. Thomas Harris. Providing third-party endorsements—via newspapers. Developing new prospects for new markets. Generating sales leads.
As he wrote in the Harvard Business Review. Establishing the corporation as an authoritative source of information on a given product 8. Stanley Tannenbaum. First is the downsizing of organizations.
These may include 1 building buzz via word of mouth. Don Schulz. As a result.. The problem is the increasing clutter of advertising. Sales Promotion. General Advertising. Many organizations. Direct Response. Many of them have consolidated departments and have also reduced staff dedicated to various com- It comes down to economics. EVP of consumer new product launches shows highly successful products are more likely to use PR-related activities than less successful ones.
Several factors have fueled the trend toward IMC. Al and Laura Ries. A recent study of 91 —Andrea Morgan. A concept of marketing communication planning that recognizes the added value of a comprehensive plan that evaluates the strategic roles of a variety of communication disciplines—e.
Third is the increasing realization that advertising. The Commission on Public Relations Education. The team also released celebrity photos illustrating the half-tuck look in popular culture and also engaged a fashion expert. Environmental legislation influences packaging and the content of products. A Career in Public Relations The growth of public relations as a career field has spawned any number of public relations courses.
The concept of integration. The campaign is a good example of what is now called brand journalism or what others call content marketing. The impact of such factors.
The golf metaphor also reflects a realization on the part of management and mar- keting executives that public relations is an effective strategy in several important ar- eas. Sony exceeded sales expectations and shipped 3. She may use one club public relations to launch a product. Jay Manuel. The metaphor might be the golfer with a variety of clubs in her bag.
The company also downloadd a half-tuck Facebook tab and placed a humorous half-tuck ad on a Times Square billboard during Fashion Week.
The creative idea was to feature the hero. It generated almost news stories in game publications and mainstream consumer pub- lications and was covered by E!. As a result.
David Corona. Nathan Drake. Unchartered 3: A PRWeek survey of marketing executives. PR people are the story social psychology. Whatever you do. See the Insights find the authenticity at the box about a first-person account.
Other expe- rienced professionals agree that coursework is important. They are: Collec t business of America have open events and this enough. Lindsey Miller. Social channels have realized such as LinkedIn and Twitter are work will grow.
Public relations in the United States has traditionally been core of our companies and taught in departments and schools of journalism. Every job I have ever ers and attend business confer. Be patient—if you really off-line interactions. They can be for PR or whatever was sports. Robin Carr start-up companies. While in school. There are many agen.
There are very tunities when they come up and gatherings—these all great ex. And the Giants had al- anything. It was very entry digital money transfer company in San Francisco. Often times. I worked there 10 sional partner programs. I attended Robin Carr has worked almost America chapter.
She is currently director of public relations for Xoom. They also tend to work alone. The terrific thing about pub- After graduation. Sure enough. Such skills. Robin is a graduate of apply it to practically level. I worked in sports pub- world. WISE has hundreds of online groups ucts. There are also net- your interests are and.
EA Sports. The terrific thing about with. Agencies are very good lic relations for 18 years. Richard Mintz. This is an years. For instance. Same with Twitter and the Publicity Director for the San ably. I was told to want to move up to the next level.
I worked at a lic relations as a discipline is that PR agency for nearly two years to you can apply it to practically get general experience in the work anything. The importance of writing skill is empha- sized in a career advice column in Working Woman: And in Latvia. The sooner we can reflect a more management-like perspective. Many European universities. Management schools in India also offer the most courses in public relations and corporate commu- nications.
A person must have the persistence and ability to gather information from a variety of sources. Misspelled words and sloppy sentence structure are unacceptable. In the United States. Former TV news producer Bev Carlson. James Lukaszewski. At the University of Belgrade in Serbia. PR pro- grams belong in marketing sequences rather than journalism sequences.
Majoring in public rela- tions. Good grammar and good spelling are vital. Too many public relations programs fail because the organization does not assess audience needs and perceptions. The essential skills are 1 writing skill. He wrote in The Strategist. A person needs to be a good planner to make certain that materials are distributed in a timely manner. Reading current newspapers and magazines also is important. According to Joel Curren. Are you a good listener? Do you enjoy reading on you.
Do you consider your- many of the personality traits suade people? Do you main. Do you have a determination may not be the best fit for you. Caryn Alagno.
Are you a quick learner? Internet and computer databases is an important element of research work. If you Are you a showman? If you check fewer than 15 of the tain a well-groomed. Public relations people must be highly organized. Do you have a good sense Would friends describe you Do you deal well with of humor? Are you generally positive Are you a skilled wordsmith? Do you view mistakes as a and optimistic? Are you able to gain and way to learn?
Is it easy for you to meet maintain the trust of your Are you good at being people? Do you consider your. Increased salaries and promotions go to people who show top management how to solve problems creatively.
How Are you able to easily per. T ake a look at this checklist. Commission on Public It should be noted. Web content management. You may also want to take the personality quiz on page A survey of employers by online Market- selection. Employers also prefer job applicants who know about podcasting. It often depends on your specific job responsibilities and assign- ments. The three most important skills for job applicants are social networking.
The firm was per. An internship is a win-win situation for both the student and they can offer a significant the organization. There was business community that it was an tion composed entirely of 13 tweets.
Applicants had 13 days to submit 13 tweeted their followers and posted apolis adver tising agenc y tweets as part what was dubbed as comments on their Facebook pages. Post-campaign surveys operation of hiring 13 interns into a site. The to get young. The campaign generated come up with a creative solution.
Paul Business Journal. Designed properly. In many cases. PRWeek reporter Sara Calabro says: Agencies and corporate communications departments are beginning to see interns as the future of their companies. The campaign generated cover- communications. Minneapolis Star Tribune. While a few years ago. The Value of Internships Internship programs can be Internships are extremely popular in the communications indus- try.
The student. The agency applicants as compared to the The decision was to turn the routine also set up a dedicated L13 web. This gives the student an advantage in getting agencies. About blogs It needed a big idea to showcase cal.
A their writing ability. Many smaller companies and nonprofits claim that they cannot afford to pay. Think of a creative way to niques to select students for in. Ogilvy this coming summer. E mployers use a variety of tech. SVP at Ketchum. Ac- cording to Scott Proper. This often is not the case at the local level. In addition to personal mitting the below items.
See the Insights box below for what Ogilvy Public Relations ex- pects in an internship application. Department of Labor guide- lines that specify that unpaid internships are only acceptable if the experience is simi- lar to that offered in a vocational school.
This How to Apply interviews. Most reputable national and international firms pay interns. In its view. Part of the problem. It is important. At Edelman Worldwide. You are digitally savvy letters of reference essary. Blogger Todd Defren of www. Many practitioners say they like the income and opportunities for steady advancement. You will learn the craft of client ser- would you leverage your so- ply.
Please an. How do You have a fine appreciation and from the past. They also enjoy the variety and fast pace that the field provides. They work with journalism and mass communications programs throughout the nation to compile a list of recent graduates.
It can be used ence. Ethical Use of Interns can be found at www. Salaries in the Field Public relations work pays relatively well compared to other communications professions. Has some.
Who are you are building brand equity in You are intellectually curious inviting and why? How Sorry. Probably the most definitive survey is the one conducted by Lee Becker and his associates at the University of Georgia.
For more as sports and leisure. Please note that median is the mid-point of salaries reported. The Occupational Handbook for —13 by the U. Nonprofit public relations paid the least amount. The below chart gives the median entry-level salaries by communications field.
Its survey of median salaries. Other surveys focus on salaries for practitioners in the field. See the Insights box below for a breakdown of salaries by title and gender. The annual salary survey.. The Arthur W.
In general. The follow- ing charts are excerpted K from the sur vey. The case for an through product unveilings.
For the past 10 The Value of Public Relations This chapter has outlined the size and global scope of public re- years. Careers in public relations. Experts in com- Makovsky Integrated Communications munication and public opinion must provide their employers and clients with knowledge of what others are thinking to guide them in setting their policies for the common good. For those just be- ginning their careers.
March Tom Glover. Desired Skills and their first job in a public re. Another way of expressing this point is the idea that no organi- zation can exist without the express permission of the government and society at large. Paid internships are the most desirable. Journalism include flack and spin doctor. Laurence Moskowitz. Integration requires teamwork and the rec- two-way communication.
CEO of Edelman Worldwide. We engage with NGOs. Although the disci. We also find common ground between humanity and science. Less flattering terms used in the media is to major or take courses in the subject. We understand deeply that it is not enough to sell to consumers alone. The process is a constant cycle. A more experienced professional can earn a sal- plines share basic concepts of effective communication.
On a prac- tical level. RACE acronym: A Career in Public Relations nications. Name any six activities listed by the Public Relations 6. What does the acronym RACE stand for? Why or why not? Media Resources Ashooh. Public relations is known by various other popular Society of America that are pursued by public relations terms worldwide.
Under what cir- 3. There is no budget for advertising. Internships are popular in many fields. Public relations is often stereotyped in pop culture and Retrieved from www.
What key words and phrases are found in most defini.. February Are they practice? Which one sounds the most interesting to about what you expected? What about the salaries for you as a possible career specialty? How does public relations differ from the fields of jour- stakeholders and the insights these engagements nalism.
What are the three insights you have gathered from 2. Master Class: How must Bureau of Labor Statistics. What are the components of basic public relations The company wants to change this health snack message. Public relations managers and spe- panding role?
Discuss entry-level salaries in public relations. Is public relations a management function? Does public various public relations definitions about the profes- relations support other executive functions within sion per se? Support or refute the statement with arguments. What are they? What would you recommend? After reading this chapter. AEJMC relations pedagogy: A comparative analysis of public Newsletter.
Why does an organization require public relations? NewYork Times. New York lines on ethical use of interns. May Growth of unpaid Siegriest. The top five reasons PR Sebastian. August 1. How to break into PR: PR is now the seventh-most is so darn stressful. Retrieved from stressful job in America. New York Times. Global PR industry up eight Soriano. Retrieved era of public relations.
January 5. Journalism and Mass Perlin. Unpaid interns. January 9. Retrieved from from www. April Redefining Public Relations Public relations defined: A modern definition for the new in the Age of Social Media. Holmes Report. Retrieved from http: How did you know?
July Retrieved from Public relations defined: Reshaping the future of the www. Retrieved from Reflections on joining the public relations adventure.
November Retrieved from www Times. April 2. Retrieved from McDonald. Paid or unpaid. The Strategist. According to James Grunig and Todd Hunt. None of these endeavors were called public relations. Emperor Asoka The apostles Paul and Peter used speeches. And Alexander the Great publicized his battlefield victories by sending glowing reports back to the Macedonian Court. Julius Caesar was probably the first politician to publish a book.
The Rosetta Stone. These Acta Diurna. After Caesar became a consul of Rome in 59 b. In many ancient civilizations. Saint Paul. Pope Urban II used symbolism. He also organized elaborate parades whenever he returned from a successful battle to burnish his image as an outstanding commander and leader. In India. Emperor Asoka — b. Six centuries later.
As early as It ultimately made the Ref- on the church door in Wittenberg lar medium used by both reformers ormation an overwhelming and un- in that. The Virginia Company. December Within a few and attack their enemies. Ballads were a popu. The printing press essentially made it possible for individuals and organizations to communicate directly with the public and to publicize any num- ber of endeavors.
Colonial America The United States was first settled by immigrants. Various land companies with a license from the Crown actively promoted coloniza- tion to generate revenues from what the colonists were able to manufacture or grow. Sir Walter Raleigh was sending back glowing accounts to England of what was actually a swamp-filled Roanoke Island. How Luther Went Viral: Voluminous publicity generally followed. A major promoter of independence was Sam Adams.
After independence. It also was the golden age of the press agent. More than Public relations also played an active role in American independence. By the early s. Press agents were able to glorify Davy Crockett as a frontier hero to draw po- litical support away from Andrew Jackson. Alexander Hamilton. Adams had a refined sense of how symbolism could sway public opinion. Harvard College pub- lished a fund-raising brochure and sent representatives to England to raise funds.
John Jay. Doing advance work for an attraction. The effort laid the foundation for distributing syndicated opinion pieces via the mass media. In The s: Adams had polished his organizing and publicity skills. Advertisements and press releases were exaggerated to the point of being outright lies. These old-time press agents played on the credulity of the public in its longing to be entertained.
Barnum used flowery language. Barnum and his advance man. He obtained full houses on opening nights in each com- munity by donating part of the proceeds to charity. As a civic activity. Barnum made a public rela. Barnum introducing him to society leaders in London. Promoting the Westward Movement Throughout the 19th century. He was a midget. Stupendous midget. Levi Lyman. Barnum The individual who best represents the hype and press agentry of the 19th century is Phineas T.
Barnum first gained fame in as the exhibitor of Joice Heth. Barnum quoted some clerics who said it might be possible to merge species. He was the master of what historian Daniel Boorstin calls the pseudoevent. An invitation to the palace followed. In the s. James Hynes. Another Barnum success was the promotion of Jenny Lind. The Air Ministry appointed the kings and emperors who used vari- so lucrative.
British Broadcasting Corporation BBC ity boards throughout the country to that other nations have their own his. German Chancellor Otto introduced the term public relations The Philippines von Bismarck set up a press office in and. Although India has a long history of where else is it so widely practiced.
When U. Pimlott and operations. The industry grew steadily and. Accord- tories. The following is a representa. General munity relations and employee com- basis through newspaper reports Douglas MacArthur arrived after his munications as early as As early as the Teodoro. Philippine press during World War II. British values and viewpoints to its ing to C. His first client was a musicians. Philippines was transplanted from tions. Narasimha Reddi. Army public information officers The Marconi Company.
White oversaw extensions of once wrote. The public relations industry in the the Foreign Ministry to do media rela. National Insurance Act.
An advertis. Danis Advertising of Bar. One of the directors of that lished an information bureau in the factories. Russian companies be. Joaquin Maestre. This is hardly surprising that any investment in western expansion was dependent on finding a population.
Colgate immediately lost per- celona. The Muslim developments in Spain. Without people. Five years later. With the new open. Many railroad companies were colonization agencies as much as they were transport companies. As Andy Piasecki. Esko Middle East. Business boomed again.
Presko eventually became worldwide for its beer. He started his firm. Pajasalmi from Finland is credited with with undertaking the first organized ness. American railroads. In was for Colgate -Palmolive. Public relations in Thailand.
He is credited private business. The expansion of the railroads was dependent on publicity and promotion. According to one historian. Spain Before that time. Pajasalmi contacted Mus- goodwill for a corporate client and its Although the government estab. Piasecki notes. Politics and Social Movements Take the Stage The early s also saw the development of public relations tactics on the political and activist front.
Both Annie Wittenmyer and Francis Willard. None of this could have been achieved without complex communication strategies closely linked to business objectives. This in- cluded news releases. Amos Kendall. Kendall sampled public opinion on issues.
It commissioned dozens of painters and photographers to depict the dramatic landscape and show romanticized American Indians weaving. New York. The com- pany set up an information office in Liverpool that distributed fact sheets and maps and placed stories in the local press.
Supporters and leaders of such causes as abolition. According to Piasecki. Some of its techniques were 1 distributing information kits and fact sheets to the press. Lamme and Russell note. Ida B.
Lamme opment of the rules of engagement. Glastonbury Abbey appropriated tively. Sons of Liberty. Fifty Thus. Irish Monks. Ida went on to own and edit an antisegregationist newspaper which was later burned down by a white mob and also be an advocate for antilynching laws. Wells was born a slave in She wrote articles and books. At the end of the versity of Alabama. Removing the spin: Toward Lamme and Russell write. Other activists in the latter half of the 19th century focused on racial discrimi- nation.
American frage movements used agitation to ily to the scale at which tactics were railroads. This was more than 70 years before Rosa Parks. There was also an environmental movement during the last half of the 19th century. Wannamaker also placed American thinking. He wrote several books and dozens of magazine articles.
By John Wannamaker of Philadel- Her writings and use of public relations phia. Its greatest public relations coup. The activist public relations campaign succeeded. George Westinghouse eventually won a bruising public relations battle with Edison.
Wells One department store owner. In he worked with the influential Century Magazine to promote a campaign requesting congressional support to create Yosemite National Park.
Early Corporate Initiatives The wave of industrialization and urbanization that swept the nation after the Civil War created many new businesses that competed in the marketplace. Westinghouse Corporation established what is believed to be the first in-house publicity department. The Age of Pioneers By the start of the 20th century.
Two factors were involved in this shift. Another department store. After each ICC hearing. Lee had become the executive assistant to the president of the Pennsylvania Railroad. Although such action appeared. Rockefeller Jr. Through his 20th century All these efforts paid off. John D. When the next rail accident occurred.
Lee believed the public and the ICC could be persuaded to accept higher rates if they were given the facts and made aware of the situation.
Parker and Lee.
Burton St. He began as a publicist. Ludlow Massacre. Public opposition declined. ICC with resolutions supporting the railroad. Lee provided press facilities. When Lee opened his public relations firm. John concludes. John III.
The Pennsylvania Railroad. His first task was to convince man- agement that the policy of operating in secret and refusing to talk with the press.
Lee went to Colorado to do some Fraser P. Other techniques were leaflets and bulletins for railway riders and community opin- ion leaders. The ICC approved the 5 percent rate hike. Even at this early time. In all. See the Ethics box on page Bernays Lee continued as a counselor to the Rockefeller family and This legendary figure in public relations its various companies.
The leaflets were designed to be thought pieces about various is- sues concerning mining. Edward L. He is remembered today for his four important contribu- tions to public relations: The press loved it. No Downloads. Views Total views. Actions Shares.
Embeds 0 No embeds. No notes for slide. Book Details Author: Dennis L. Wilcox ,Glen T. Cameron ,Bryan H. Reber Pages: Hardcover Brand: Strategies and Tactics uses real-world case studies and examples to explain the basic concepts and theory behind modern public relations practice.
This comprehensive text is grounded in scholarship and includes references to landmark studies and time-honored public relations techniques. The writing is geared to undergraduates, and many colorful charts and photos are used to enhance major concepts.
Research and writing tools, including access to academic journals, help students understand critical thinking in even greater depth.
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