PDF Drive is your search engine for PDF files. As of today we have Public Administration and Political Science: An Historical Analysis of the Relation. Between. PDF | On Jan 1, , R. A. W. Rhodes and others published Governance and Public Administration. PDF | Essential History for Public Administration provides a concise overview of events that have shaped the contemporary public sector and the role of the.
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Division for Public Administration and Development Management Many other diagrams are from Public Administration Review, the official journal of the. Learning Outcome. Introduction. What is Administration? Administration, Organisation and Management. Defining Public Administration. Public Management and Administration An Introduction Third Edition Owen E. Hughes Public Management and Administration Also by Owen E. Hughes.
Definitions[ edit ] Administrators tend to work with both paper documents and computer files: "There has been a significant shift from paper to electronic records during the past two decades. Although government institutions continue to print and maintain paper documents as 'official records,' the vast majority of records are now created and stored in electronic format. Appleby defined public administration as "public leadership of public affairs directly responsible for executive action".
In a democracy, it has to do with such leadership and executive action in terms that respect and contribute to the dignity, the worth, and the potentials of the citizen. Zuck, the publication by "Woodrow Wilson of his essay, " The Study of Administration " in is generally regarded as the beginning of public administration as a specific field of study". Shields asserts that public administration "deals with the stewardship and implementation of the products of a living democracy".
A living democracy is "an environment that is changing, organic", imperfect, inconsistent and teaming with values. There is much disagreement about whether the study of public administration can properly be called a discipline, largely because of the debate over whether public administration is a subfield of political science or a subfield of administrative science ", the latter an outgrowth of its roots in policy analysis and evaluation research.
He argues that public administration is the public provision of public goods in which the demand function is satisfied more or less effectively by politics, whose primary tool is rhetoric, providing for public goods, and the supply function is satisfied more or less efficiently by public management, whose primary tools are speech acts, producing public goods.
The moral purpose of public administration, implicit in its acceptance of its role, is the maximization of the opportunities of the public to satisfy its wants.
This includes "Legislative activities, taxation, national defense, public order and safety, immigration services, foreign affairs and international assistance, and the administration of government programs are activities that are purely governmental in nature". Includes instruction in the roles, development, and principles of public administration; the management of public policy; executive-legislative relations; public budgetary processes and financial management; administrative law; public personnel management; professional ethics; and research methods.
You may improve this article , discuss the issue on the talk page , or create a new article , as appropriate. February Learn how and when to remove this template message Antiquity to the 19th century[ edit ] Dating back to Antiquity, Pharaohs, kings and emperors have required pages, treasurers, and tax collectors to administer the practical business of government. Prior to the 19th century, staffing of most public administrations was rife with nepotism, favouritism, and political patronage, which was often referred to as a " spoils system ".
Public administrators have long been the "eyes and ears" of rulers. In medieval times, the abilities to read and write, add and subtract were as dominated by the educated elite as public employment. Consequently, the need for expert civil servants whose ability to read and write formed the basis for developing expertise in such necessary activities as legal record-keeping, paying and feeding armies and levying taxes.
As the European Imperialist age progressed and the militarily powers extended their hold over other continents and people, the need for a sophisticated public administration grew.
The field of management may well be said to have originated in ancient China,  including possibly the first highly centralized bureaucratic state, and the earliest by the second century BC example of an administration based on merit through testing. Creel and other scholars find the influence of Chinese administration in Europe by the 12th century, for example, in Fredrick II 's promulgations, characterized as the "birth certificate of modern bureaucracy".
Creel writes that, in Shen Buhai, there are the "seeds of the civil service examination ", and that, if one wishes to exaggerate, it would "no doubt be possible to translate Shen Buhai's term Shu, or technique, as 'science'", and argue that he was the first political scientist, though Creel does "not care to go this far". The universities of Frankfurt an der Oder and University of Halle were Prussian institutions emphasizing economic and social disciplines, with the goal of societal reform.
Johann Heinrich Gottlob Justi was the most well-known professor of Cameralism. Thus, from a Western European perspective, Classic, Medieval, and Enlightenment-era scholars formed the foundation of the discipline that has come to be called public administration. Lorenz von Stein , an German professor from Vienna , is considered the founder of the science of public administration in many parts of the world. In the time of Von Stein, public administration was considered a form of administrative law, but Von Stein believed this concept too restrictive.
Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many preestablished disciplines such as sociology , political science , administrative law and public finance. He called public administration an integrating science, and stated that public administrators should be concerned with both theory and practice. He argued that public administration is a science because knowledge is generated and evaluated according to the scientific method. Modern American public administration is an extension of democratic governance, justified by classic and liberal philosophers of the western world ranging from Aristotle to John Locke  to Thomas Jefferson.
While Ezeani posits that public administration is the management of government activities. According to him it refers both to the activities of bureaucrats concerned with the management or administration of government organizations and the study of these activities. It is the machinery for implementing government policies to ensure stability and continuity at all times irrespective of any government in power even during period of crises. Adsiteo sees Public Administration as a governmental administration that operates in the particular sphere of government as its machinery for implementing governmental policies.
He believes that its study must therefore lead to the most efficient way of organizing the executive branch of the government, its functions and its procedures. Akpan contends that Public Administration is the organ that carries out the programmes and manifestos of politicians in power. He sees Public Administration as the servant of politics.
He went further to say that Public Administration covers every area and activity related to public policy. Accordingly it includes the formal processes and operations through which the legislature exercises its power.
The functions of the courts in the administration of justice and the work of the military agencies all form part of the Public Administration. One cardinal issue here to which attention must be paid is the issue of policy implementation. This is a very focal point in the study of public administration. Public Administration can also be viewed as a body of knowledge which is directed towards the understanding of administration of the government business. Madubum opines that Public Administration is the study of the development and maintenance of policy by members of governments, public agencies and public sector employees and the practice of implementing the authoritative decisions they have made.
Public Administration concerns itself more with how politicians in government and non-elected public sector employees devise policy, sustain the machinery of government and ensure policies are put into practice. Nnoli , describes Public Administration as follows: Public Administration is the machinery as well as the integral process through which the government performs its functions. It is a network of human relationships and associated activities extending from the government to the lowest paid and powerless individual charged with keeping in daily touch with all resources, natural and human, and all the aspects of life of the society with which government is concerned pp.
It is a system of roles and role relationships which defines in a clear and practicable terms as possible and in as much detail as possible the intentions and programmes of government; the means available internally and externally to accomplish them; where, when and how they are to be accomplished; who is to benefit from them, and, finally, it is a system that causes these intentions and programmes to be realized in real life. It is a pattern of routinized activities, involving decision making, planning, advising, co-ordination, negotiation, conciliation, arbitration, command and data gathering, through which the government carries out its responsibilities.
There are theories in many and varied fields of study, including the arts and sciences, public administration included. Having categorized theories into: classical, modern and postmodern, this part of the paper therefore analyses the three approaches. This evolved around the classical assumption of Adam smith, that people are motivated by economic incentives and that they will rationally consider opportunities that provide for them the greatest economic gain.
Because organizations control economic incentives, an individual is primarily a passive resource to be manipulated, controlled and motivated by the organization; iii. Irrational emotions must be kept from interfering with economic rationality; iv. Organizations can be designed in ways to control irrational emotions and thus unpredictable, dysfunctional behaviours of employees There are three branches which feed on the same underlying principle of classical theory, these are: Scientific management, Administrative principles, and bureaucratic organization.
Frederick Taylor started the era of modern management. It has to be stated that scientific management met with significant success among which included: the science of cutting metal, coal shovel design that he produced at Bethlehem Steel Works reducing the workers needed to shovel from to , worker incentive schemes, a piece rate system for shop management, and organizational influences in the development of the fields of industrial engineering, personnel, and quality control.
It has to be acknowledged that from an economic standpoint, Taylorism was an extreme success. Application of his methods yielded significant improvements in productivity. For example, improvements such as his shovel work at Bethlehem Works, which reduced the workers needed to shovel from to Henceforth, Taylor proposed four great underlying principles of management Tomori, The ultimate result of this study led to the centrality of efficiency in organizations Davidson, Gilbreth was particularly interested in how he could reduce the unnecessary motions resulting from bricklaying at a construction site; he succeeded in reducing the motions from 18 to 4.
He then proposed that each worker should be involved in doing his or her own work, prepare for the next higher level, and training their successors. He believed that civilization was changing to seek technically optimal results at the expense of emotional or humanistic content Zima, The bureaucracy was envisioned as a large machine for attaining its goals in the most efficient manner possible.
Hence, Weber predicted a completely impersonal organization with little human level interaction between its members. In other words, his work is more directed at the management layer Smit, et. Forecasting and planning was the act of anticipating the future and acting accordingly.
Finally, control meant that the above activities were performed in accordance with appropriate rules and procedures. The concept of giving appropriate authority with responsibility is also widely commented on and is well practised.
Modern management theory has changed the way public administrators look at their jobs Denhardt, Advancements and refinements in management theory and practice have enabled managers and managerial systems to evolve.
The modern approach to public administration is oriented to results, focusing on clients, outputs and outcomes. The adoption of new form of public management means the emergence of a new paradigm in public sector. In the word of Katsamunska as enumerated: Modern public management focuses on management by objectives and performance management, the use of market 13 International Journal of Politics and Good Governance Volume VI, No. The reform was mainly aimed at a massive privatization of public enterprise and cutting other parts of public sector, while the civil service moved from an administered to a managed bureaucracy p.
Below is a brief explanation of modern approach to public administration. The system theory is however a unified whole having a number of inter dependent parts or sub system and it has identifiable boundaries that distinguish it from its surrounding environment in which it is embedded and with which it interacts.
The system theory explains how public administration activities are coordinated within a system and sub system that interact.
The approach views administrative system formal organization, informal organization, roles, and individuals and examines the inter linkages among various parts.
System theory also analyses the dynamic interaction between an administrative system and its external environment. It is noteworthy to reaffirm public administration to be the facilitation of positive outcome of these interactions and where possible, limit any unintended negative consequence.
The execution of public laws requires that the core elements of system theory which are: inputs, processes, output and feedback are harnessed in a manner that promotes functionality as the activities of the sub system affect the entire government. System theory focuses on the study of organization as cooperative or collaborative system. These are the features of social system as enumerated below: 1.
Social system are open system as they are in constant interaction with their environment 2. Boundaries of social organization are not easily identifiable. It has to be understood from their activities and functions in real life situations The system analytical approach of organization was prominent in the writing of M.
Structural-Functional Approach The entire units that constitute the sum of a system are structures and these structures function to ensure the delivery of services to the public.
Structural functionalism or simply referred to as functionalism is the relations among government sub system such as intergovernmental relations with the goal of achieving desired goals through an institutional arrangement that perform certain functions in order to survive and operate efficiently.
It tries to explain how structures operate in a society, the various part or institutions combine to give society continuity over time. The conception of society as a system was derived from biological function of the body and the stability of the body is dependent on the proper functioning of all the organs. Social thinkers of functionalist school argue that the body that functions well is said to be in equilibrium and the same is alleged to be true of the society and that the society and their parts experience evolution just as organism do Kingsbury and Scarzoni, The function in the approach denotes the impact of a structure on another structure and the interrelation among various structures.
Radcliff Brown cited in ibid. Fred Riggs has successfully applied the ecological and structural-functional approach in his analysis of societies and their administrative system. The ecological approach examines the interaction between an administrative system and its environment. Thus the impact of the political system, economic system, social system and the cultural system, the structure and behaviour of the administrative system as well as the influence of the administrative system on these environmental structures is highlighted by Riggs.
The major features of Structural-functional theory have been highlighted here according to Manicas , to include: 1. Structural-functional assumes that society is a system. What is the system comprised of: Candidates include: social structures variously theorized , institutions, or roles as on the usual reading of Parsons.
Since the elements are characterized functionally, we need to know what they do and how they relate to other parts of the system. This is established empirically.
It is often assumed that there is some condition which defines the ends or goals of the system. But it is hard to see how societies can have goal states? What, e. A functionalist explains by showing that some element if functionally necessary for the system to be in its goal-state.
The form of explanation is this : System S is functioning appropriately.
S functions appropriately only if R is doing what it is supposed to do. Hence R. Functional approach came up in reaction to defending intergovernmental model in the face of criticism that it generates structures that may obstruct the process of ensuring efficient and effective service delivery to the public. Pretoria deduced that functionalism explains reasons for the emergence of partnership and how such partnership fulfills organizational and societal needs.
Although this partnership has been criticized for its negative effects on relative authority, autonomy, and independence sphere of actions by which Olowu and Wunch , p. Functionalism was identified to have failed in explaining power relation in the environment which tends to affect the role of organization as agent of shaping the society. It also fails to give explicit order of relations that underlie political relations and thereby failing to connect the institutional and societal needs.
Some writers considered contingency theory as dominant, theoretical, rational, open system model at the structural level of analysis in organization theory and that the basic assumption of contingency approach is that the environment in which an organization operates determines the best way for it to organize Betts, Furthermore, the basis of contingency theory is that the best practices depend on the contingency of the situation.
Contingency theorists try to identify and measure the condition under which things will likely occur. Contingency theory is relationship between two phenomena, if one phenomenon exists, then a connection can be drawn about another phenomenon Schoech, Behavioral School The key scholar under this category is Elton Mayo.
The origin of behavioralism is the human relations movement that was a result of the Hawthorne Works Experiment carried out at the Western Electric Company, in the United States of America that started in the early s The Hawthorne studies attempted to determine the effects of lighting on worker productivity. When these experiments showed no clear correlation between light level and productivity the experiments then started looking at other factors.
With each of these changes, productivity went up.
When the women were put back to their original hours and conditions, they set a productivity record. These experiments proved five things, as stated by Denhardt, First, work satisfaction and hence performance is basically not economic — depends more on working conditions and attitudes - communications, positive management response and encouragement, working environment. Third, large-scale experiments involving over 20, employees showed highly positive responses to, for example, improvements in working environments e.
Fourth, the influence of the peer group is very high — hence, the importance of informal groups within the workplace. These results showed that the group dynamics and social makeup of an organization were an extremely important force either for or against higher productivity.
This outcome caused the call for greater participation for the workers, greater trust and openness in the working environment, and a greater attention to teams and groups in the work place James, Postmodernism is the philosophical proposal that reality is ultimately inaccessible by human investigation, that knowledge is a social construction, that truth-claims are political power plays, and that the meaning of words is to be determined by readers not authors James, In brief, postmodern theory sees reality as what individuals or social groups make it to be.
Postmodernism is commonly spoken in recent time among intellectuals in arts and social sciences. It is a novel imagination and thought in social theory with no clear definition for the term. Post modernists are interested in psychedelic imagination of the world. Post-modernists question some foundation such as the system that tend to privilege some groups and downgrade the importance of others, give some group power and render some groups powerless Ritzer, ibid. The thinking in postmodernism involves the conscious development of the mind to see the society as a place for everyone irrespective of race, creed, and religion.
The development of knowledge of tolerance, accommodation, comprehensive reasoning, humanism and other utilitarian principle act as the basis of postmodernism. According to Lyotard cited in Ritzer, , p. Ritzer, further surmises that: Postmodernists reject the ideas of a grand narrative or a meta-narrative.
It is in the rejection of these ideas that we encounter one of the most important post- modernists, Jean-Francois Lyotard. Post modernism denies the existence of any ultimate principles and tends to question all principles, in a skeptical manner and realize even that even its own principles are not beyond questioning.
Postmodernism is interested in critical question that tries to reverse foundationalism. Are we liberal or conservative in our social views? How do we determine moral conduct and policies that conforms to ethical principles? Post modernism is concerned with issues that divide the societies such as homosexuals, euthanasia, abortion, and many others in line with tolerable disposition to others.
Post modernism has been introduced to other disciplines in a way to further evaluate existing theories and model in relation to contemporary age. For example in Public Administration, the classical and modern schools of managements have been subjected to further evaluation. Postmodernism in Administration can be described as the New Public Administration which is traceable to the writing of Dwight Waldo and in political theory, the writing of Sheldon Wolin , who has with others, examine salient issues that involved the realization of efficient and effective public agency through the application of the following models to public management.
These management models include the theories of democratic citizenship; models of community and civil society: and organizational humanism and discourse theory Denhardt and Denhardt, Against the backdrop of the postmodernism analysis above, postmodern theory has been the recent focal point in few disciplines in art and social sciences. This paper will dwell on postmodern politics, economics, law and history due to their close proximity to public administration Naidoo, Indeed, many of the doctrines characteristically associated with postmodernism can fairly be described as the straightforward denial of general philosophical viewpoints that were taken for granted during the 18th-century Enlightenment, though they were not unique to that period.
The most important of these viewpoints are the following: 4. Postmodernism 1. There is an objective natural reality, a reality whose existence and properties are logically independent of human beings—of their minds, their societies, their social practices, or their investigative techniques.
Postmodernists dismiss this idea as a kind of naive realism. Such reality as there is, according to postmodernists, is a conceptual construct, an artifact of scientific practice and language.
The descriptive and explanatory statements of scientists and historians can, in principle, be objectively true or false Sayre, The postmodern denial of this viewpoint— which follows from the rejection of an objective natural reality—is sometimes expressed by saying that there is no such thing as Truth. Through the use of reason and logic, and with the more specialized tools provided by science and technology, human beings are likely to change themselves and their societies for the better.
It is reasonable to expect that future societies will be more humane, more just, more enlightened, and more prosperous than they are now. Postmodernists deny this Enlightenment faith in science and technology as instruments of human progress. Indeed, many postmodernists hold that the misguided or unguided pursuit of scientific and technological knowledge led to the development of technologies for killing on a massive scale in World War II.
Some go so far as to say that science and technology—and even reason and logic—are inherently destructive and oppressive, because they have been used by evil people, especially during the 20th century, to destroy and oppress others Matson, Reason and logic are universally valid—i.
For postmodernists, reason and logic too are merely conceptual constructs and are therefore valid only within the established intellectual traditions in which they are used Thomas, There is such a thing as human nature; it consists of faculties, aptitudes, or dispositions that are in some sense present in human beings at birth rather than learned or instilled through social forces.
Postmodernists insist that all, or nearly all, aspects of human psychology, management and administration are completely socially determined Stoker, Language refers to and represents a reality outside itself.
Inspired by the work of the Swiss linguist Ferdinand de Saussure, postmodernists claim that language is semantically self-contained, or self-referential: the meaning of a word is not a static thing in the world or even an idea in the mind but rather a range of contrasts and differences with the meanings of other words. It is possible, at least in principle, to construct general theories that explain many aspects of the natural or social world within a given domain of knowledge—e.
Furthermore, it should be a goal of scientific and historical research to construct such theories, even if they are never perfectly attainable in practice. Thus, from a Western European perspective, Classic, Medieval, and Enlightenment-era scholars formed the foundation of the discipline that has come to be called public administration.
Lorenz von Stein , an German professor from Vienna , is considered the founder of the science of public administration in many parts of the world. In the time of Von Stein, public administration was considered a form of administrative law, but Von Stein believed this concept too restrictive.
Von Stein taught that public administration relies on many preestablished disciplines such as sociology , political science , administrative law and public finance. He called public administration an integrating science, and stated that public administrators should be concerned with both theory and practice. He argued that public administration is a science because knowledge is generated and evaluated according to the scientific method.
Modern American public administration is an extension of democratic governance, justified by classic and liberal philosophers of the western world ranging from Aristotle to John Locke  to Thomas Jefferson. He first formally recognized public administration in an article entitled " The Study of Administration ". The future president wrote that "it is the object of administrative study to discover, first, what government can properly and successfully do, and, secondly, how it can do these proper things with the utmost possible efficiency and at the least possible cost either of money or of energy".
The different perspectives regarding this dichotomy contribute to differentiating characteristics of the suggested generations of public administration. By the s, scholars of public administration had responded to Wilson's solicitation and thus textbooks in this field were introduced. Frederick Taylor — , another prominent scholar in the field of administration and management also published a book entitled The Principles of Scientific Management He believed that scientific analysis would lead to the discovery of the "one best way" to do things or carrying out an operation.
This, according to him could help save cost and time. Taylor's technique was later introduced to private industrialists, and later into the various government organizations Jeong, Taylor's scientific management consisted of main four principles Frederick W.
Taylor, : Replace rule-of-thumb work methods with methods based on a scientific study of the tasks. Scientifically select, train, and develop each employee rather than passively leaving them to train themselves. Provide "detailed instruction and supervision of each worker in the performance of that worker's discrete task" Montgomery Divide work nearly equally between managers and workers, so that the managers apply scientific management principles to planning the work and the workers actually perform the tasks.
Taylor had very precise ideas about how to introduce his system approach : 'It is only through enforced standardization of methods, enforced adoption of the best implements and working conditions, and enforced cooperation that this faster work can be assured. And the duty of enforcing the adoption of standards and enforcing this cooperation rests with management alone.
The separation of politics and administration advocated by Wilson continues to play a significant role in public administration today. However, the dominance of this dichotomy was challenged by second generation scholars, beginning in the s. Luther Gulick 's fact-value dichotomy was a key contender for Wilson's proposed politics-administration dichotomy. In place of Wilson's first generation split, Gulick advocated a "seamless web of discretion and interaction".
Gulick, Urwick, and the new generation of administrators built on the work of contemporary behavioural, administrative, and organizational scholars including Henri Fayol , Fredrick Winslow Taylor , Paul Appleby, Frank Goodnow, and Willam Willoughby.
The new generation of organizational theories no longer relied upon logical assumptions and generalizations about human nature like classical and enlightened theorists. Gulick developed a comprehensive, generic theory of organization that emphasized the scientific method, efficiency, professionalism, structural reform, and executive control.
Gulick summarized the duties of administrators with an acronym; POSDCORB , which stands for planning, organizing, staffing, directing, coordinating, reporting, and budgeting.
Fayol developed a systematic, point treatment of private management.