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The following instruments require inputs of static and pitot: Static Only Pitot and Static Altimeter Airspeed Indicator ASI Vertical Speed Indicator VSI Machmeter Inside an aircraft, pressure and temperature are seldom the same as outside the aircraft so pitot and static pressures must be sensed by devices mounted on the outside of the aircraft.
This device is a pitot tube mounted in a pitot head.
The open end of the tube faces into the moving airstream, the other end leading to the airspeed capsules in the ASI and Machmeter. The moving airstream is thus brought to rest in the tube, so generating the extra dynamic pressure which together with the static pressure already in the tube provides the required total pitot pressure. These slots do not face into the 2 airflow and therefore, in theory, they sense Pitot and Static Sources only the static pressure.
In fact, of course, there will be a suction effect and the sensed static pressure will be slightly lower when the aircraft is moving. This pressure supplies the static line to the pressure instruments. A pressure sensing system consisting of separate pitot and static heads is shown in Figure 2.
The static and pitot sources may be combined Figure 2. Figure 2. Requirements of a Pitot Tube The pitot tube must be positioned outside the boundary layer, so it usually consists of a head on a strut if mounted on the side of the fuselage, or it can be a tube placed on the nose, ahead of the fuselage.
The opening must be designed to be parallel to the airflow in the normal flight attitude. The air can either be brought to rest in the pitot probe against a stagnation wall, which is simply a pressure-measuring flat surface, and then transmitted up the pitot pipelines to the ASI and Machmeter.
Alternatively, the pitot pressure can be passed directly up into the pitot pipelines to the instruments, which is more usual in elementary aircraft.
Measurement of dynamic pressure is essential to safe flight. At too low a speed, the aircraft will stall. At too high a speed it will be overstressed. The ASI is critical to flight safety and so it cannot be allowed to block because of ice. An electric anti-icing heater coil is usually incorporated. Any errors due to the heating effect may be reduced by design and calibration.
However, if water is drained, ice should not be able to form. Drain holes are therefore provided.
These will, of course, cause some loss of pressure, but this can be suitably calibrated and allowed for in the design.