Handbook of Petroleum Refining Processes [Robert A. Meyers] on ruthenpress.info Meyer's book is useless to anyone new to oil refining but may be useful in the. Great book for initial overview of petroleum refining and how the plant works. There are some sections that are a little more technical in terms of chemistry, but . The book covers important topics, such as clean fuels, gasification, biofuels, and environmental impact of refining, which are not.
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A catalog record for this book is available from the Library of Congress .. Fundamentals of Petroleum Refining provides a thorough and balanced intro-. the reader an overview of the entire oil and gas industry, while still preserving enough have restructured the book into Upstream, Midstream, Refining and. A comprehensive review of the theory and practice of the simulation and optimization of the petroleum refining processes. Petroleum Refinery.
Substitution of the conventional activated sludge process continues to be an attractive topic of research. This is mainly a combined process that utilizes a bioreactor and a granulated activated carbon filter. Also great attention has been directed to anaerobic-aerobic treatments. However, most of these integrated bioreactors lack information on industrial implementation.
Combined or integrated methods Complete degradation of persistent organics like chlorinated phenols through biological means proves to be difficult due to the biorefractory nature of these compounds. So, there still exists a need for advanced schemes and devised combinations of treatments for the complete removal of such contaminants.
Pretreatment technologies are very effective in decreasing the priority pollutants concentration before the biodegradation step.
Several solutions are proposed including the use of coagulants and electrochemical oxidation, Fenton oxidation and ozonation [ 6 ].
Combined photochemical or electrochemical pretreatment and biological processes are well documented [ 6 , 20 ].
In addition, the effective combination of adsorption and biodegradation processes has long been approached by many researchers [ 6 , 21 ].
For example, ozonation was combined as a pretreatment step with biodegradation for the decomposition of chlorinated phenols. Ozonation is a chemical oxidation method and its combination with a bioprocess results in less toxic compounds, thus enhancing the overall process efficiency and reducing the treatment time and cost. However, several issues were raised as to the high cost and lack of information on technical aspects of the process [ 22 ].
The combination of AOP as chemical pretreatment and biological processes was found particularly useful in enhancing the biodegradability and was recommended as a successful technology for industrial wastewater treatment. The combination of microwave irradiation with AOPs has also been discussed in detail [ 15 ]. The choice of a pretreatment method cannot be generalized as it depends upon several factors, including the type of contaminants, real conditions and process costs [ 23 ].
Advantages and drawbacks of current options Many of the aforementioned methods have been recognized as efficient techniques for the treatment of RWW and to offer a lot of featured advantages such as energy efficiency, safety and environmental compatibility [ 3 , 13 ].
However, most of these physiochemical methods suffer from noticeable drawbacks such as high capital and operating costs. Ultimately, most of them do not destroy the contaminant, but rather transfer it to another phase, which results in the formation of harmful by-products [ 13 , 16 ]. Formation of chlorinated organic compounds has been reported during some electrochemical applications, and activated carbon adsorption was recommended as a further polishing treatment to remove them [ 5 , 12 ].
Also formation of intermediate by-products like catechol and hydroquinone was detected after ozonation of phenolic compounds [ 22 ]. Although AOPs have emerged as effective methods, which offer a chance for the mineralization of various biorefractory organics [ 14 ], the running cost of many AOPs is still relatively high [ 15 ].
Also, they were reported for the formation of by-products and to be limited to treating wastewater with relatively low COD concentration [ 24 ]. Many other methods which are relatively cheap and easy to operate are characterized by strict technical limitations, in terms of operating conditions and effluent hydraulic rates e.
Fenton and membrane applications , low efficiencies and excessive sludge generation e. On the other hand, some applications are limited by the hazards associated with them like in ozone utilization, being an unstable gas [ 2 ]. Others are difficult to be commercialized for real-time RWW treatment, and large-scale industrial applications seem to be lacking. In view of the above discussion, it is essential to search for more viable alternatives that can be utilized in novel biological treatment systems.
As for the several mixed processes that have been proposed recently, a lot of these treatment schemes not only have noticeable advantages but also have important drawbacks.
These problems can be sorted in two main areas: the first relates to all economic aspects including the high cost needed for the implementation of these techniques; the second includes all technical issues related to the resources needed for the transformation from very toxic compounds to environmentally compatible ones [ 22 ]. Why is biodegradation favorable?
Biodegradation is the decomposition of organic substances by microorganisms into metabolic by-products with lower toxicity. Enzymes play a catalytic role in this process, where a chemical is converted stepwise into end products through various intermediates. This transformation is called mineralization [ 25 ]. Biodegradation is a cost effective and environmentally compatible option that is often preferred, thanks to the possibility of complete mineralization [ 26 , 27 ].
Because of the aromatic structure of many organic compounds e. However, several microorganisms have the capability to utilize these compounds for their metabolic activities as carbon and energy sources. Biological transformation has been recognized as one of the key solutions to deal with environmental pollution caused by many problematic organic contaminants. In this regard, the use of pure and mixed cultures of organisms is considered a favorable and most promising approach [ 28 ].
Many strains of bacteria, fungi and algae have the ability to degrade toxic organic substances. Bacterial cultures of Pseudomonas genus are the most commonly utilized biomass for the biodegradation of organic contaminants, with special interest paid to Pseudomonas putida due to its high removal efficiency [ 29 ]. However, a main drawback in bioprocesses is the inhibition of the enzymatic activity at high substrate concentrations. Crude Oil Desalting 4. Types of Salts in Crude Oil 4.
Desalting Process 4. Description of Desalter 4. Desalter Operating Variables 4.
Vacuum Distillation 4. Crude Distillation Material Balance 4.
Crude Assay Data 4. Material Balance 4. Sulphur Material Balance 4. Catalytic Reforming and Isomerization 5. Introduction 5. Catalytic Reforming 5. Reformer Feed Characterization 5. Role of Reformer in the Refinery and Feed Preparation 5. Research Octane Number 5.
Reforming Reactions 5. Thermodynamics of Reforming Reactions 5. Reaction Kinetics and Catalysts 5. Process Technology 5. Material Balance in Reforming 5. Process Simulation of Reformer by Equilibrium Reactions 5.
Isomerization of Light Naphtha 5. Thermodynamics of Isomerization 5. Isomerization Reactions 5. Isomerization Catalysts 5. Isomerization Yields Questions and Problems 6. Thermal Cracking and Coking 6. Introduction 6. Coke Formation 6. Thermodynamics of Coking of Light Hydrocarbons 6. Visbreaking 6. Feed Sources 6. Visbreaking Reactions 6. Visbreaking Severity 6. Kinetics of Visbreaking 6.
Product Yield and Properties 6. Prediction of Visbreaking Yields 6. Process Description 6. Delayed Coking 6. Role of Delayed Coker 6. Delayed Coking Variables 6. Types of Coke and their Properties 6. Coking and Decoking Operation 6. Delayed Coker Yield Prediction 6. Process Simulation of Delayed Coking 6. Fluid Coking 6. Flexicoking 6. Yield Correlations for Flexicoking Questions and Problems 7. Hydroconversion 7.
Introduction 7. Hydrotreating 7.
Objectives of Hydrotreating 7. Role of Hydrotreating 7.
Chemistry of Hydrotreating 7. Hydrotreating Catalysts 7. Thermodynamics of Hydrotreating 7. Reaction Kinetics 7. Hydrotreating Processes 7. Make-up Hydrogen 7. Operating Conditions 7. Hydrotreating Correlations 7. Hydrocracking 7. Role of Hydrocracking in the Refinery 7. Feeds and Products 7. Hydrocracking Chemistry 7.
Hydrocracking Catalysts 7. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Hydrocracking 7. Hydrocracking Processes 7. Process Configuration 7. Hydrocracking Severity 7. Catalytic Dewaxing 7. Hydrocracking Correlations 7. Simulation of Hydrocracking Units Question and Problems 8.
Fluidised Catalytic Cracking 8. Introduction 8. Role of FCC in the Refinery 8. Feedstock and Products 8. Fluidisation 8. FCC Reactions 8. Primary Reactions 8. Secondary Reactions 8. Thermodynamics of FCC Reactions 8. FCC Catalyst 8. Zeolite 8. Matrix 8. FCC Configuration 8. Process Description 8. Modes of Fluidisation in FCC unit 8. FCC Yield Correlations 8. Material and Energy Balances 8. Material Balance 8. Energy Balance 8. Concentration and Temperature Profiles in the Riser 8.
Simulation of FCC Unit 8. New Technology 8. Deep Catalytic Cracking 8.
Catalytic Pyrolysis Process 8. Product Blending 9. Introduction 9. Reid Vapour Pressure Blending 9. Flash Point Blending 9. Pour Point Blending 9. Cloud Point Blending 9. Aniline Point Blending 9. Smoke Point Blending 9. Viscosity Blending 9. Gasoline Octane Number Blending 9. Alkylation Introduction Role of Alkylation and Polymerization Units in the Refinery Alkylation Processes Sulphuric Acid Alkylation Process Hydrofluoric Acid Alkylation Solid Catalyst Alkylation AlkyClean Process Kinetics and Thermodynamics of Alkylation Effect of Operating Conditions Performance of Alkylation Process Simulation of the Alkylation Process Questions and Problems Hydrogen Production Hydrogen Requirements in Modern Refineries Steam Reforming Flow Process Feed Preparation Steam Reforming Reactions Thermodynamics of Steam Reforming Operating Variables Crew and Shumake, Reformer Process Simulation Product Purification High-Temperature Shift Converter Low-Temperature Shift Converter Carbon Dioxide Removal Clean Fuels Specifications of Clean Fuels Production of Clean Fuels from Crude Oil Deep Desulphurization Synthesis Gas Production Bio-diesel Ethanol and Methanol Bio-Fuel from Flash Pyrolysis Gasification Routes Questions and Problems Residue Upgrading Upgrading Options Non-catalytic Residue Upgrading Processes Solvent Deasphalting Thermal Processes Catalytic Processes Residue-fluidized Catalytic Cracking Hydroprocessing Aquaconversion Questions and Problems Safety in Petroleum Refineries Hazards in Refinery Units Crude Oil Pre-treatment Crude Oil Distillation Catalytic Reforming Thermal Cracking Hydrotreating and Hydrocracking Fluid Catalytic Cracking Safety Programs and Regulations Accidents and Loss Prevention Measures Risk Management and Risk Assessment Fire and Explosions Hazard Analysis Worst Case Scenario Fault Tree Analysis Safety Considerations in Plant Layout Safe Operation Systems Pressure Relief Systems Flare Relief System Air Emission Monitoring Water Emission Monitoring Solid Waste Monitoring