Machine Learning. Tom M. Mitchell. Product Details. • Hardcover: pages ; Dimensions (in inches): x x • Publisher: McGraw-Hill. A curated set of resources for data science, machine learning, artificial intelligence (AI), data and text analytics, data visualization, big data, and more. [email protected], , GHC Assistant: Implications of Machine Learning for the workforce, Science, December Governments.
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Machine Learning [Tom M. Mitchell] on ruthenpress.info *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers. This book covers the field of machine learning, which is the study of. As of today we have 78,, eBooks for you to download for free. No annoying ads, no Machine Learning (Mc-Graw Hill - Tom Mitchell, ) by - DBLab. Machine Learning book. Read 35 reviews from the world's largest community for readers. Mitchell covers the field of machine learning, the study of algori.
The question then arises as to whether this learningtechnique is guaranteed to find one. Chapter 13 provides a theoretical analysisshowing that under rather restrictive assumptions, variations on this approachdo indeed converge to the desired evaluation function for certain types of searchproblems.
Fortunately, practical experience indicates that this approach to learningevaluation functions is often successful, even outside the range of situations forwhich such guarantees can be proven.
Would the program we have designed be able to learn well enough to beatthe human checkers world champion? Probably not. In part, this is because thelinear function representation for? However, given a more sophisticated representation forthe target function, this general approach can, in fact, be quite successful.
Forexample, Tesauro , reports a similar design for a program that learnsto play the game of backgammon, by learning a very similar evaluation functionover states of the game. His program represents the learned evaluation functionusing an artificial neural network that considers the complete description of theboard state rather than a subset of board features.
After training on over one millionself-generated training games, his program was able to play very competitivelywith top-ranked human backgammon players. Of course we could have designed many alternative algorithms for thischeckers learning task.
One might, for example, simply store the given trainingexamples, then try to find the "closest" stored situation to match any new situation nearest neighbor algorithm, Chapter 8. Or we might generate a large number ofcandidate checkers programs and allow them to play against each other, keepingonly the most successful programs and further elaborating or mutating thesein a kind of simulated evolution genetic algorithms, Chapter 9.
Humans seemto follow yet a different approach to learning strategies, in which they analyze,or explain to themselves, the reasons underlying specific successes and failuresencountered during play explanation-based learning, Chapter Our design issimply one of many, presented here to ground our discussion of the decisions thatmust go into designing a learning method for a specific class of tasks.
For example, consider the space ofhypotheses that could in principle be output by the above checkers learner. Thishypothesis space consists of all evaluation functions that can be represented bysome choice of values for the weights wo through w6.
The learner's task is thus tosearch through this vast space to locate the hypothesis that is most consistent with the available training examples. The LMS algorithm for fitting weights achievesthis goal by iteratively tuning the weights, adding a correction to each weighteach time the hypothesized evaluation function predicts a value that differs fromthe training value.
This algorithm works well when the hypothesis representationconsidered by the learner defines a continuously parameterized space of potentialhypotheses. Many of the chapters in this book present algorithms that search a hypothesisspace defined by some underlying representation e.
These different hypothesisrepresentations are appropriate for learning different kinds of target functions. Foreach of these hypothesis representations, the corresponding learning algorithmtakes advantage of a different underlying structure to organize the search throughthe hypothesis space.
Throughout this book we will return to this perspective of learning as asearch problem in order to characterize learning methods by their search strategiesand by the underlying structure of the search spaces they explore. We will alsofind this viewpoint useful in formally analyzing the relationship between the sizeof the hypothesis space to be searched, the number of training examples available,and the confidence we can have that a hypothesis consistent with the training datawill correctly generalize to unseen examples.
The field of machine learning, and much of this book, is concerned withanswering questions such as the following:What algorithms exist for learning general target functions from specifictraining examples? In what settings will particular algorithms converge to thedesired function, given sufficient training data?
Which algorithms performbest for which types of problems and representations? How much training data is sufficient? What general bounds can be foundto relate the confidence in learned hypotheses to the amount of trainingexperience and the character of the learner's hypothesis space?
When and how can prior knowledge held by the learner guide the processof generalizing from examples? Can prior knowledge be helpful even whenit is only approximately correct? What is the best strategy for choosing a useful next training experience, andhow does the choice of this strategy alter the complexity of the learningproblem?
What is the best way to reduce the learning task to one or more functionapproximation problems? Put another way, what specific functions shouldthe system attempt to learn? Can this process itself be automated? How can the learner automatically alter its representation to improve itsability to represent and learn the target function?
Where possible, the chapters havebeen written to be readable in any sequence. However, some interdependenceis unavoidable. If this is being used as a class text, I recommend first coveringChapter 1 and Chapter 2.
Following these two chapters, the remaining chapterscan be read in nearly any sequence. A one-semester course in machine learningmight cover the first seven chapters, followed by whichever additional chaptersare of greatest interest to the class. Below is a brief survey of the chapters.
Chapter 2 covers concept learning based on symbolic or logical representations. It also discusses the general-to-specific ordering over hypotheses, andthe need for inductive bias in learning.
It also examines Occam's razor-a principle recommendingthe shortest hypothesis among those consistent with the data.
This includes a detailed example of neural network learning forface recognition, including data and algorithms available over the WorldWide Web. This includes the calculation of confidence intervals for estimatinghypothesis accuracy and methods for comparing the accuracy of learningmethods.
This includes a detailed example applying a naive Bayes classifier tothe task of classifying text documents, including data and software availableover the World Wide Web. Both symbolic and neural network algorithms are considered.
The checkers learning algorithm described earlier in Chapter 1 is a simpleexample of reinforcement learning. The end of each chapter contains a summary of the main concepts covered,suggestions for further reading, and exercises.
Major points of thischapter include:Machine learning algorithms have proven to be of great practical value in avariety of application domains. They are especially useful in a data miningproblems where large databases may contain valuable implicit regularitiesthat can be discovered automatically e.
Machine learning draws on ideas from a diverse set of disciplines, includingartificial intelligence, probability and statistics, computational complexity,information theory, psychology and neurobiology, control theory, and philosophy.
Much of this book is organized around differentlearning methods that search different hypothesis spaces e. There are a number of good sources for reading about the latest researchresults in machine learning. Give three computer applications for which machine learning approaches seem appropriateand three for which they seem inappropriate. Pick applications that are notalready mentioned in this chapter, and include a one-sentence justification for each.
Pick some learning task not mentioned in this chapter. Describe it informally in aparagraph in English. Now describe it by stating as precisely as possible the task,performance measure, and training experience.
Finally, propose a target function tobe learned and a target representation. Discuss the main tradeoffs you considered informulating this learning task. Prove that the LMS weight update rule described in this chapter performs a gradientdescent to minimize the squared error.
In particular, define the squared error E as inthe text. Now calculate the derivative of E with respect to the weight wi, assumingthat? Gradient descent is achieved byupdating each weight in proportion to -e. Therefore, you must show that the LMStraining rule alters weights in this proportion for each training example it encounters.
Consider alternative strategies for the Experiment Generator module of Figure 1. In particular, consider strategies in which the Experiment Generator suggests newboard positions byGenerating random legal board positions0 Generating a position by picking a board state from the previous game, thenapplying one of the moves that was not executedA strategy of your own designDiscuss tradeoffs among these strategies. Which do you feel would work best if thenumber of training examples was held constant, given the performance measure ofwinning the most games at the world championships?
Implement an algorithm similar to that discussed for the checkers problem, but usethe simpler game of tic-tac-toe. Represent the learned function V as a linear com- ination of board features of your choice.
To train your program, play it repeatedlyagainst a second copy of the program that uses a fixed evaluation function you createby hand. Plot the percent of games won by your system, versus the number oftraining games played.
Psychological studies of explanation-based learning. DeJong Ed. Boston: Kluwer Academic Publishers. Anderson, J. The place of cognitive architecture in rational analysis. VanLehn Ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum. Chi, M. Learning from examples via self-explanations. Resnick Ed. Hillsdale, NJ:L. Erlbaum Associates. Cooper, G. An evaluation of machine-learning methods for predicting pneumoniamortality.
Artificial Intelligence in Medicine, to appear. Fayyad, U. Automated analysis and exploration ofimage databases: Results, progress, and challenges. Journal of Intelligent Information Systems,4, Laird, J.
SOAR: The anatomy of a general learning mechanism. Machine Learning, 1 1 , Langley, P. Applications of machine learning and rule induction. Communicationsof the ACM, 38 1 I , Lee, K. Automatic speech recognition: The development of the Sphinx system.
Boston: KluwerAcademic Publishers. Pomerleau, D. Qin, Y.
Using EBG to simulate human learning from examplesand learning by doing. Rudnicky, A. Survey of current speech technology inartificial intelligence. Communications of the ACM, 37 3 , Rumelhart, D. The basic ideas in neural networks. Communicationsof the ACM, 37 3 , Tesauro, G. Practical issues in temporal difference learning. Machine Learning, 8, Temporal difference learning and TD-gammon. Communications of the ACM,38 3 , Waibel, A,, Hanazawa, T.
Phoneme recognition usingtime-delay neural networks. This chapter considers concept learning: acquiring the definition of ageneral category given a sample of positive and negative training examples of thecategory. Concept learning can be formulated as a problem of searching through apredefined space of potential hypotheses for the hypothesis that best fits the trainingexamples.
In many cases this search can be efficiently organized by takingadvantage of a naturally occurring structure over the hypothesis space-a generalto-specificordering of hypotheses. This chapter presents several learning algorithmsand considers situations under which they converge to the correct hypothesis. Wealso examine the nature of inductive learning and the justification by which anyprogram may successfully generalize beyond the observed training data.
People, for example, continually learn general concepts or categories suchas "bird," "car," "situations in which I should study more in order to pass theexam," etc. Each such concept can be viewed as describing some subset of objectsor events defined over a larger set e. Alternatively, each concept can be thought of as a boolean-valued functiondefined over this larger set e. This task is commonly referred to as concept learning, or approximatinga boolean-valued function from examples.
Concept learning. Inferring a boolean-valued function from training examples ofits input and output. The attribute EnjoySport indicates whether or not Aldo enjoys hisfavorite water sport on this day.
The task is to learn to predict the value ofEnjoySport for an arbitrary day, based on the values of its other attributes. What hypothesis representation shall we provide to the learner in this case? Let us begin by considering a simple representation in which each hypothesisconsists of a conjunction of constraints on the instance attributes. In particular,let each hypothesis be a vector of six constraints, specifying the values of the sixattributes Sky, AirTemp, Humidity, Wind, Water, and Forecast.
For each attribute,the hypothesis will either0 indicate by a "? To illustrate, the hypothesis that Aldoenjoys his favorite sport only on cold days with high humidity independent ofthe values of the other attributes is represented by the expression? In general, any concept learning taskcan be described by the set of instances over which the target function is defined,the target function, the set of candidate hypotheses considered by the learner, andthe set of available training examples.
The definition of the EnjoySport conceptlearning task in this general form is given in Table 2. A subject index IS provided to assist in locating research related to specific topics.
download eBook. download Hardcover. download Softcover. FAQ Policy. About this book One of the currently most active research areas within Artificial Intelligence is the field of Machine Learning.
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State transitions depend on probability based function. Can be used for gesture recognition. I may be wrong ;.
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Jan 09, Ivan Idris rated it liked it. This is an introductory book on Machine Learning. There is quite a lot of mathematics and statistics in the book, which I like. A large number of methods and algorithms are introduced: I find the presentation, however, a bit lacking. I think it has to do with the chosen fonts and lack of highlighting of important terms.
Maybe it would have been better to have This is an introductory book on Machine Learning. Maybe it would have been better to have shorter paragraphs too. If you are looking for an introductory book on machine learning right now, I would not recommend this book, because in recent years better books have been written on the subject. These are better obviously, because they include coverage of more modern techniques.
I give this book 3 out of 5 stars. View all 3 comments. Dec 11, Anthony Singhavong rated it really liked it. Great intro to ML!
For someone who doesn't have a formal Comp Sci background, this took a lot out of me. I found it helpful to stop after every chapter and listen to a more recent lecture to tie loose ends. Highly recommend reading this book in conjunction with professor Ng's ML intro course. View 2 comments.
Mar 23, David rated it liked it Shelves: This is a very compact, densely written volume. It covers all the basics of machine learning: Algorithms are explained, but from a very high level, so this isn't a good reference if you're looking for tutorials or implementation details.
However, it's quite handy to have on your shelf for a quick reference. May 02, Steve rated it really liked it Shelves: Great theoretically grounded intro to many ML topics.
Feb 03, Daniel Smith rated it it was amazing. Really loved this book! This was my introductory book into the how and why machine learning works. I still come back to this book from time to time to serve as a reference point! In my opinion Tom Mitchell serves up some good motivating examples for the algorithms and simply and clearly explains how they work. Apr 25, Terran M rated it did not like it. This book is a classic, but I can't stand it - to me it embodies everything wrong with how machine learning is often taught.
ML people like to present the world from the point of view of optimizing a cost function for future examples, and see everything through this lens.
This worldview can be useful for graduate-level research but it does not work for introductory teaching - it does not result in the student developing useful intuition, and people who learn in this way are unemployable.
Feb 26, Conor Livingston rated it really liked it Shelves: I learned a lot from this book. The author assumes very little prior knowledge about math and statistics. For that reason, he takes care to explain equations thoroughly from a rigorous and intuitive perspective.