business performance improvement using Six Sigma, Lean, and Business. Process We'll just have to save them all for the Lean Workbook For Dummies!. Lean FOR DUMmIES ‰ by Natalie J. Sayer and Bruce Williams Lean For Dummies® Published by Wiley Publishing, Inc. River St. An outline of: Lean for Dummies. By Natalie J. Sayer and Bruce Williams. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley Publishing, Inc., Introduction. Lean aligns.

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Dummies lived on and was updated for a whole new group of PR practitioners. You may think you can get around doing both by e-mailing a PDF version that recipients can print out Lean forward slightly in your chair. This “attack”. 17 juni Lezen / Downloaden VBA voor Dummies Ebook (e Boek) Online PDF EPUB Kindle Nederlands Gratis Gratis ASAP Utilities. Free lean six sigma training guides will help you prepare for IASSC and ASQ Lean Six Sigma certification exams Lean six sigma for dummies pdf free download.

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Lean Projects and Kaizen.

Lean For Dummies Cheat Sheet

A Way of Life The philosophy The Workshop Customer and Value-Stream Tools. Investigating your value stream like a reporter Relating to each other Like meets like From trunk to leaves Where information meets Comparing multiple characteristics Understanding and mitigating risk Networking activities Flow and Pull Tools. Perfection Tools. Visual-Management Tools Management Tools. Balanced planning Management dashboards Table of Contents Part IV: Principles, Behaviors, and Change.

Power to the People. Implementation Strategy, Startup, and Evolution. The Lean Rollout The enterprise at a glance Lean within the Enterprise. The systems approach Go and see The architecture of supply Lean across Industry.

Table of Contents Part V: Ten Best Practices of Lean. Ten Pitfalls to Avoid. Ten Places to Go for Help. Introduction T he principles and practices of Lean organizations are recognized the world over as the most powerful and effective way to build and sustain continuously improving businesses and institutions.

Following a Lean path, any business in any industry of any size or type can improve itself continuously over the long term. Led by advancements first pioneered at the Toyota Motor Corporation over 50 years ago, Lean is now established as the most consistently successful approach to organizing and operating any enterprise.

You may even have been through a Kaizen event or been part of implementing a pull system. Organizations often implement Lean piecemeal, leaving some of the most important elements behind — and with much less than optimal results. For decades, the whole system of Lean principles and practices was known only to specialized manufacturers, certain academic researchers, and quality gurus. Its full potential has been a mystery to most organizations and professionals.

All that began to change in the late s, as the term Lean was coined to describe the fundamentals of business systems like TPS to the rest of the world. As the understanding of Lean has spread across continents, industries, and organizations, it has become less of a mystery and much easier to understand and implement. Simply stated, Lean is a philosophy and a proven long-term approach that aligns everything in the business to deliver increasing customer value.

Lean is an everyday practice at all levels to perform consistently, as well as to consistently improve performance. We wrote this book for you, the individual.

You may be a small-business owner, an ambitious career person, or a manager who wants to know what Lean is and how to apply it.

You may be a college student or job applicant who wants to have an edge in upcoming job interviews. No matter who you are, if you want to know more about Lean, this is the book for you.

Lean For Dummies is not just an overview or survey of Lean. Conventions Used in This Book When a specialized word first appears in our book, we italicize it, and provide a definition. We also italicize any foreign-language words, including the many Japanese terms that make up the lingo of Lean. For terms and phrases that industry practitioners use as acronyms, we define the term first and then use it in its abbreviated form going forward.

Introduction We put any Web addresses and e-mail addresses in monofont, to set it apart from the rest of the text. When this book was printed, some Web addresses may have needed to break across two lines of text. We use some business-management and statistical concepts and language in the course of the book.

We assume that you realize Lean demands a rigorous approach to analyzing the value stream of business processes. We also assume that you accept that Lean practice calls for capturing data and applying analytical tools to discover the true nature of value creation and the causes of waste in your environment. In addition, we assume that you might be from any industry, including manufacturing, service, transactional, healthcare, or even government.

For these reasons, we have devoted several chapters of this book to describing and defining the Lean toolset. Each chapter is written as an independent standalone section, which means you can move around the book and delve into a given topic without necessarily having to read all the preceding material first.

Anywhere we expound upon or extend other material, we cross-reference the chapter or part of origin, so you can tie it together. Part I: In this part, we address the key tenets underlying the foundation of Lean practice.

Chapter 1 is a comprehensive overview of Lean. Chapter 2 addresses the key tenets as well as the language and lexicon of Lean. Part II: In four chapters, we thoroughly describe the flow of value. Chapter 3 defines value precisely, in terms of the customer and the end consumer. Chapter 4 introduces and explains the process of Value Stream Mapping, one of the key tools of Lean.

Chapter 6 explains the principles and practices of Kaizen — the basis for continuous improvement. Part III: The Lean Toolbox In this part, we present a comprehensive listing and overview of the many customer, value stream, flow, pull, perfection, and management tools of Lean in four chapters.

Collectively, these tools form the Lean toolkit. Chapter 7 describes the many tools used to understand the value stream and customer needs and wants. Chapter 8 describes the flow and pull tools. Chapter 9 covers the perfection tools used within Lean to create standardized work, improve with Kaizen, visualization, and everyday improvements.

Chapter 10 addresses the management tools of hoshin, gemba, and the growing suite of software applications that support Lean practice. Introduction Part IV: In this part, we explain the issues and challenges with implementing Lean in an organization. Chapter 11 addresses organizational issues specifically.

Chapter 12 focuses on the people elements of Lean — often the most overlooked and risky part. Chapter 13 addresses the life cycle of a Lean implementation, from strategy to startup and, finally, evolution. Chapter 14 explains how Lean works in the different functions and organization of a business. Chapter 15 addresses Lean in different industries. Part V: The Part of Tens This part, in the For Dummies tradition, is a compilation of key points of reference.

Chapter 16 discusses ten practices for success. Chapter 17 addresses ten pitfalls to avoid. And in Chapter 18, we tell you about ten additional places you can go for help.

We use these to help you better understand and apply the material. When you see any of the following icons, this is what they mean: These are key points to remember that can help you implement Lean successfully. This icon flags a detailed technical issue or reference.

We use this icon to summarize information into short, memorable thoughts. Instead, each chapter is selfcontained, which means you can start with whichever chapters interest you the most. You can use Lean For Dummies as a reference book, which means you can jump in and out of certain parts, chapters, and sections as you wish. Here are some suggestions on where to start: Check out Chapter 4.

Go to Chapters 11 and Lean is a journey. Like any journey, it is exciting and exhilarating, stretching and life altering, challenging and unexpected. But it is worth it. We wish you well on this journey.

With this book by your side, you have what it takes to live Lean and thrive! Part I Lean Basics T In this part. Like a diet and exercise regime for your body, Lean is a way to get your business fit for life, through a focus on your customer, the implementation of new business practices, and the ongoing commitment to continuous improvement. In this part, we fill you in on the foundations, philosophy, and basics of Lean.

DevOps for Dummies – 3rd edition – IBM

The notion of Lean carries with it a commitment to a set of principles and practices that not only get you fit, but keep you fit. People who are lean seem to be that way not just temporarily, but continuously. Lean people are committed to being lean; they act a certain way in their habits and routines. Now take this concept and apply it to a business or organization.

What do you see? What does lean mean, business-wise? James P. Womack, were examining the international automotive industry, and observed unique behaviors at the Toyota Motor Company TMC. Researcher John Krafcik and the others struggled with a term to describe what they were seeing. They looked at all the performance attributes of a Toyota-style system, compared to traditional mass production. What they saw was a company that: And just like that, the term lean became associated with a certain business capability — the ability to accomplish more with less.

Lean organizations use less human effort to perform their work, less material to create their products and services, less time to develop them, and less energy and space to produce them. See Table for a comparison of mass production and Lean. Focus is on exploiting economies of scale of stable product designs and non-unique technologies. A customer-focused strategy. Focus is on identifying and exploiting shifts in competitive advantage.

Organizational structure Hierarchical structures along functional lines. Encourages functional alignments and following orders. Inhibits the flow of vital information that highlights defects, operator errors, equipment abnormalities, and organizational deficiencies. Flat, flexible structures along lines of value creation.

Encourages individual initiative and the flow of information highlighting defects, operator errors, equipment abnormalities, and organizational deficiencies. Operational framework Application of tools along divisions of labor. Following of orders, and few problem-solving skills. Application of tools that assume standardized work. Strength in problem identification, hypothesis generation, and experimentation. Chapter 1: Defining Lean Lean has become a worldwide movement.

But the term Lean has crystallized a particular set of ideas and concepts: Dozens of consulting firms, hundreds of training courses, and thousands of books and articles all chronicle the many aspects of Lean practice.

Consulting firms have developed Lean implementation programs for every business function, including management, manufacturing, administration, supply chains, product design, and even software development.

Lean has become a recognized methodology. It even has an award: Its successes have saved billions of dollars. Its competitiveness has forced previously bloated, self-absorbed organizations to retool themselves and focus on customer value. And it has equipped struggling companies and industries with methods and techniques to improve their performance.

The many dimensions of Lean — its tenets and philosophies, the methodology and techniques, the tools and applications, and the management frameworks — have evolved considerably since that day in Lean is now a science and a practice.

Lean Basics In this book, we fill you in on the origins and applications of Lean practice. But although Lean has a toolset, it is much more than a set of tools. Lean is a philosophy, an approach to your life and work. Lean is a journey, with no predefined path or end state. What Is Lean? Lean is a broad catchphrase that describes a holistic and sustainable approach that uses less of everything to give you more. Lean is a business strategy based on satisfying the customer by delivering quality products and services that are just what the customer needs, when the customer needs them, in the amount required, at the right price, while using the minimum of materials, equipment, space, labor, and time.

Lean practices enable an organization to reduce its development cycles, produce higher-quality products and services at lower costs, and use resources more efficiently. Although the term Lean has been most directly associated with manufacturing and production processes, Lean practices cover the total enterprise, embracing all aspects of operations, including internal functions, supplier networks, and customer value chains.

Lean is a continuous, evolutionary process of change and adaptation, not a singular, idealized vision or technology-driven goal state. A central organizing principle is the long-term renewable enterprise, where the organization builds sustaining relationships with all its stakeholders, including employees, managers, owners, suppliers, distributors, and customers, as well as community, society, and the environment.

Lean means less of many things — less waste, shorter cycle times, fewer suppliers, less bureaucracy. But Lean also means more — more employee knowledge and empowerment, more organizational agility and capability, more productivity, more satisfied customers, and more long-term success. Anything more than the absolute minimum is essentially waste.

Defining Lean The sources of waste are everywhere: Not only are you downloading, transporting, and storing the extra raw material in the first place, but you then have to pay to transport and dispose of damaged or obsolete goods. Not only are mistakes frustrating to you, your coworkers, and your management, as well as the customer, but you have to spend more time and use more materials doing it over. Excess inventory directly wastes space.

Plus, it has to be handled and maintained. Space is facility and capital cost, as well as the energy and labor to maintain it. Not only are those extra tools and equipment expensive, but they also have to be stored, repaired, and maintained.

It results in mistakes, rework, scrap, lost time, and missed deadlines — plus, it can be hazardous. This is the most wasteful of all. The logic of Lean In Lean, you pursue understanding the source and rooting out the causes of waste.

The practice of Lean as the root-cause eliminator of wastefulness is based on a core set of fundamental assumptions. Follow this logic: The customer has the need and defines the purpose. Everything begins and ends with what the customer requires. Everything else is fluff.

It has to be the right combination of quality products and services, in the right place, at the right time and at the right price. A combination of steps — such as marketing, design, production, processing, delivery and support — rightly performed, will result in the creation of products and services that the customer will properly value. Things that naturally creep in and prevent the steps in a process from flowing quickly and effectively will inhibit the creation of customer value.

If every step in the process is fully capable, acts only when necessary, flows perfectly, and adapts to perform exactly as needed, the process will develop and deliver products and services without waste. Written in plain English and packed with lots of helpful examples, this easy-to-follow guide arms you with tools and techniques for implementing Lean Six Sigma and offers guidance on everything from policy deployment to managing change in your organisation—and everything in between.

Gives you plain-English explanations of complicated jargon Serves as a useful tool for businesspeople looking to make their organisation more effective Helps you achieve goals with ease and confidence Provides useful hands-on checklists Whether you want to manage a project more tightly or fine-tune existing systems and processes, the third edition of Lean Six Sigma For Dummies makes it easier to achieve your business goals.

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In order to navigate out of this carousel please use your heading shortcut key to navigate to the next or previous heading. George 4. A Complete Step-by-Step Guide: Enhance business efficiency and reduce waste Successfully deploy Lean Six Sigma projects in your organisation Manage projects more tightly and fine-tune existing systems Apply Lean Six Sigma thinking to your day-to-day activities Make your organisation more productive with Lean Six Sigma Lean Six Sigma combines the very best of two top business improvement techniques.

The newest edition of Lean Six Sigma For Dummies gives you the tools to implement it in your organisation and make your processes more effective and efficient. Key principles of Lean Six Sigma How to pinpoint the elements of a process Customer-focused performance measures Steps in assessing performance How to use control charts Tips for interpreting value-added Ways to reduce risk with FMEA Checklists for putting the methodology in place.

John works primarily in product design and development. Martin is an expert in quality and change management. Both are accomplished coaches and trainers. Would you like to tell us about a lower price? If you are a seller for this product, would you like to suggest updates through seller support? Maximise the quality and efficiency of your organisation with Lean Six Sigma Are you looking to make your organisation more effective and productive?

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download the selected items together This item: Customers who bought this item also bought. Page 1 of 1 Start over Page 1 of 1. Six Sigma For Dummies. Craig Gygi. Six Sigma: The Council for Six. Operations Management For Dummies. Mary Ann Anderson. Benjamin Sweeney. From the Back Cover Learn to: Read more.

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Womack, were examining the international automotive industry, and observed unique behaviors at the Toyota Motor Company TMC. Researcher John Krafcik and the others struggled with a term to describe what they were seeing.

They looked at all the performance attributes of a Toyota-style system, compared to traditional mass production. What they saw was a company that: And just like that, the term lean became associated with a certain business capability — the ability to accomplish more with less. Lean organizations use less human effort to perform their work, less material to create their products and services, less time to develop them, and less energy and space to produce them.

See Table for a comparison of mass production and Lean. Focus is on exploiting economies of scale of stable product designs and non-unique technologies. A customer-focused strategy. Focus is on identifying and exploiting shifts in competitive advantage. Organizational structure Hierarchical structures along functional lines. Encourages functional alignments and following orders. Inhibits the flow of vital information that highlights defects, operator errors, equipment abnormalities, and organizational deficiencies.

Flat, flexible structures along lines of value creation. Encourages individual initiative and the flow of information highlighting defects, operator errors, equipment abnormalities, and organizational deficiencies. Operational framework Application of tools along divisions of labor. Following of orders, and few problem-solving skills. Application of tools that assume standardized work.

Strength in problem identification, hypothesis generation, and experimentation. Chapter 1: Defining Lean Lean has become a worldwide movement.

But the term Lean has crystallized a particular set of ideas and concepts: Dozens of consulting firms, hundreds of training courses, and thousands of books and articles all chronicle the many aspects of Lean practice.

Consulting firms have developed Lean implementation programs for every business function, including management, manufacturing, administration, supply chains, product design, and even software development. Lean has become a recognized methodology.

It even has an award: Its successes have saved billions of dollars. Its competitiveness has forced previously bloated, self-absorbed organizations to retool themselves and focus on customer value. And it has equipped struggling companies and industries with methods and techniques to improve their performance. The many dimensions of Lean — its tenets and philosophies, the methodology and techniques, the tools and applications, and the management frameworks — have evolved considerably since that day in Lean is now a science and a practice.

Lean Basics In this book, we fill you in on the origins and applications of Lean practice. But although Lean has a toolset, it is much more than a set of tools. Lean is a philosophy, an approach to your life and work. Lean is a journey, with no predefined path or end state. What Is Lean? Lean is a broad catchphrase that describes a holistic and sustainable approach that uses less of everything to give you more. Lean is a business strategy based on satisfying the customer by delivering quality products and services that are just what the customer needs, when the customer needs them, in the amount required, at the right price, while using the minimum of materials, equipment, space, labor, and time.

Lean practices enable an organization to reduce its development cycles, produce higher-quality products and services at lower costs, and use resources more efficiently.

Although the term Lean has been most directly associated with manufacturing and production processes, Lean practices cover the total enterprise, embracing all aspects of operations, including internal functions, supplier networks, and customer value chains. Lean is a continuous, evolutionary process of change and adaptation, not a singular, idealized vision or technology-driven goal state.

A central organizing principle is the long-term renewable enterprise, where the organization builds sustaining relationships with all its stakeholders, including employees, managers, owners, suppliers, distributors, and customers, as well as community, society, and the environment.

Lean means less of many things — less waste, shorter cycle times, fewer suppliers, less bureaucracy. But Lean also means more — more employee knowledge and empowerment, more organizational agility and capability, more productivity, more satisfied customers, and more long-term success. Anything more than the absolute minimum is essentially waste. Defining Lean The sources of waste are everywhere: Not only are you downloading, transporting, and storing the extra raw material in the first place, but you then have to pay to transport and dispose of damaged or obsolete goods.

Not only are mistakes frustrating to you, your coworkers, and your management, as well as the customer, but you have to spend more time and use more materials doing it over. Excess inventory directly wastes space. Plus, it has to be handled and maintained. Space is facility and capital cost, as well as the energy and labor to maintain it.

Not only are those extra tools and equipment expensive, but they also have to be stored, repaired, and maintained. It results in mistakes, rework, scrap, lost time, and missed deadlines — plus, it can be hazardous. This is the most wasteful of all. The logic of Lean In Lean, you pursue understanding the source and rooting out the causes of waste. The practice of Lean as the root-cause eliminator of wastefulness is based on a core set of fundamental assumptions. Follow this logic: The customer has the need and defines the purpose.

Everything begins and ends with what the customer requires. Everything else is fluff. It has to be the right combination of quality products and services, in the right place, at the right time and at the right price. A combination of steps — such as marketing, design, production, processing, delivery and support — rightly performed, will result in the creation of products and services that the customer will properly value.

Things that naturally creep in and prevent the steps in a process from flowing quickly and effectively will inhibit the creation of customer value. If every step in the process is fully capable, acts only when necessary, flows perfectly, and adapts to perform exactly as needed, the process will develop and deliver products and services without waste.

The closer to perfection a process becomes, the more effective the creation of value, the more satisfied the customers, and the more successful the endeavor. No one has ever experienced the perfect process, but Lean continually strives for perfection. Lean is the strategy and approach, and it provides the methods and tools for pursuing the perfect process.

Where is Lean? Lean is found wherever there is waste, and anywhere there is opportunity for improvement. In other words, Lean is found everywhere. Although formal Lean practices began in manufacturing, they apply across the board. A common misconception holds Lean as a sort of manufacturing quality program.

Not so. The philosophy, principles, and practices of Lean are You may have heard jargon that implies certain groups or functions practice Lean, such as the following: Early in the formalization of Lean techniques, the practices were modeled after manufacturing and production approaches in companies like Toyota. Enormous successes ensued in other manufacturing companies as Lean practitioners applied the techniques in other manufacturing environments.

As a result, these labels took hold. These references note that the practices have been applied with great success in office environments, where the value streams are policy-based, information-oriented decision making and involve the effective management of transactions and data. This term is most often associated with the role of managers in the Lean enterprise. This covers the management of a Lean initiative, as well as the personal Lean practices of the managers themselves.

Because Lean is more than just tools and techniques, people within an effective Lean organization apply Lean practices as a way of thinking — a way of approaching issues and challenges. Lean Thinking is also the name of a book by James Womack and Daniel Jones, first published in , which stands as a milestone in Lean.

It was in this landmark work that everyone began to associate Lean with more than just Toyota and automotive and began thinking of Lean as a movement of its own. Each of these monikers represents an element of Lean in its own right, but only as a single facet or subset of the greater Lean enterprise.

In fact, Lean is all of these and more. Think of Lean in the enterprise not as a group of functional or departmental practices, but as a set of multidisciplinary practices that cross functional lines. Lean focuses on the processes that create customer value, which by their nature are cross-functional. Examples include the supplier-assembler process, the assembler-distributor-customer process, the marketing-designdevelopment process, the company-shareholder process, and the companygovernment-regulatory process.

In each of these cases, work is not aligned by classic Western-style functional departments. Instead, the process is facilitated by multidisciplinary teams — and in a Lean enterprise, the individuals on these teams are cross-trained as well. Although the tools are important, Lean is just as much about the people as the tools.

This is a critical point — companies that have failed to recognize this have done so with disastrous consequences. A successful Lean journey puts as much emphasis on the people in the organization as it does on the methods, tools, and techniques of Lean practice. The journey must engage everyone, continually educate and train them, challenge and empower them. Employees must be safe and feel secure in their work environment and job situations. They must be stimulated and incentivized, celebrated and compensated.

People are highly valued in the Lean organization. They are more important than tools and fixtures, equipment, material, or capital. Everyone practices Lean techniques habitually. When you observe an organization practicing Lean, you will see that: People are in deliberate and decisive motion, performing standardized work. Meetings are short and crisp. They embrace learning, share knowledge, and are open to changes and new ways of doing things.

Lean is often associated with other process improvement programs and initiatives, and in particular it is frequently paired with Six Sigma more on this later in this chapter.

And Lean, as a way of thinking and behaving, can be part of many initiatives. So Lean is a lot of things. Lean is a well-grounded, mature, and very real framework for developing and sustaining performance excellence. Unlike most other process improvement initiatives, Lean does not require large investments in training or expensive software; nor does it call for a prescriptive, one-size-fits-all formulaic rollout. It requires top-down senior-management support, but Lean can begin in a small group and expand naturally as it grows and as the business needs it.

This ease-of-adoption is why Lean has been so successful in small and medium-sized companies, and in operating units of large companies. Certain difficult challenges will always require deep analysis to characterize, understand, and solve.

But the vast majority of Lean improvements are brought about by very simple and straightforward exercises, observation, and activities that anyone can understand and apply.

It emerged from longstanding practices, characterized and understood by researchers who were observing what makes certain businesses work better. Although some Lean concepts might sound counterintuitive at first — and are very much counter to how many organizations are run — the tools and techniques of Lean have been around for decades and are fully complementary to longstanding proven methods.

Take note of this key point: Lean is very much a long-term deal. Lean Basics What makes Lean so special? Organizations worldwide have a plethora of choices when considering approaches to both their tactical and strategic pressures and challenges.

Lean is one of many, many options. Why is it so popular? Gone are the days of doing things the same old way and being successful regardless — or of just being smart and hoping for the best.

Aggressive, unrelenting global pressures are forcing everyone to embrace some type of approach and strategy for performance management and improvement. The Lean approach is increasingly popular, because it offers organizations a sensible, proven, and accessible path to long-term success. Unlike so many of the alternatives, Lean is something that everyone can understand, everyone can do, and everyone can benefit from: In an era of mind-boggling complexity, Lean is a solid foundation for addressing all kinds of challenges — simply.

Lean is broadly applicable in any situation, combining old-world logic and reason with new-world tools and constraints. Make no mistake: The performance improvement industry is big business.

Lean for Dummies

Most of the performance improvement alternatives in the marketplace are big-ticket items, tailor-made for big wallets — and the big egos that carry them. Not Lean. Lean is accessible to anyone, with any budget. The Lean framework is purposely open and embraces tools and techniques known to solve problems.

Using Lean as a foundation, all the quality, performance, and technology tools still apply. Many performance improvement solutions are strictly tailored for specialty disciplines, requiring advanced skills and knowledge. Lean is so powerful in part because it is so easily learned and applied by everyone.

No one is excluded. The Lean Pedigree While the specific assembly of principles and practices known as Lean date from the late s, the origins of Lean are much older. Lean has a deep pedigree. Historians cite King Henry III of France in watching the Venice Arsenal build complete galley ships in less than an hour using continuousflow processes.

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In the 18th century, Benjamin Franklin established principles regarding waste and excess inventory and Eli Whitney developed interchangeable parts.

In the late 19th century, Frank and Lillian Gilbreth pioneered the modern-day understanding of motion efficiency as it related to work.

In the early 20th century, Frederic Winslow Taylor, the father of scientific management, introduced the concepts of standardized work and best-practices. It exhibits in higher degree than most persons would have thought possible the seemingly contradictory requirements of true efficiency, which are: And with these appears, as at once cause and effect, an absolutely incredible enlargement of output reaching something like one hundred fold in less than ten years, and an enormous profit to the manufacturer.

Ford also explicitly understood many of the forms of waste and the concepts of value-added time and effort. New practices were later developed during the industrial buildups that preceded and then supported World War II, both in the United States and Japan.

In the United States, quality leaders like W. Edwards Deming and Joseph Juran refined management and statistical concepts in support of war production. Lean Basics training, and production, while emphasizing methods and relationships.

In postwar Japan, Deming and Juran worked with Japanese industrial leaders to apply these practices to reconstruction. Meanwhile, Ford regularly invited managers and engineers from around the world to visit Ford plants and observe his mass-production systems. At that time, the Rouge plant was largest and most complex manufacturing facility in the world. Toyota was producing about 2, cars a year; Ford was producing nearly 8, a day. The domestic Japanese automotive market was too small and too diversified — ranging from compact cars to luxury executive vehicles and a variety of trucks.

In addition, the postwar native Japanese workforce was not willing to work under the same substandard conditions as the immigrant force in the United States. And the capital outlay for facilities and equipment was too high. Toyoda and Ohno set out to develop an entirely new means of production, including engineering, manufacture, supply, assembly, and workforce management.

TPS is perhaps the most studied system of production and operations management in the world. Countless companies have visited Toyota and observed TPS in action. Dozens of books have chronicled its successes and hailed its methods. Lean Manufacturing, in particular, is essentially a repackaging of the Toyota Production System. Most of the philosophy and tenets, as well as the methods, techniques, and tools of Lean are all found within TPS.

He led its development, extension to the supply base, and integration with global partners from the early s through the s. By the time Lean was introduced to U. All of this stands on a foundation of operational stability and Kaizen, bolstered by visual management and standardized work. As examples, the just-in-time concepts were developed at Toyota; jidoka was invented by Sakichi Toyoda; the seven forms of waste is a Toyota creation.

So is Value-Stream Mapping. They share some of the same tools and techniques. They claim similar results. But they also have significant differences — critical differences — in focus, scope, application, investment, and return. Developed in the s as an amalgam of the different quality movements and approaches in the United States, Europe, and Japan, interest in TQM peaked in the early s. Total Quality Management focuses on culture and organization.

Like other initiatives, TQM emphasizes a customer orientation, commitment from top management, continuous improvement, fact-based decision making, fast response, and employee participation. All the quality and statistical-analysis tools are applicable under TQM.

Defining Lean TQM has been applied in manufacturing, education, government, and service industries, with mixed success. As a broad culture-oriented initiative, it is challenged by the lack of a focused implementation methodology and direct measurable results.

Lean, like TQM, can act as the umbrella strategy for a corporation. Lean incorporates TQM principles and practices.

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