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Figure 2 shows the 38 monitoring locations 1 and the resulting upstream watershed delineations for each location 2. A single color was chosen for each of the 9 tributaries, and the opacity was decreased from upstream to downstream. A tabular summary of the collected data is included in the supplementary data. Land-use coverage and land-use change figures Figure 3 presents the locations of our land-use observation points 1 and the resulting m land-use raster coverage 2.
Detailed information about resulting land-use statistics can be found in the supplemental material. In both the monsoon and pre-monsoon data, locations with better ecological stream health were seen around the periphery of the Valley, with declining stream health moving toward the densely populated urban areas near the center of the Valley shown in dark and light brown. Except for the Balkhu watershed to the west, the most upstream measurement of each watershed was either RQC 1 or 2 i.
A noticeable upstream shift in RQC 4 and 5 i. The Balkhu watershed to the west has the lowest overall ecological stream health for all three monitoring locations.
Open image in new window Fig. Standard colors for RQC are used Hartmann et al. The two upstream-most measurement sites were RQC 1 in both monsoon and pre-monsoon periods.
RQC for the third through sixth sites diverges for monsoon and pre-monsoon. A deterioration in ecological stream health, illustrated by an increase in RQC, occurs from monsoon to pre-monsoon at all four of these sites. The fourth, fifth, and sixth sites showed a decline of two classes.
The seventh and last site was RQC 5 for both the monsoon and pre-monsoon measurements. Land-use proportions shown for six land-uses classes with reference to the primary left vertical axes. RQC shown for monsoon dashed line with triangles and pre-monsoon solid line with circles periods with reference to the secondary right vertical axes.
The x-axis represents areas of the watersheds upstream of each measurement point, moving upstream to downstream left to right. Watershed areas range from 0. The six colors on the figure correspond with the six land-use classifications Fig.
The data are presented in the same way as the Bagmati River watershed data Fig. RQC and EC data are plotted with the secondary right vertical axes reversed so that values that move vertically downward on the plot areas represent a decline in ecological stream health or water quality.
RQC shown for monsoon dashed line with triangles and pre-monsoon solid line with circles periods with reference to the secondary right vertical axes Open image in new window Fig.
The steepest declines in ecological stream health occurred in the Dhobi 1 , Bishnumati 4 , and Hanumante 6 watersheds. These watersheds had the largest and upstream most occurring proportions of built low and high uses.
A deterioration in ecological stream health from monsoon to pre-monsoon periods was observed at the Dhobi 1 , Bagmati 2 , and Godawari 3 watersheds Fig. The largest improvement in ecological stream health from monsoon to pre-monsoon was one RQC, while the largest deterioration was two RQC.
All watersheds during pre-monsoon had RQC 5 at the most downstream measurement site. Both EC and DO showed similar deteriorating trends from upstream to downstream for all nine watersheds Figs.
An increase in EC was observed at eight out of the nine watersheds from monsoon to pre-monsoon; EC levels decreased slightly at the Nakkhu watershed. Flows showed increasing trends from upstream to downstream for all watersheds in the monsoon and pre-monsoon periods Fig.
All flows during the pre-monsoon were less than monsoon. During the pre-monsoon period, precipitation and runoff are low. Even still, we observed steady increases in streamflow from upstream to downstream, especially in areas with Built Low and High land-uses. Our hypothesis is that this increase in flow is due to wastewater return flows from either surface water or groundwater sources. A subsequent publication will explore the possibility of solving for net groundwater pumping from stream reach water balance analyses in the pre-monsoon period.
For the monsoon period, 21 out of the possible 28 correlations i. Chiang Mai. Download the app. More info. Explore in Kathmandu. By type of lodging. Hotels in Kathmandu. Hostels in Kathmandu. Guesthouses in Kathmandu. Resorts in Kathmandu. Youth Hostels in Kathmandu. Campsites in Kathmandu. Day Trips in Kathmandu. Durbar Square. Thamel Neighborhood. Kumari House. Jagannath Temple. Hotels near Kathmandu.
Altitude sickness is a risk in all trekking regions. See Trekking in Nepal. All air carriers from Nepal have been refused permission to operate air services to the EU due to safety concerns.
See Safety and security Car and motorbike accidents are one of the biggest causes of injury and death overseas. If possible, avoid travelling at night. Always travel in a well-maintained vehicle with seatbelts. If you travel by motorbike, wear a helmet and proper footwear.
See Safety and security High levels of air pollution can occur in Nepal. Children, the elderly and those with pre-existing medical conditions may be especially affected by poor air quality. You can check the pollution index levels for real-time information, and the WHO factsheet on air quality.
Terrorists are likely to try to carry out attacks in Nepal. See Terrorism Around 40, British nationals visit Nepal annually.