This highly successful book, which describes the basic techniques of work study as practiced in many parts of the world, has been widely recognized as the best. The responsibility for opinions expressed in signed articles, studies and other contributions rests solely with .. good business practices like book-keeping and. migrant workers to their fundamental rights at work, the book describes in detail the international .. Macmillan as part of the Advances in Labour Studies series.
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The book describes as simply as possible the basic techniques of work study, giving examples of each. It is hoped that the book will be useful, not only for. Contents: Productivity and Work Study: Productivity Concept and Definitions / Productivity in the Individual Enterprise / Techniques for Productivity Improvement. International Institute for Labour Studies. The World of Work Report provides a comprehensive analysis of the current state of labour markets and social.
The importance of having good human rela- tions and good working conditions throughout the undertaking before attempting. Work study, like other things, may be imposed in certain circumstances, but managerial techniques which are accepted by workers unwillingly and without understanding rarely work properly and are liable to break down completely after the circumstances change.
The second and third parts deal respectively with method study and work measurement, the two main techniques of work study. The last part contains a number of appendices. A note on the use of this book as an aid to teaching will be found in Appendix 1.
This note, which is based on experience in the field, gives suggested selections and breakdowns of chapters for two different types of courses. Obviously, there is no implication that the text or the arrangement of the subject should be followed slavishly.
The great value of having teachers with practical experience of any subject is the vivid realism and the special knowledge which their experience enables them to put into their lectures. However, much of the material in this book is basic, and it is hoped that these notes may help those preparing lectures and courses by providing them with essential material to which they can add from their own stores of knowledge.
Writing a book on work study which can be used all over the world by persons trained in different countries with different systems and different terminologies is a difficult task. Any such book is bound to be a compromise and, like all com- promises, there will be points of weakness.
The main problem in writing this book has been not what to include but what to omit. It has also been necessary to present some of the subject-matter in a rather over-simplified form and more dogmatically than the current state of knowledge and experience may warrant, or than would be done in a textbook intended for people more familiar with the subject.
It is not claimed that the techniques described here, especially in the chapters on work measurement, are necessarily the best available or that they represent the most up-to-date practices.
They do, however, represent systems which have been widely and successfully applied in many parts of the world for a number of years. They have worked and they still do work, and they have contributed substantially to the attainment of high productivity in North America and Western Europe. It has been shown that they can contribute to increased productivity in the industrially less developed countries.
The reader cannot, of course, expect to be able to apply these techniques merely as a result of studying this book. It is not intended as a textbook but rather as an introduction, an aid to teaching and a reminder of what will be learned in systematic courses. Work study is a practical technique and it can only be learned practically under the guidance of experienced teachers.
The principles underlying it are. The original version of this book was written primarily for persons attending courses in work study in management development and productivity centres in developing countries to which I. Since it first appeared in definitive form in over , copies have been sold or distributed in English, French and Spanish, the three working languages of the I.
Although intended for use in developing countries, the book has become the standard introductory textbook in teaching institutions in certain industrially advanced countries, notably the United Kingdom.
As its title suggests, the book was intended as an introduction to the subject and not as an exhaustive textbook. Its aim is to provide trainees and teachers with the basic elements on which they could develop their knowledge of more advanced practices and special applications.
As a matter of policy it was confined to the basic elements of work study alone and did not embrace such questions as incentive schemes with which work study, especially work measurement, is usually asso- ciated.
Nor did it attempt to deal with advanced work study techniques. It was written in the first place because an examination of current literature in the work study field showed that no simple and comprehensive handbook suitable for providing a basic introduction existed.
The unexpected success of the book seems to have justified the view that it has filled a need. More than ten years have passed since the first impression appeared and usage in many countries has brought to light shortcomings in the original text.
There have also been certain developments which, it is felt, should be dealt with or treated more fully. The preparation of the second edition has been made the occasion for a complete overhaul of the text, especially of Part III, Work Measurement, which has been radically rewritten.
However, the original intention has been adhered to and advanced techniques or special applications are mentioned but not treated in depth. When the first edition was written there was no uniform glossary of work study terms or system of application in any English-speaking country, although standard systems existed through the national institutions in France and Germany.
It was therefore decided to adopt a terminology and systems of method study and work measurement which, while based on practice in the United Kingdom, were suffi- ciently generally applicable and accepted as to provide the basic grounding which. The result, inevitably, was a compromise which left strong exponents of particular systems somewhat unsatisfied, but which seems to have served its purpose.
In considering what modifications should be made to the second edition, the authors took account of the fact that in the British Standards Institution published the British Standard Glossary of Terms in Work Study B.
This Glossary was the result of several years work by a Committee of the Institu- tion widely representative of practitioners of different systems of work study, the principal professional institutions concerned, employers' organisations and the Trades Union Congress, and represents the outcome of their collective thinking.
It is by far the most comprehensive attempt to rationalise and standardise work study terminology and practice which has yet been achieved. Although it is recog- nised that, as an international agency, the I. Readers familiar with the original version of this book will find that there is available which have been in consequence many changes of substance, parti- cularly in the part of the book which deals with work measurement.
The adoption of the B. Readers who are not familiar with the newer terminology will find it advantageous to study first Appendix 5, which reproduces a number of terms used in the British Standard Glossary. A folder lists the main changes in each chapter. It is hoped that this will be of service to teachers who have been using the earlier version, perhaps for years, and who will now find that their students are working from the revised edition.
The folder has been perforated to enable the passage relating to each chapter to be detached and affixed to the title page of the chapter, if desired. Metric measurements have been adopted throughout this edition, so that many of the charts and illustrations, while essentially similar to those in the original version, have been changed in detail.
Twenty-two fresh figures have been added, bringing the total number of illustrations to The original edition of the book was written by Mr.
Wynne-Roberts of the Economic Division, I. It is hoped that this book will make the understanding of these principles easier. The International Labour Office is grateful to the many people who sent in suggestions and comments on the text. In particular, special thanks are due to Messrs. Hans Fahlstrdm, L. Ferney, Hy Fish, C. Kerkhoven, J. Shearer and Seymour Tilles, members of I. Nanjundiah of the Indian Productivity Centre and to Dr.
Acknowledgement must be made for the valuable contributions and criticisms of Dr. Winston M. This revised edition has been prepared for the International Labour Office by Mr. Mitchell, who, as Chief of I. In making this revision he has had the benefit throughout of the advice and collabbration of Mr.
Shearer of the Management Development Branch, I. Chapter 1. Productivity and the Standard of Living 3. Chapter 2. Productivity in the Individual Enterprise Chapter 3. Chapter 4. Work Study 35 What is Work Study? Chapter 5. Chapter 7. Introduction to Method Study and the Selection of Jobs Chapter 8. Chapter 9.
The Flow and Handling of Materials Chapter Movement of Workers in the Shop Storing Tiles after Inspection 3. Serving Dinners in a Hospital Ward. Feeding Bones to a Crusher in a Glue Factory 5. Materials Handling Methods and Movements at the Workplace 19 1. General 2. The Principles of Motion Economy 3. Classification of Movements 4. Notes on the Design of Jigs, Tools and Fixtures 6. Machine Controls and Displays of Dials 7. Cutting Glass Tubes 8.
Micromotion Study The Simo Chart The Use of Films in Methods Analysis Other Recording Techniques The Development of Improved Methods The Methods Laboratory Define, Install, Maintain 1. Obtaining Approval for the Improved Method 2. Installing the Improved Method 4. Training and Retraining Operatives 5. Maintaining the New Method 6. Conclusion General Remarks on Work Measurement Definition 2. The Purpose of Work Measurement 3. The Uses of Work Measurement. The Techniques of Work Measurement 5.
The Basic Procedure Time Study Equipment 1. What Is Time Study?
Selecting the Job to Be Studied 2. The Approach to the Worker 3. The Steps in Making a Time Study 4. Checking the Method 6. Breaking the Job into Elements Types of Element 7.
Deciding the Elements 8. Timing Each Element: Stopwatch Procedure 9. Time Study: Rating 1. The Qualified Worker 2. The "Average" Worker 3. Standard Rating and Standard Performance 4. Comparing the Observed Rate of Working with the Standard 5. What is Rated? Factors Affecting Rate of Working 7.
Scales of Rating 8. How the Rating Factor is Used 9. Recording the Rating From Study to Standard Time Summarising the Study 2. The Calculation of Basic Time 4. Completing the Study Summary Sheet 6. How Many Studies7 7. The Analysis of Studies Sheet 8. Work Content 9. Standard Time Contingency Allowances The Standard Time Example of a Time Study Appendix 1.
Appendix 2. Appendix 3. Appendix 4. Appendix 5. Glossary of Terms Used Appendix 6. Notes on the Wet Kata Thermometer Appendix 7. Book List. How Manufacturing Time is Made Up Layout of Working Area. The standard of living of any man is the extent to which he is able to provide himself and his family with the things that are necessary for sustaining and enjoying life. The standard of living of the representative man or family in the different nations or communities of the world varies greatly.
A poor man in the United States and in some countries of Western Europe would be a rich man in other coun- tries. The countries in which the ordinary man and his family are able to enjoy not only all the necessities for a healthy life but also many things which might be classed as luxuries, are still too few. In too many parts of the world the ordinary man is hardly able to obtain even the necessary things. He and his family are rarely able completely to satisfy their hunger, to clothe themselves properly or to enjoy housing conditions in which they can be comfortable and healthy.
What are the necessities of a minimum decent standard of living? Principally, they are-. FOOD enough food every day to replace the energy used in living and working;. SECURITY security against robbery or violence, against loss of the opportunity to work, against poverty due to illness or old age; and.
Food, clothing and housing are generally things which a man has to obtain for himself. In order to have them he must pay for them, either in money or work. Hygiene, security and education are generally matters for governments and other public authorities.
The services of public authorities have to be paid for, generally by individual citizens, so each man must earn enough to pay his contribution to the common services as well as to support himself and his family. Each ilation or community must, in the long run, be self-supporting. The standard of living achieved will be that which the representative citizen is able to achieve through his own efforts and those of all his fellow-citizens.
The greater the amount of goods and services produced in any community, the higher its average standard of living will be. There are two main ways of increasing the amount of goods and services pro- duced. One is to increase employment; the other is to increase productivity.
If in any community there are men and women who are able to work and who want work but who are unable to find work, or who are able to find only part-time work, the output of goods and services can be increased if full-time productive work can be provided for them, i.
Whenever there is unemployment or underemployment efforts to increase employment are very impor- tant and should go hand in hand with efforts to increase the productivity of those who are already employed. But it is with the latter task that we are here concerned. We can have- more and cheaper food by increasing the productivity of agriculture; more and cheaper clothing and housing by increasing the productivity of industry; more hygiene, security and education by increasing all productivity and earning power, leaving more from which to pay for them.
Put in simpler terms, productivity, in the sense in which the word is used here, is nothing more than the arithmetical ratio between the amount produced and the amount of any resources used in the course of production.
We may find that the productivity of labour, land, materials or machines in any establishment, industry or country has increased, but the bare fact does not in itself tell us anything about the reasons why it has increased. An increase in the produc- tivity of labour, for example, may be due to better planning of the work on the part of the management or to the installation of new machinery.
An increase in the productivity of materials may be due to greater skill on the part of workers, to improved designs, and so on. The productivity of land used for industrial purposes may be said to have been increased if the output of goods or services within that area of land is increased by whatever means.
In each of these deliberately simple examples outputor productionhas also increased, and in each case by exactly the same percentage as the productivity. But an increase in production does not by itself indicate an increase in productivity. If the input of resources goes up in direct proportion to the increase in output the productivity will stay the same.
And if input increases by a greater percentage than output, then higher production will be being achieved at the expense of a reduction in productivity. In short, higher productivity means that more is produced with the same expenditure of resources, i.
We can now see more clearly how higher productivity can contribute to a higher standard of living. If more is produced at the same cost, or the same amount. Higher productivity provides opportunities for raising the general standard of living, including opportunities for larger supplies both of consumer goods and of capital goods at lower costs and lower prices; higher real earnings; improvements in working and living conditions, including shorter hours of work; and in general, a strengthening of the economic foundations of human well-being.
This book is not concerned with them. It is mainly concerned with raising productivity in industry, especially manufacturing industry. The techniques of work study described in it can, however, be used with success wherever work is done, in factories or offices, in shops or public services, and even on farms.
Cloth for clothes, many parts of houses, sanitary ware, drainage and water- works equipment, drugs and medical supplies, equipment for hospitals and for defence are all the products of industry. So are many things necessary for living above the level of bare existence. Household utensils, furniture, lamps and stoves generally have to be made in workshops, large and small.
Many of the goods necessary for running a modern community are too complex and too heavy to be made by cottage or small-scale industry. Railway engines and carriages, motor trucks, electric generators, telephones, electric cables, all require expensive ma- chines to make them, special equipment to handle them and an army of workers of many different skills.
The greater the productivity of the establishments making these things, the greater are the opportunities of producing them abundantly and cheaply in quantities and at prices which will meet the requirements of every family in the community.
The factors affecting the productivity of each organisation are many, and no one factor is independent of others. The importance to be given to the productivity of each of the resourcesland, materials, machines or mendepends on the enter- prise, the industry and possibly the country.
In industries where labour costs are low compared with material costs such as the cotton industry in the United Kingdom or 'See I. In countries where capital and skill are short, while unskilled labour is plentiful and poorly paid, it is especially important that higher productivity should be looked for by increasing the output per machine or piece of plant or per skilled worker.
It often pays to increase the number of unskilled workers if by doing so an expensive machine or a group of skilled craftsmen are enabled to increase output. Most practical managers know this, but many people have been misled into thinking of productivity exclusively as the productivity of labour, mainly because labour productivity usually forms the basis for published statistics on the subject.
In this book the problem of raising productivity will be treated as one of making the best possible use of all the available resources, and attention will constantly be drawn to cases where the productivity of materials or plant is increased. To achieve the greatest increases in productivity action must be taken by all sections of the community: Governments can create conditions favourable to the efforts of employers and workers to raise productivity.
For these it is necessary, among other things-. This is especially important in developing countries where unemployment is a big problem.
Employers and workers also have vital parts to play. The main responsibility for raising productivity in an individual enterprise rests with the management.
Only the management can carry out a productivity programme in each company. Only the management can create good human relations and so obtain the co- operation of the workers which is essential for real success, though this requires the goodwill of the workers too.
Trade unions can actively encourage their members to give such co-operation when they are satisfied that the programme is in the interests of the workers, as well as of the country as a whole. One of the greatest difficulties in obtaining the active co-operation of the workers is the fear that raising productivity will lead to unemployment. This fear is greatest when unemployment already exists and a worker who loses his job will find it hard to get another. Even in the economically developed countries where employment has for years been at a very high level'this fear is very real to those who knew unemploy- ment in the past.
Since this is so, workers, unless they are assured of adequate assistance in meeting their problems, may resist any steps which they fear, rightly or wrongly, will make them redundant, even though their period of unemployment may only be a short one, while they are changing jobs. In addition to the steps which governments may take to maintain the general level of employment, something more is needed to help workers who become temporarily unemployed. With this in mind the I. Meeting of Experts on Productivity in Manufacturing Industries Geneva, made certain recom- mendations.
An example of action on these lines is the agreement reached by representa- tives of employers and labour in the Indian cotton industry at a meeting called by the Indian Government at Delhi in February Essentially the same points were embodied in India's First Five-Year Plan, which was launched in Even with written guarantees, steps taken to raise productivity will probably meet with resistance. This resistance can generally be reduced to a minimum if everybody concerned understands the nature of and reason for each step taken and has some say in its implementation.
Workers' representatives should be trained in the techniques of increasing productivity so that they will be able both to explain them to their fellow-workers and to use their knowledge to ensure that no steps are taken which are directly harmful to them.
Many of the safeguards mentioned above can best be implemented through joint productivity committees and works councils. It was said in Chapter 1 that there were a number of factors affecting the productivity of an enterprise. Some of these, such as the general level of demand for goods, taxation policy, interest rates and the availability of raw materials, suitable equipment or skilled labour, are outside and beyond the control of any one employer.
Certain other factors can be controlled from inside the enterprise, and it is these that we are now going to discuss. Productivity was defined as "the ratio between output and input" in an enter- prise, an industry or an economy as a whole.
The productivity of a certain set of resources input is therefore the amount of goods or services output which is produced from them. What are the resources at the disposal of a manufacturing company? They include fuel, chemicals for use in the processes of manufacture, and packing materials.
MACHINES Plant, equipment and tools necessary to carry out operations of manu- facture and the handling and transport of materials; heating, ventilating and power plant; office equipment and furniture. The use which is made of all these resources combined determines the pro- ductivity of the enterprise. These resources consist of "real" things and services.
When they are used up in the process of production "real" costs are therefore incurred. Their cost may also be measured in terms of money. Since higher productivity means more output from the same resources it also means lower money costs and higher net money returns per unit of output. Who is responsible for making sure that the best use is made of all these resources? Who is responsible for seeing that they are combined in such a way as to achieve the greatest productivity?
The management of the enterprise. In any concern larger than a one-man business and to some extent even in a one-man business the work of balancing the use of one resource against another and of co-ordinating the efforts of everyone in the organisation to achieve the best results is the job of the management.
If the management fails to do what is neces-. The proper use of man-. In such a case the four resources become unco-ordinated like the efforts of four horses without a driver. The enterprise, like a driverless coach, moves forward jerkily, now held up for lack of material, now for lack of equipment; because machines are badly chosen and even more badly maintained, or because employees are unable or unwilling to do their best.
The key position of the management may be shown by a diagram figure 1. This is not the place to discuss the activities listed in the figure by which the management achieves the transformation of the resources at its disposal into finished products. To "motivate" means to provide a motive or reason for doing something. Used in the context of management it means, in effect, to make people want to do something.
It is of little use the management carrying out the other activities of getting facts, planning and so on if the people who are supposed to carry out the plans do not want to do so,. Coercion is no substitute for voluntary action.
It is one of the tasks of the management, and perhaps its most difficult task, to make people want to co-operate; the management can only succeed fully by enlisting the willing and active participation of workers at all levels. The relative importance of each of the resources mentioned above and shown in figure 1 varies according to the nature of the enterprise, the country in which it is operating, the availability and cost of each type of resource and the type of product and process.
There are many industries in which the cost of raw material represents 60 per cent. There are countries, the United Kingdom and many Asian countries among them, which have to import a very large proportion of their basic raw materials and pay for them in scarce foreign currencies.
Under either of these conditions the productivity of materials becomes a key factor in economic produc- tion or operation; it is likely to be far more important than the productivity of land or labour or even plant and machinery. Although the technique of work study, with which this. In general, however, savings in materials, direct or indirect, are effected in the following ways:.
The titles of some textbooks on industrial management will be found in the book list at the end of this volume Appendix 8. The question of material saving is so important to many countries that a separate volume would be needed to discuss it. The effective utilisation or maximum productivity of land and buildings is an important source of cost reduction, especially when an enterprise is expanding and needs increased working space.
Any reduction in the original specification which can be effected before land is downloadd or buildings erected represents a saving in capital outlay or rental of land and buildings, a saving in materials, particularly fittings, which may have to be imported, and a probable saving in taxes as well as a saving in future maintenance costs. Examples of space saving and the techniques of work study employed to achieve them will be found in Chapters 9 and We now come to consider the productivity of plant, machinery and equipment and of the services of men and women.
Let us take another look at the nature of. To do this we have to start thinking in terms of time, since it is the output of good production from a machine or from a worker in a given time which is used in calculating productivity. Productivity is frequently measured as the out- put of goods or services in a given number of "man-hours" or "machine-hours". A machine-hour is the running of a machine or piece of plant for one hour. The time taken by a man or a machine to carry out an operation or to produce a given quantity of product may be considered as made up in the following manner, which is illustrated in figure 2.
There is first the basic work content of the product or operation'. Work content means, of course, the amount of work "contained in" a given product or process mesured in man-hours or machine-hours.
The basic work content is the irreducible minimum time theoretically required to produce one unit of output. This is obviously a perfect condition which never occurs in practice, although it may sometimes be approached, especially in processing industries. In general, however, actual operation times are far in excess of it on account of.
The work content is increased by the following: This occurs primarily in manufacturing industries, but the equivalent in service industries such as transport might be the specification of a bus service which.
See note at the bottom of figure 2. Ineffective Time due to shortcomings of Total the management. Ineffective Time within the control of the worker. In the British Standard Glossary of Terms in Work Study the terms "work content" and "ineffective time" are accorded precise technical meanings which differ slightly from those used here.
The Glossary definitions are intended for use in applying work measurement techniques, and are not strictly relevant to the present discussion. In this chapter and the next, "work content" and "ineffective time" are used with their ordinary common meanings, as defined in the text. This additional work content is the time taken over and above the time of the basic work content due to features inherent in the product which could be eliminated see figure 3, page This is the time taken, over and above the basic work content plus A, due to inefficiencies inherent in the process or method of manufacture or operation see figure 3.
The basic work content assumes uninterrupted working. In practice, however, unintern. All interruptions which cause the worker or machine or both to cease producing or carrying out the operations on which they are supposed to be engaged, whatever may be the cause, must be regarded as ineffective time' because no work effective towards completing the operation in hand is being done during the period of the interruption.
Ineffective time reduces productivity by adding to the duration of the operation. Apart from interruptions from sources outside the control of any- one in the organisation, such as a power breakdown or a sudden rainstorm, in- effective time may be due to two sources. Time during which man or machine or both are idle because the management has failed to plan, direct, co-ordinate or control efficiently see figure 4, page Time during which man or machine or both are idle for reasons vithin the control of the worker himself see figure 4.
The relative sizes of the different sections of figure 2 have no special signifi- cance and will vary from operation to operation and from undertaking to under- taking even for the same operation.
The application of work study has often made it possible to reduce operation times to one-half or even a third of their original values without by any means exhausting the possibilities of further reduction. Let us now examine each of these sets of causes of excess time excess work content or ineffective time in turn and look at some of the reasons for them in detail. Incorrect or specifcation of Quality Standards the product cause unnecessary work Content 4.
Design demands removal of Excess Material. Wrong Machine used. Wrong Added Tools by inefficient methods used of manufacture or operation B. How cam features of the product affect the work content of a given operation?
There are several ways in which this can happen: The product and its components may be so designed that it is impossible to use the most economical processes or methods of manufacture. This applies especially to the metalworking industries and most particularly where large-scale production is undertaken. Components may not be designed to take advantage of high-production machinery example: Incorrect quality standards, whether too high or too low, may increase work content. In engineering practice close tolerances, requiring extra machining, are often put on dimensions where they are quite unnecessary.
There will thus be more rejects and a corresponding waste of material. On the other hand, material of too low a quality may make it difficult to work to the finish required or may make additional preparation of the product, such as cleaning, necessary to make it usable.
The quality of material becomes especially important in connection with automation. The components of a product may be so designed that an excessive amount of material has to be removed to bring them to their final shape. This increases the work content of thejob and wastes material as well example: The first step towards raising productivity and lowering the cost of the product is therefore to eliminate as far as possible all features in its design and specification that are likely to cause excess work content, including non-standard products demanded by customers where a standard product would serve as well.
How can inefficient operation of the process or inefficient methods of produc- tion or operation affect the work content of the job? If the wrong type or size of machine is used, one which has a lower output than the correct one examples: If the process is not operating properly, that is at the correct feed, speed, rate of flow, temperature, density of solution or whatever conditions govern its operation, or if the plant or machine is in bad condition.
If the wrong hand tools are used. If the layout of the factory, shop or workplace causes wasted movement, time or effort. If the working methods of the operative cause wasted movement, time or effort. It should be noted that the idea of work content in terms of time is based on the assumption of operation at a steady average working pace. The additional time taken owing to a slowing up of the working pace might be considered as in- effective time, but this is unimportant for the present discussion.
Optimum productivity from the process will only be reached if it is operated with the least waste of movement, time and effort and under the most efficient conditions. All features which would cause the worker to make unnecessary move- ments, whether around the shop or at the workplace, should be eliminated. It will be seen that all the items in the excess work content may be attributed to deficiencies on the part of the management.
This is true even of bad working methods on the part of the operatives if these are due to failure of the management to see that operatives are properly trained and supervised. Let us now consider the ineffective time in the manufacturing or operating cycle. How can shortcomings on the part of the management affect it?
This causes short runs of each type, and machines are idle while they are being changed over to manufacture different products. The workers do not have the opportunity to acquire skill and speed in any one operation. By failing to standardise component parts as far as possible between products or within product. This has the same effectthat is, short runs and idle time.
The Glossary meaning is not relevant here. I Work Content. Excessive Time Product Variety adds idle time due to short runs of C. Lack of Standardisation Operation adds idle time due to short runs. Total within C. Design Changes add ineffective time Time the due to stoppages and rework. Bad Planning of work and orders adds. Operation idle time of men and machines Ineffective Time of the due to C.
Lack of Raw Materials Under due to bad planning adds shortcomings of Management idle time of men and machines the Existing management C. Plant Breakdowns add Conditions idle time of men and machines. Plant in Bad Condition adds ineffective time due to scrap and rework. Bad Working Conditions add ineffective time through forcing workers to rest.
Accidents add ineffective time through stoppages and absence. Absence, Lateness and Idleness add ineffective time Ineffective Time Careless Workmanship within adds ineffective time due to scrap and rework the control of the worker Accidents add Ineffective time through stoppages and absence.
By failing to ensure that designs are properly developed or that customers' requirements are met from the beginning. This results in changes of design causing stoppages of work and loss of machine- and man-hours as well as waste of material. By failing to plan the flow of work and of orders, with the result that one order does not follow immediately on another and plant and labour are not continuously employed.
By failing to ensure a supply of raw materials, tools and other equipment necessary to do the work, so that plant and labour are kept waiting. By failing to maintain plant and machines properly. This leads to stop- pages due to machine breakdowns. By allowing plant and machinery to be operated in bad condition so that work is scrapped or returned for rectification and has to be done again. Time spent in rework is ineffective. By failing to provide working conditions in which the operative can work steadily.
By failing to take proper precautions for the safety of workers. This causes lost time due to accidents. Ineffective Time within the Control of the Worker Figure 4. Finally, how can action or inaction on the part of the workers themselves cause ineffective time? By workers taking time off work without gopd cause: By careless workmanship causing scrap or making it necessary for work to be done again.
Work which has to be done again means wasted time, and scrap means wasted materials. By failing to observe safety regulations and by having or causing accidents through carelessness. In general far more ineffective time is due to management shortcomings than to causes within the control of workers. In many industries the individual worker has very little control over the conditions under which he is required to operate.
This is especially true of industries using a lot of plant and machinery and making a complex product see next chapter.
If all the factors enumerated under the four heads above can be eliminated the ideal case which, of course, never occurs in real life , the minimum time for the production of a given output and hence the maximum productivity is achieved. How can maximum productivity with existing resources be approached? In every case it must be as a result of action by the management, with the co-operation of workers, together with, in some cases, extra technical or scientific knowledge.
Management is the organisation and control of human activity directed towards specific ends2. Glossary the terms "work content", "ineffective time" and "idle time" are all accorded precise meanings which differ slightly from those adopted in this chapter and the previous one.
The differences are of no significance in the context of the present discussion. There are many definitions of management; this rather general one seems the most suitable for our purpose. It should be noted that the word "management" is used by itself as an abstract noun only. Whenever the people who do the managing are intended they are referred to as "the management" to avoid confusion.
The word "organisation", here used in a broad sense, includes the activities of planning on the basis of facts obtained, direction and co-ordination.
Management is both a science and an art. The key word is "systematically". The systematic approach to the solution of problems, proceeding step by step from the known to the un- known, always on a basis of ascertained fact as far as is humanly possible is the prime characteristic which differentiates science from magic, alchemy and all the other attempts to penetrate the secrets of the universe which preceded it.
The systematic approach is at the root of all sound modern management theory. Management techniques are systematic procedures of investigation, planning or control which can be applied to management problems. These techniques can be learned in the classroom or from a textbook, but practical experience is always necessary before they can be safely applied in a fac- tory. They are not as hard and fast as many techniques in science or tecluiology and usually have to be adapted to the requirements of the existing situation.
Because management deals with human beings, it can never be completely scientific, and must be regarded partly as an art. The reason for this is that while scientific techniques are applied to materials governed by known physical laws, the techniques of management are applied to people and must rely on people to ensure that they are properly applied.
They can only be successfully applied by someone who has learned to understand people by experience of dealing with them. This aspect of management in its relation to work study will be dealt with later, so it is unnecessary to say more about it here.
What are the management techniques which may be applied to reduce the waste of time and effort which occurs due to the factors listed in Chapter 2, Sections 5 and 6?
We shall discuss these very briefly in the following paragraphs so that the reader may see where work study fits in among other management techniques. The weakness can be overcome by the close working together of design and production staffs from the beginning. At this time also, alterations in design can be made to avoid having to remove too much material, and tests can be made in running the product to ensure that it meets the technical specifications demanded.
In transport, a non-manufacturing industry, the equivalent is the experi- mental service or the proving flights which are carried out on airliners. If quality standards are higher than necessary for the efficient functioning of the product the time taken to manufacture it will generally be greater because of the extra care required; unnecessary rejects will also be caused. Customers sometimes make demands for dimensional tolerances or finishes of higher standards than necessary.
On the other hand, neglecting quality, especially the quality of iiaterials downloadd, may prolong the time of manufacture because the materials may be difficult to work. A case of this kind was brought to light by a trainee of the Indian Productivity Centre while carrying out a work study investigation.
He found that operatives had great difficulty in assembling black bolts and nuts because of varia- tions in the dimensions of both, although they were supposed to be standard pro- ducts and interchangeable. Inquiry showed that the downloading office of the firm had downloadd them from suppliers other than the usual ones because they were a little cheaper.
If the quality of the product as a whole is too low, sales will be lost. Quality standards must be right. The management must be sure of the requirements of the market and of the customer, and of the technical requirements of the product itself. The men who perform this function must be properly informed of the quality level required and should be able to advise the designers which quality standards can safely be altered to achieve higher productivity.
Figure 5 shows the effect of applying these techniques to reduce the work content of the product. Method Study and Operator Training reduce work content due. In the chemical industries these conditions are usually laid down by the scientists in the research department.
As method study will be discussed in detail in Chapters 7 to 12 nothing more will be said about it here. Figure 5 shows the effect of these techniques when applied to reducing the work content of the process.
Ineffective time can be a source of great loss even where working methods are very good.
The reduction of ineffective time starts with the policy of the directors concern- ing the markets which the firm shall try to serve marketing policy. Shall the firm specialise in a small number of products made in large quantities at the lowest possible price and sell them cheaply, or shall it try to meet the special requirements of every customer?
The level of productivity achievable will depend on the answer to this question. To make many different types of product means that machines. Marketing and Specialisa- tion reduce idle time due to product variety. Standardisation reduces idle time due to short runs. Product Development reduces ineffective time due to changes in design Production Control based on Work Measurement reduces idle time due to bad planning Material Control reduces idle time due to lack of raw materials Ineffective Time Maintenance reduces idle Totally time of men and machines Eliminated due to breakdowns if All Techniques Cl.
Maintenance reduces Perfectly ineffective time due to plant Applied in bad condition C. Improved Working Conditions enable workers to work steadily C.
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