David J. Walkey. ELEC , Physical Electronics: Basic IC Processing (4). Page 3. Ingot Growth. • First step in production of an integrated circuit is growth of a. The starting material for integrated circuit (IC) fabrication is the single crys- process issues during fabrication, without having to wait for the entire chip. IC Fabrication Process Steps. The fabrication of integrated circuits consists basically of the following process steps: Lithography: The process for pattern.
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Introduce the fabrication of integrated circuits. 2.) Describe the basic fabrication process steps by which an integrated circuit is made. Outline. • Integrated circuit. IC Fabrication Processes s Ion Implantation ions are accelerated to energies of 20 keV - 3 MeV and bombard the silicon wafer in a collimated beam ion tracks in . PROCESSING OF. INTEGRATED CIRCUITS. •Overview of IC Processing (Part I). •Silicon Processing. •Lithography. •Layer Processes Use in IC Fabrication (Part.
The silicon crystal is manufactured as a cylindrical ingot. This cylinder is sawed into discs or wafers. Polishing and crystal orientation takes place later on. Lithography The process of photolithography includes masking with a photographic mask and photo etching.
A photoresist film is applied on the wafer.
A photo aligner aligns the wafer to a mask. Tracks are highlighted by exposing the wafer to ultraviolet light through a mask. Etching It removes material selectively from the surface of wafer to create patterns.
An etching mask protects some parts of the material. Additional chemicals or plasma removes the remaining photoresist. Ion implantation It is a method of adding dopants.
A beam of high energy dopant ions Phosphine or boron trichloride is targeted at specific regions of a wafer. The depth of penetration into the wafer depends on the energy of the beam. Metallization A thin layer of aluminum is deposited over the whole wafer. Aluminium is working as a good conductor and forms low resistance contacts.
It can be applied and patterned with single deposition and etching process. Assembly and Packaging Each of the wafers contains hundreds of chips.
A diamond saw cuts the wafer into single chips separating the single chips. The chips failing electrical tests are discarded, whereas the good ones are sent for packaging. Before packaging, remaining chips are observed under a microscope.
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