ruthenpress.info Full file at ruthenpress.info MODULE ONE FUNDAMENTALS OF ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOUR (Four hours) CHAPTER ONE- Understanding Organizational Behaviour (one hour). Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Jan 1, , Neal P. Mero and others published The Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior.
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Fundamentals of Organizational Behavior: An Applied Perspective, Second Edition examines the behavior of people in organizations. Topics covered range . Organizational behavior / Stephen P. Robbins, Timothy A. Judge. 9 Foundations of Group Behavior 15 Foundations of Organization Structure Fundamentals of organizational behaviour / Nancy Langton,. Stephen P. Robbins , Timothy A. Judge.—5th Canadian ed. Includes index. ISBN
Questions What is the meaning of Organizational behaviour?
Explain the contributions made by various behavioural science discipline to OB. Describe the fundamental concepts connected with Organizational behaviour. What are the four basic approaches of Organizational behaviour?
Describe the framework of the study of Organizational behaviour with reference to the basic OB model. Describe the goals of organizational behaviour.
Justify with examples the importance of the knowledge of Organizational behaviour for the managers. Developing competencies for facing the challenges.
It is e i po ta t fo the a age s to recognize the nature, significance and effectiveness of their own models as well as the models of others around them. People are not inherently lazy. They have become that way as a result of experience People will exercise self direction and self control in the service of the objectives to which they are committed People have potential.
Under proper condition they learn to accept and seek responsibility. They have imagination, ingenuity and creativity that can be applied to work With these assumptions the managerial role is to develop the potential in employees and help them release that potential toward common objectives. Five Models of Organizational Behaviour- The five models of Organizational Behaviour — Autocratic, Custodial, Supportive, Collegial and System, in the order mentioned , represent the historical evolution in management practice.
Organizations differ amongst themselves in the model practiced by it. The practices may vary within the departments or branches of one organization. The models of organizational behaviour Source: Effectiveness in Organizations Levi Strauss, an effective company practices the following value principles: Differing points of ie s a e sought a d ot supp essed.
Ethical Practices—management epitomizes the stated standards of ethical behavior. Empowerment—managers increase the authority and responsibility of those closest to the products and the customers. Since then effectiveness research has looked at two kinds of attributes: Variables that predict effectiveness.
Variables that indicate effectiveness. Ivancevich, Konopaske and Matteson in their book Organizational behavior and management -7th edition TMH have highlighted two approaches of studying effectiveness-the goal approach and the systems theory approach.
The Goal Approach It is the oldest and most widely used approach to defining and measuring effectiveness. It assumes that organizations exist to accomplish goals which reflects purpose, rationality, and achievement. Several management practices e.
However, the shortcomings of the goal approach are: Goal achievement for organizations with intangible outputs e. Goal conflict frequently occurs as organizations strive to achieve many goals e.
Organizational members rarely achieve consensus on a set of goals to pursue. Goal achievement does not guarantee organizational effectiveness. Despite shortcomings, the goal approach exerts a powerful influence on OB theory and management.
The Systems Theory Approach It defines effectiveness in the broader context of the internal and external environment. It emphasizes that managers must deal with the internal and external aspects of organizational behavior and views the organization as one of many interdependent elements. The organization depends on the external environment for two kinds of inputs, which it transforms into outputs, and then releases in the hope that the external environment will accept them.
These two inputs are: Human Inputs—employees and natural resources b. Non-human inputs e. An important aspect of the systems theory is the feedback. Feedback, or information that reflects the outcomes of an act or series of acts, enables the organization to adjust to environmental demands. Feedback would include market research, financial reports, customer complaints, etc.
Systems theory emphasizes two important considerations: An organization's ability to adapt to environmental demands; b. The idea of the "learning organization," which evolves from the systems theory, suggests that organizations learn, adapt, and change by acquiring knowledge, distributing information, and interpreting information.
Two types of learning are: Generative learning— learning how to learn. Facilitative learning—learning to learn through teaching. Time dimension of Organizational effectiveness Systems theory is used to integrate organizational effectiveness and time.
In Systems theory the organization is considered as one element of a larger system of number of elements, the environment, that act interdependently. The organization takes resources inputs from the external environment, processes these resources and returns them in changed form output. The criteria of effectiveness are also time based like Short run results of actions concluded in a year or less , Intermediate run when effectives of individual, group or organization is considered for a longer period, perhaps five years and Long run for this the time frame is indefinite future.
Four Short run effectiveness criteria are quality, productivity, efficiency and satisfaction. Three intermediate criteria are quality, adaptiveness, efficiency and satisfaction. The two long run criteria are quality and survival. Criteria of Effectiveness Effectiveness criteria must reflect the stage of the organization's life-cycle which includes stages of growth, maturation and decline and short, intermediate, and long-term perspectives.
Quality—overarching criteria of effectiveness that involves meeting customers' needs and expectations.
Productivity—reflects the relationship between inputs and outputs. It excludes consideration of efficiency. Measures of productivity include profit, sales, market share, patients released, clients served. Efficiency— it is the ratio of outputs to inputs. Efficiency focuses on the entire input-process-output cycle, emphasizing input and process. Satisfaction—the extent to which the organization meets employee needs. It recognizes the organization as a social system that must benefit its participants.
Measures of satisfaction include turnover, absenteeism, and employee attitudes. Adaptiveness—degree to which the organization can and does respond to internal and external changes.
It relates to management's ability to sense environmental changes and changes within the organization. There are no specific, concrete measures of adaptiveness, but certain programs e. Development—ability of the organization to increase its capacity to deal with environmental demands. It means that an organization must invest in itself to increase its chances of survival in the long run. Training programs and organizational development programs represent the organization's investment in survival.
Behavioural Bias- A narrow viewpoint that emphasizes satisfying employee experiences while overlooking the broader system of the organization in relation to all its public. Sound OB should recognize a social system in which many types of human needs are served in many ways. The Law of diminishing returns- More of a good thing is not necessarily good. For any situation there is an optimum amount of desirable practice. Organizational effectiveness is achieved not by maximizing human variable but by combining all system variables together in a balanced way.
Unethical Manipulation of people-Knowledge and techniques can be used to manipulate people unethically. Key forces affecting organizations and continuing challenges A complex set of four forces affects the nature of organizations today. They are: People-People are the living, thinking and feeling beings who work in the organization to achieve their objectives.
People make up the internal social system of the organization. The internal social system consists of individuals and groups which are dynamic in nature, large as well as small in size, unofficial, informal and more official formal ones. Structure- Structure defines the formal relationship and use of people in organizations. When people work together in an organization to accomplish an objective, some kind of structure of formal relationships is required so that their work can be effectively coordinated.
Technology- Technology consists of the intellectual and mechanical processes used by an organization to transform inputs into products or services that meet organizational goals.
Technology provides the resources with which people work and affects the tasks that they perform. Environment- All organizations operate within an internal and external environment. It is a part of larger system that contains many other elements, such as government, family, society at large and other organizations.
Numerous changes in the environment create demands on organizations. All these factors influence one another in a complex system that creates a dynamic even chaotic context for a group of people which influences the attitudes of people, affects working conditions and provides competition for resources and power. Based on these four forces, the different challenges faced by the managers today are: Managing in a global environment- Changes in the global marketplace have brought the need to think globally.
For any company competing in the global marketplace it is essential to understand the diverse cultures of the individuals involved and develop cross cultural sensitivity.
Hofstede found five dimensions of cultural differences that formed the basis for work related attitudes. It is also required for these companies to bring in structural changes as and when required based on the demands of the global environment.
Many organizational structures have become flatter as a measure of lowering cost and remaining competitive while some structures have grown more complex as a result of mergers, acquisitions and new ventures. Several organizations are hiring contingent workforces while others are moving from a traditional to a team based structure. Managing workforce diversity- Workforce diversity has always been an important issue for organizations.
Diversity encompasses all forms of differences among individuals, including culture, gender, age, ability, religious affiliation, personality, economic class, social status, military attachment and sexual orientation.
Today the workforce has become richly diverse in terms of age, gender, educational backgrounds, talents and perspectives to their jobs. These fast o i g developments have given new emphasis to leadership ability.
Some companies are discovering that demonstrating a sense of caring, really listening to employees and being concerned with both competence and relationships are among the keys to the motivation of the present workforce.
Other companies are urging their managers to respond to a diverse workforce by building pride without devaluing others, empowering some without exploiting others , and demonstrating openness, confidence, authentic compassion and vulnerability. Managing Technological Innovation- Examples of the impact of technology includes the increasing use of robots and automated control system in the assembly lines, shift from manufacturing to service economy, widespread use of Internet and the need to respond to societal demands for improved quality of goods and services at acceptable prices.
The great benefit of technology is that it allows people to do more and better work, but it also restricts people in many ways-thus having both benefits as well as costs. Each of the technological advancements places increased pressure on OB to maintain a delicate balance between technical and social systems.
Technological innovations like expert systems, robotics, world wide web etc have been responsible to large extent for the advent of alternative work arrangements like Telecommuting, Hoteling and Satellite offices and also has started affecting the very nature of the management job like developing technical competency of themselves and also of the workers, motivating employees for reinvention, dealing with employee stress, depression, anxiety and helping employees to adjust to technological changes.
Managing ethical issues at work- Formal relationships create complex problems of cooperation, negotiation and decision making due to differences in resource power.
This may give rise to many ethical issues in the organization like employee theft, comparable worth of employees, conflict of interest, sexual harassment, romantic involvements, organizational justice, whistle blowing. Managers must confront these ethical challenges of individual and group level and also those ethical issues that are encountered in organizational level like environmental issues and corporate social responsibility and handle them successfully.
Value of OB in developing competencies for facing the challenges: These four challenges are important because the way managers handle them shapes employee behaviour. Organizational behaviour can be used to do this effectively. English Copyright: Powered by. You are connected as.
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Updating Results. If you wish to place a tax exempt order please contact us. David is displaying a. Kasha fails to focus on the fact that she was the only person who applied for the job. Kasha is using a. Joan is a new employee at your place of work. Using your ability to respond to individual differences between yourself and Joan a. All he could remember after the discussion was a few of them.
Ron was engaged in a.
Kyle is exhibiting a. Your department, where you are the direct sales manager, has hired approximately 30 of these new recruits. You have had to quickly draw conclusions about the skill level of new recruits in order to make training decisions. You a. You are a. You have set up an interview schedule to interview six applicants.
You notice that in your assessment of the candidates you have been comparing them to one another. You are finding this to be an extremely long process and are not sure if this is very effective. Samir is engaged in a.
You have been interviewing candidates with the HR manager all week, and must now make a decision about which one of the candidates to hire. You would like to hire the candidate who graduated from the same university as yourself, has an interest in golfing, just as you do, and who you believe is trustworthy, just as you are.
Pierre is engaged in a. She knows that university graduates who also participated extensively in athletics are usually ambitious and hardworking, compared with university students who did not. If she decides to interview only university grads who were athletes, she is likely engaging in a. The work has been divided among the three of you and each time your team meets, Janet and Jim disagree about the progress of the team project. The truth seems to be that Janet is not doing her part of the work.
She might be usinga. Somehow Janet must be made aware of the impact of not doing her share of the work. In coming up with an approach to resolve the situation and maintain as much objectivity as possible, you must be careful not to engage ina.
What is this an example of? This individual is likely known as a. You have determined that Brian is an extravert and Jim is not conscientious. You have determined that Brian is an extrovert, and Jim is not conscientious. Ahmad is exhibiting a. Type A personality.
Type B personality. You have noticed that on the three occasions when you confronted Josef on missing equipment he at first denied it and then admitted to taking the items home. Josef has also told you that he thought it would be all right with you, even though he did not ask for your permission. You have also noticed that Josef has lied repeatedly to you about where he was on days when he was absent. In your latest discussion with Josef, he told you that any action is ethical, as long as the ends justify the means.
Therefore, it would be reasonable to expect individuals with high Machiavellianism scores to also be a. Type B people. He is exhibiting a. According to the Big Five Personality Model, she is a. She is exhibiting a. Type A b. Type B c.