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Now it is used as a coloring for yoghurt and other food products. The Sappanwood tree, native to India, Malaysia and Sri Lanka , and later the related Brazilwood tree shown here , from the coast of South America, were the source of a popular red pigment and dye called brazilin.
The red wood was ground to powder and mixed with an alkaline solution. The brazilwood gave its name to the nation of Brazil. Alizarin was the first synthetic red dye, created by German chemists in It duplicated the colorant in the madder plant, but was cheaper and longer lasting. After its introduction, the production of natural dyes from the madder plant virtually ceased. Red lac, red lake and crimson lake Titian used glazes of red lake to create the vivid crimson of the robes in The Vendramin Family Venerating a Relic of the True Cross, completed —60 detail.
Red lac, also called red lake, crimson lake or carmine lake, was an important red pigment in Renaissance and Baroque art. Since it was translucent, thin layers of red lac were built up or glazed over a more opaque dark color to create a particularly deep and vivid color.
Unlike vermilion or red ochre , made from minerals, red lake pigments are made by mixing organic dyes, made from insects or plants, with white chalk or alum. Red lac was made from the gum lac , the dark red resinous substance secreted by various scale insects, particularly the Laccifer lacca from India.
Other red lakes were made from the rose madder plant and from the brazilwood tree. Red lake pigments were an important part of the palette of 16th-century Venetian painters, particularly Titian , but they were used in all periods. It is banned in Denmark, Belgium, France and Switzerland, and was also banned in Sweden until the country joined the European Union in It is used in some tattoo inks and is used in many products, such as soft drinks , children's medications, and cotton candy.
This insect, originating in Mexico and Central America, was used to make the brilliant scarlet dyes of the European Renaissance. Autumn leaves The red of autumn leaves is produced by pigments called anthocyanins. They are not present in the leaf throughout the growing season, but are actively produced towards the end of summer. Their formation depends on the breakdown of sugars in the presence of bright light as the level of phosphate in the leaf is reduced.
It has a vital role in the breakdown of the sugars manufactured by chlorophyll. But in the fall, phosphate, along with the other chemicals and nutrients, moves out of the leaf into the stem of the plant. When this happens, the sugar-breakdown process changes, leading to the production of anthocyanin pigments.
The brighter the light during this period, the greater the production of anthocyanins and the more brilliant the resulting color display. When the days of autumn are bright and cool, and the nights are chilly but not freezing, the brightest colorations usually develop.
Anthocyanins temporarily color the edges of some of the very young leaves as they unfold from the buds in early spring. They also give the familiar color to such common fruits as cranberries , red apples , blueberries , cherries , raspberries , and plums. These same pigments often combine with the carotenoids' colors to create the deeper orange, fiery reds, and bronzes typical of many hardwood species. See Autumn leaf color. Blood and other reds in nature Oxygenated blood is red due to the presence of oxygenated hemoglobin that contains iron molecules, with the iron components reflecting red light.
In this sense it is used to describe coat colors of reddish-brown cattle and dogs, and in the names of various animal species or breeds such as red fox , red squirrel , red deer , European robin , red grouse , red knot , redstart , redwing , red setter , Red Devon cattle, etc.
This reddish-brown color is also meant when using the terms red ochre and red hair. The red herring dragged across a trail to destroy the scent gets its color from the heavy salting and slow smoking of the fish, which results in a warm, brown color. When used for flowers, red often refers to purplish red deadnettle, red clover, red helleborine or pink red campion, red valerian colors. This ensemble of urated and branched content of the samples.
A samples is characterized by an important presence positive correlation between the concentration of of n-alkanes. Opposite these, characterized by n-alkanes and the branched fatty acids was also important amounts of SFA, we ind the interme- observed, which could relate these two families diate layer and the ashes of structure 3, structure of molecules to the process of maturation of the 5, the black layers of structures 3, 4, and 7, and organic matter in the site. Finally, some When we analyze the proportional distribution samples contain high concentrations of unsatu- of these different families of molecules in each rated fatty acids and branched fatty acids, such as sample by FCA-PCA, we see also that they are the samples of the white transition, the grey soil, separated by their saturated fatty acids and the the black layers, and reddish soils of structure 3 n-alkanes in terms of their internal proportions in layer XX, the blackened soil of structure 5, Fig.
This analysis groups the samples that the sterile soils of layer XXIII, and the ashes of contain more n-alkanes, more fatty acids, more structure 8 Figs. These groups unsaturated fatty acids, and branched fatty acids. The CPI is calculated according to a formula that takes into account the different proportions between odd and even molecules Fig. The closer the value of CPI is to 1, Fig. CPI formulas for saturated fatty acids the more the sample is degraded. The For the CPI alkanes the mean value is 3.
Thus, the above Crvena Stijena samples show important varia- The analysis of CPI values for each sample tions among the different kinds of samples and within individual structures lets us observe these structures analyzed. As in all other sites, values variations better Fig. Here, contrary to the general trend observed, the ash layer shows larger values for the CPI alkanes than the black layer, indicating better conservation of this family in the ash sam- ple.
For structure 2 the blackened soil shows the most preserved sample for the alkanes, but the ash layer shows the most preserved saturated fatty acids. In this structure, the ashes show the lowest values of the three samples.
It is interest- ing to note the similar values observed between the black layer and the rodent hole that could indicate possible contamination. In structure 3 the intermediate layer and the black layer show better conservation of the fatty acids than the Fig.
In structure 4 the structure 3 in layer XX the two samples from the better values were found in the anthropic hole, black layers that cover and underlie the structure while the ashes and the blackened soil show have the highest values of CPI alkanes.
We should similar values for the fatty acids, with the ashes note here that the grey black layer in the upper being very slightly better for the alkanes than part of the stratigraphic sequence of ashes within the black layer, and the inverse for the saturated this structure presents the most degraded alkanes fatty acids. In structure 5 the black layer shows a sample, followed by the white grey ashes and slightly better value for the CPI SFA and a clearly the reddish soil.
Under the reddish soil the white better one for the CPI alkanes. Structure 6 shows transition layer and the lower grey soil also show better preservation of the saturated fatty acids in degraded and low values, but the CPI alkanes of the ash layer and a very slightly better preserva- these two layers are a little larger than the values tion of alkanes in the blackened one. Structure observed in the upper part of the sequence below 7 follows the same trend for SFA as in structure the top black layer.
This could indicate that the 6, but here the preservation of the alkanes in the white transition observed here is the remains of an ashes is better than in all the other ash layers of ancient ash layer underlying a grey soil over the layer XXIV.
The alkanes of the black layer have bottom black layer of the sequence. Any sample also excellent preservation, only overshadowed by of the ashes sequence, including the reddish soil, the values for the black layer of structure 2.
The shows traces of contamination from the upper reddish layer shows only low preservation of the or the bottom black layer. The CPI SFA of this alkanes but still better preservation than the fatty structure shows much better values of preserva- acids show in the black layer.
Finally, structure 8 tion underneath the reddish soil, conirming the shows similar values for the two samples, more existence of two different moments of formation degraded for the alkanes than for the saturated of this structure.
The mean values of this bottom fatty acids, and both values are similar to other part of the big structure 3, including the white ash layers present in layer XXIV. This is very interesting because as we pattern similar to the CPI alkanes, decreasing from have previously published March ; March the white transition to the grey soil, and becoming et al.
CPI values for alkanes and saturated fatty acids fractions from Crvena Stijena samples. These results show that the saturated fatty have in some cases better preservation. Thus, it acids and the alkanes could have different origins may be possible that some samples have a complex or be affected by different formation processes.
The low values of CPI acids are different degree of preservation for alkanes and principally due to the presence of odd longer SFA SFA in the same sample could indicate a different but also due to a low amount of even longer SFA origin for each fraction.
This last point can allow These results complete the data that indicate us to infer a mostly animal origin for short SFA the possibilities of thermal alteration of the in our samples, while the alkanes better relect alkanes and their CPI values by kind of layer.
A mass concentration weight hypothesis may explain these data, considering the possibility of n-alkanes different origins for alkanes and SFA. The con- The distribution of alkanes in Crvena Stijena centrations of SFA are most important in animal could help us to understand the differences seen in cooking residues, while the alkanes are minor and CPI values and to analyze the formation processes degraded in animal fat, but large concentrations of these different structures. As mentioned, values of well preserved alkanes have been observed of CPI relect different preservation states of the in degraded vegetal cuticles.
Thinking of this, studied samples. Looking at the mean values for some luctuation in the lower values of the CPI each kind of layer, it seems that some differences fatty acids could be related to the preservation observed in these values could be explained by of long chain fatty acids of vegetal origin even heat action. In the same way, we note here If we analyze the distribution of alkanes we a relation between the concentration of alkanes can see that 28 of the 29 CPI mean values by kind of layer for alkanes and saturated fatty acids fractions from Crvena Stijena samples.
Only one sample, coming from the and a value for the CPI alkanes of 2. This layer blackened layer of structure 4, has a lower value of is followed by very degraded CPI alkanes of 0.
These long chain n-alkanes and a unimodal distribution centered on C29 for are biomarkers of higher plants, come from leaf the grey black layer. The underlying white grey cuticle waxes, and are often considered as having ashes also show a unimodal distribution centered a continental origin Eglilnn and Hamilton ; on C29 with a degraded CPI alkanes of 0.
The white transition or bacterial action March , , , ; underlying the reddish soil shows better preser- March and Soler Here the short alkanes vation with a CPI alkanes of 1. They are present in such low distribution of long chain alkanes is centered on quantities in nearly in all samples, but they are C The grey soil covered by this last ash layer absent only in the white grey ashes and the reddish again shows degradation, with a CPI alkanes of soil layer of structure 3 of layer XX Fig.
Finally, the lower n-alkanes is highest in the hole samples, next black layer shows the same bimodal distribution highest in the blackened layers, and then decreases as the upper black layer and a similar CPI alkanes through the soil layers, the ash layers and the red- of 2. The underlying black layer shows alkanes is mostly centered on C31 or C29 for layer a unimodal distribution centered on C31 but more XXIV, but this is not the case for samples from degraded, with CPI alkanes of 1.
Thus, the layer XX, where the distribution of long alkanes vegetal part of these samples is better preserved is variously centered on C27, C29, C31, or even on here in the ashes, and it is different than the vegetal C The changes in n-alkane distribution show lipids present in the underlying black layer. These changes could be related to the modal distribution centered primarily on C31 for degradation process, but also to changes in the the ash layer and the blackened soil, with a low vegetal origin of the samples.
XX, the distribution of n-alkanes begins in the The difference lies here in the values of the CPI upper black layer with a bimodal distribution, alkanes for the two samples. Percentage distributions of short and long chain n-alkanes of the 21 samples long chain: Ramiro J. Structure 4 shows a long chain alkanes dis- Thus, the ash layer here seems to have the same tribution centered on C31 for the three samples: The blackened layer shows a difference in the presence of short alkanes that are centered in the short chain part of the samples, where it is on C18, which shows that taphonomical processes largely dominated by C If we ignore the high perhaps did not change the signature of alkanes amounts of C19, which may be a randomly deviate for this sample very much.
As the hole was ex- observation for this sample considering that the cavated in the black layer, the walls of the hole three layers would otherwise all show a mode at could represent also the black layer. Thus, the C22, then here again the ashes and the underlying short alkanes may be present at this position and blackened soil would have a similar chemical absent where we took the sample under the ashes.
As in the case of the rodent composition, with a bimodal distribution having hole of structure 2, here the walls of the anthropic relatively small amounts of short alkanes centered hole have a similar composition in alkanes to the on C19 and C20, and long chain alkanes centered ashes in which it was dug Fig.
Here again, the ashes and layer of structure 3. This phenomenon could be their underlying soil layer show the same com- explained by the degradation of the ashes, which position and could even be thermally degraded show a CPI alkanes of 1. The short alkanes component is here very low for Fig. Concentration of short and long chain n-alkanes of the 29 samples long chain: The structure 3 Fig.
Structure 7 again shows a unimodal composi- As we have published before, the presence of tion centered on C31 for the ashes and the blackened short alkanes in majority proportions could relect layer that in this case covers the structure, but the thermal degradation of lipids, indicating the here the reddish soil underlying the ashes shows presence of ashes or wood charcoal March , a bimodal distribution that is centered on C21 and , , ; March et Soler ; March et C31 and where the values of the short n-alkanes al.
As we can see, the samples of Crvena are less at C The reddish soil is the layers. We obtained alkanes of 1. Its proile is dominated by C31, but the same kind of signatures from other ashes or C29 is close to the value of C31 here.
Considering black layers from Neanderthal ire structures these results, it is possible that the ash layers of from sites in a travertine context as in the case this structure have been contaminated by lipids of the site of El Salt March et al. The irst explanation that we can put forward These two samples, taken from the same layer, is contamination of the ashes by the chemically have some difference in their CPI values 1.
These results demonstrate the ash layer of structure 7. But even if this con- that we can ind small luctuations in composition tamination could explain the case of ire structure and degradation in the same layer Fig. The sterile sample 2 is better eling Crvena Stijena, the soils can by characterized conserved, with a CPI alkanes of 4. This demonstrates that at some cases could have an origin as combustion debris.
In fact, this of this situation. As we have just seen, many of conirms the impression that motivated us to take them contain in their composition short alkanes a second sample at the site.
When we took it, the associated with long chain alkanes. These characteristics after their use, contain also chemical signatures are linked to the presence of humidity and some of short alkanes. Here it is important to remember mycelium formation in the sample. Both samples that none of these layers shows an ash signature are characterized by the slight dominance of with a majority of short chain alkanes although C As we note, the natural samples have a lipid many of them have short chain alkanes in their composition similar to some ashes or blackened composition.
At the same As must be expected, our experimental time, the well preserved sample has a bimodal laboratory results show that when we exposed distribution where the short part of the spectrum natural soils to heat the changes observed were is centered on C21, while this bimodal distribution related to the original content of these soils.
For tends to disappear in the degraded natural sample. Thus, et al. This phenomenon could explain also the shelter in the past. In fact, the alternation between changes observed in the preservation of long C27 and C31 could indicate whether we are in the alkanes where this preservation could indicate presence of lipids coming from grasses and herbs lower temperatures.
It is evident that the signatures of layer XXIII These different landscapes are recognized by the can not be interpreted in this sense. Their lack of changes in the predominance of C27 or C31 in the combustion products indicates that the natural different families of plants and their underlying composition of soils of the shelter is very close soils.
These authors also analyzed the values of to the data observed in the anthropic layers, with soils under these different vegetal landscapes and a unimodal distribution dominated by C29 and C31 applied the OEP odd over even predominance and showing also variation in their degradation index, Fig. Thus we can assume that Fig. The obtained data shows the results the anthropized layers contain also organic matter of the variations resulting from the bacterial coming from this local environment.
These vegetal biomarkers could come from the predominance of one of the odd alkanes over some remnants of charcoal due to incomplete the others. The relation between the three more OEP index above 5 give results that allow us to important long alkanes is frequently used to iden- infer that the origin of our alkanes distributions Fig. Decay of n-alkanes in natural soil following exposure to heat. Mean n-alkane distribution patterns from grasslands, deciduous, and coniferous forests Zech et al.
Error bars indicate standard deviation. Based on data from Zech et al. At the Piperno , and Fiorenza et al. In the whole sequence, only one As we have seen above, the fatty acids which sample, coming from the white transition of the are the principal component of the lipid families big structure 3 from layer XX, shows a distribution found in the samples from Crvena Stijena have of alkanes that could be related to deciduous or characteristics that indicate a different origin coniferous trees, but at the same time this sample than the alkanes.
For example, their distribution seems to be degraded, with an OEP of 1. Their minimum volume. If this was so, then the signature of these proportion is Only the site of Crvena Stijena where grasses and herbs black layer of structure 6 shows a predominance dominated the environment, or they could be the of long chain SFA in its composition.
The long product of anthropic intake. The grasses could be chain SFA have a minimum proportion of 0. OEP Index Zech et al. The short SFA show a Fig. Mean n-alkane distribution patterns of alkanes between C26 and C33 from Crvena Stijena samples.
They are more concentrated in acids characterized by the predominance of C16 the blackened soils, and the soil layers, and they followed by C18 and C14 in nearly all the struc- diminish through the reddish soils to the ash layers tures and in the natural soil from layer XXIII where the short SFA are present at their lowest Fig. Only one sample—the blackened concentrations Fig. Within this great homogeneity of the long and short SFA could be also related to their distribution of short fatty acids, the differences respective origins.
As we can note, the long fatty observed are essentially variations in the amounts acids diminished in concentration in agreement C18 and C14, with C16 still dominant.
Thus, the vegetal part of the SFA spectra structure 3 of layer XX we can observe that the diminishes as a function of the thermal alteration blackened soils have lower amounts of C18 than of the sample.
The short SFA do not follow exactly the other samples of the structure. At the same the same pattern of decrease in their concentration, time, the blackened soils have higher amounts of but are also more concentrated in the blackened C14 than the other layers. The proportion of C18 layers and the soils than the ashes or the reddish increases from the grey black layer and the white soils. We must remember here that the sterile soil grey ashes that constitute the upper part of the has very low concentrations of SFA, as mentioned ashes, and is most important in the reddish soil, above.
The concentration of SFA varied underlying black layer. The long chain SFA are between the different layers and structures. As more concentrated here in the reddish soils.
The seen in Fig. The grey black layer, the blackened SFA. The other 9 samples are present in different soil 2, and the grey soil are dominated by C24, and structures—structure 3 of layer XX, structures the rest of the samples are dominated by C Only one sample inverted and it is the ash layer that shows lower has more than 0. Here the blackened soil was better preserved and The individual distribution of fatty acids in had a larger concentration of long chain SFA than each structure has a pattern for the short fatty the ashes.
These long chain SFA show a bimod- Fig. Concentration of short and long chain SFA of the 29 samples long chain: Studying Neanderthal Fire Structures from Crvena Stijena al distribution centered on C20 and C30 for the SFA are centered on C26 for the blackened soil blackened soil that has a different signature than and for the ash layer which is more degraded.
For structure 2, here again the blackened soil Structure 3 has a very similar distribution of shows larger amounts of C18, but in this case lower C14, C16, and C18 for all three samples. The only amounts of C14 than the ash layer. The long chain difference is the presence of C12 in the blackened Fig. Saturated fatty acids distribution for archaeological samples from different structures studied at Crvena Stijena. For Finally, in structure 8 both ash layers have the long chain SFA, the ashes are centered on C22 similar distributions for the short SFA, but for while the blackened layer has a bimodal distribu- the long chain SFA they show certain differenc- tion centered on C24 and C28, and the intermediate es.
The irst sample has a bimodal distribution layer has a bimodal distribution centered on C22 with peaks at C22 and C26, while the second one and C The proile of the blackened soil of structure A concentration of C26 was also observed for the 4 shows proportions between C14, C16, and C18 blackened soil of structure 6. This similarity is observed also for the ashes, samples can be grouped into two main groups which present a smaller proportion of C18 than the based on their concentrations and distributions blackened soil.
The ashes of these two layers also of long chain SFA, one consisting of the samples show very low quantities of C The anthropic from layer XX and the samples of the sterile layer, hole has a proile of short SFA that is similar to the and a second that contains the ire structures of proile of the ashes, thus these two samples have layer XXIV.
As we groups, one dominated by C22 and C26 and a second saw in the previous samples, the long chain SFA one where C30 and C32 can be noted in the results. The blackened soil These differences could be related to changes has a bimodal distribution centered on C22 and in the vegetal part of the fats that are contained C28, while for the ashes this bimodal distribution in layer XX and layer XXIV, and even changes is centered on C24 and C30, and inally the anthropic between the two groups of samples from layer hole has a bimodal distribution centered on C22 XXIV.
An FCA-PCA analysis of the distribution of For structure 5, the ashes and the blackened alkanes and SFA in Crvena Stijena allows us to soil have a very similar distribution for the short understand better the groupings of our samples SFA, but the ashes and the blackened soil again on the basis of the distributions of these SFA and have very low quantities of C The long chain alkane molecules Fig. In this analysis, SFA of the blackened soil are centered on C22, while SFA C16 and C18 are in opposite positions, and the the ashes have very low quantities of long chain alkane C27 is in opposition with C29 and C31 on SFA, with similar concentrations among them and component 2.
This organization of predominant no long chain acid has a marked predominance. The blackened soil has a proile characterized by the presence of alkanes C29, C31, where C18 is greater than C16 and the quantity of C14 and C33 , the blackened soils of samples 4 and 6 is very low. The ashes show greater concentrations in a second group characterized by the presence of C16 than C18, similar to the proiles observed for of C18 and the even long chain SFA, and inally structures 2 and 4.
Here C12 is absent. The long in a third group the blackened soils of layer XX chain SFA of the blackened soil of structure 6 has that are characterized by a strong predominance a bimodal distribution centered on C22 and C The ashes have a distribution similar to that of Most of the ashes and degraded soils are related the ashes of structure 5 where no particular long to the presence of even alkanes which denotes their chain SFA is predominant.
It is interesting to see that the Structure 7 shows similar distributions of sterile samples which have bacterial degradation short SFA for the blackened layer that covers are associated with these samples, while the sterile the structure and for the reddish soil, where C16 sample 2 that has a good preservation is in the is predominant over C The intermediate grey opposite position on component 1.
Finally, we ashes soil has a little larger quantity of C18 and can see that samples of ashes or grey layers are a lower quantity of C C12 is absent. The long separated by the proportions of the SFA C18, for chain SFA have bimodal distributions in all three example the ashes from structures 1 and 6 or the samples.
They are centered on C22 and C28 in the ashes of structure 7 that is positioned with the ashes and the reddish soil, and in C22 and C30 for group showing good preservation of odd long the blackened soil. Thus we can conclude anthropic samples and natural samples of layer that the correlation of fatty acids is positive for XXIII show a mimetic process where naturally the natural layers and decreases for black layers degraded organic matter can be confused with the and ash layers.
These relationships can be seen organic matter present in the thermo-altered layers in Fig. This observation indicates that the and the well preserved samples could be similar samples are not contaminated by the natural com- to the contents of some black layers. Of course, position of soil, the unsaturated fatty acids being this could imply also a global contamination of the less concentrated or directly absent in most of the whole site with the same kind of organic matter, thermo-altered layers.
The branched fatty acids but this hypothesis could not explain all the differ- present indicate in these layers the traces of ancient ences observed here. The separation observed for bacterial activity.
From this, we can deduce that the long chain SFA between the samples of layer the black layers conserve ancient organic matter XX and layer XXIV could be based on differential that continues today its maturation process. The thermal degradation of the samples where the unsaturated fatty acids could disappear during samples of structure 3b are more degraded, having the thermal alteration of these layers under the a predominance of C27 and even alkanes.
Taking into account the difference demon- If the organic matter of these samples was strated between the thermo-altered layers and the altered, the relation between saturated fatty acids black layers when we compare the distribution and their isotopic values could be also modiied. If we analyze the relation between these two have higher values Fig. Thus the SFA present in thermo-altered layers suggests that the ire structures contain organic seem not to have been altered by heat action for matter of animal origin.
We can con- changed by the action of heat in the majority of clude that the SFA present in the ash layers could the layers present at the site. Therefore, we can be deposited in it after the thermal processes, a explore and analyze the fatty acids distributions in phenomenon that is regularly observed in cooking relation to their possible animal origin as another procedures with embers in lat structures. On the hypothesis for the origin of fats at this site.
As we have seen, all the extinct, and consequently their biology, behavior, samples from Crvena Stijena show a dominance and adaptation cannot be exactly determined. This predominance of short chain fatty acids present-day ethology of their families into the Fig.
Relation of concentration values of unsaturated fatty acids and branched fatty acids ac- cording to the different kind of layers founded at Crvena Stijena. The second problem is the dificulty of For endangered species such as the rhinoc- projecting the actual behavior of living species eros or the Przewalski horse that could be used onto the past landscape around Crvena Stijena.
Another point that we must take into account The following taxa are listed by Malez is the position of some animals identiied at as present in layer XX: Equus caballus german- Crvena Stijena in the trophic chain. Some of the icus, Equus sp. For layer from natural circumstances. Marmota marmota, are known to us as recurrent users of shelters and Ursus arctos priscus, Ursus cf. Thus, some animals may not make Equus mosbachensis-abeli, Equus sp. Bears sp. No quantitative data is given by Malez on petitors or dangerous for men, they are frequently the relative abundances of these species.
Recent included as eventual prey in the food chain of excavations have not recovered enough fauna Neanderthals. For alkanes fraction. As we and others have published previously isotopic values of their adipose tissue Carrer et March , the analysis of the distribution of the al. Stijena samples Fig. Only one Gunstone et al. Crvena Stijena, but the two samples found of ; Belitz and Grosch ; Cifuni et al.
Gunstone et al. We must mention here that the values of tri- For the Cervidae Gunstone et al. However, these fats atively well with the composition of Bovidae, and liver could explain the sample of structure 6 Suidae, and Cervidae.
The Caprinae, Equidae and Fig. Ursidae show only partial coincidence. The big The Suidae family Banskalieva et al. This could imply a different stone et al. Finally, we could ind only four sam- et al. Marmota marmota for comparison, and this does are recognized as biomarkers relecting the ani- not correspond to the fatty acid distributions of mal or vegetal origin of a sample but are also an the Crvena Stijena structures Fig. March and Soler Mayor ; Pepe et al. The triterpenes are an important family to Unfortunately, the majority of the Crvena determinate the origin of organic matter.
They Stijena samples do not conserve this family of Fig. Only ive a mixture of animal and vegetal origin of the samples conserve some sterols: The one black layer has an animal origin, near structure 2, the ashes and the blackened soil as does the sterile layer. The difference between of structure 5, one sample of ashes from structure 8 the anthropic layers and the rodent hole and the in layer XXIV, and the sterile sample 1 from layer sterile 1 samples is that cholesterol is the unique XXIII.
No sample from layer XX has conserved animal sterol in anthropic samples, while it is sterols in it Fig. The rodent hole has a in sterol mass 3. This conirms the recent formation of the tanol 2.
This composition indicates nation. The low preservation of sterols at Crvena a mixed origin for the sterols of this sample, Stijena could be related to the thermal alteration dominated by a vegetal composition but having of the samples, but also to a general degradation also animal signatures.
Both samples of structure of the proile samples studied here related to the 5 have very low concentrations, and only traces formation process of the shelter. But this absence of cholesterol.
The ashes sample has more cho- of sterols does assure us that there has been no, lesterol 0. The ashes limonite sample from structure of the samples studied here by contemporary 8 shows very low quantities of cholesterol 0. Finally the the conservation of fecal matter in these proile sterile sample 1 has only traces of animal sterols samples. Percentage of sterols present at Crvena Stijena.
Close Isotopic FAMEs to these two samples we ind the samples of the As we have shown at the site of Mallaha upper ashes and the grey soil situated under the March , molecular isotopic analysis can white transition of the big structure 3 of layer help us better understand the origin of the organic XX.
Other samples from the same structure are matter of ire structures and soil samples. In this group is fatty acid methyl esters and alkanes alike to found also one the best conserved samples from determinate their origin.
We begin our exploration structure 8, while the degraded samples are also with the study of FAMEs, leaving the study of near the degraded sample of the sterile layer. The alkanes for future investigation. Our objective in samples of structures 2, 3, 4, and 7 of layer XXIV this work is to try to deine the origin of fatty acids form the enriched group and conserve a certain in the different kinds of samples studied here: This together but arrayed along an axis from less to work faces all the dificulties mentioned above more enriched values of C16 and C18 Figs.
This implies that we the more enriched values within each structure. The reddish soil of the fatty acids of the Crvena Stijena ire struc- of layer XX, the ashes and the blackened soil of tures have the same composition even if they are structure 1, the blackened soil of structure 5, and not situated at the same layer. The fatty acids of the ashes and the blackened soil of structure 6 the rodent hole and of the sterile layer sample 2 do not give viable results and must be removed are situated here near some black and ash layers from this study.
The problem lies essentially in of layer XX, while the fatty acids of the walls of the C18 concentration for the irst ive samples and the anthropic hole are grouped with all the other in the C16 concentration for the blackened soil of samples Fig. In fact, if we values. Thus, at Crvena relation of these two acids. Where this index Stijena we see that the C18 values are enriched in has higher values, in most cases the samples are comparison to C16 values Fig. In general, given enriched values and the second with more de- some nutriments such as deer meat, bacterial pleted ones.
First, if we compare the samples A similar but lower enrichment phenomenon with lipids from C3 and C4 plants our data and was observed in some kinds of cooking, such Spangenberg and Ogrinc ; Spangenberg and as boiling. On the contrary, heat action above Dionisi ; Dungait et al. Consequently, the fatty acids at Crvena depleted than C4 ones.
Only three samples, of Stijena seem not to be depleted by the action of cabbage, pumpkin, and nettle, have values that ire. The closeness observed between the different match certain depleted samples of Crvena Stijena samples of the same structure implies a similar and the ash sample of structure 4.
Of course, it is composition of the different stratigraphic layers, obvious that only nettle or some ancient species of and even if we see some differences within each Brassica could have been present in a prehistoric structure, the possibility exists that the fats depos- European context. Our purpose is only to show ited after combustion or coming from the waste that some samples could have a possible vegetal present in black layers could spread through the origin.
As shown by the alkane analysis, it is whole structure considering their thinness. The values observed here for the Fig.
Carbon isotope composition of stearic acid d13C When we compare the samples of Crvena If we compare the mean values of these vegetal Stijena with the data compiled by Evershed samples with animal samples obtained by our and for the British Isles Fig. The mean of C18 is higher than the mean value of C16 samples of ash from structure 4 are situated in Fig.
This difference could be explain by the group of adipose samples from goose, and the particular animal origin of our samples. As the intermediate layer of structure 3 gives results we know, ruminants incorporate speciic saturated that coincide with values of the adipose tissue of compounds such as C No sample can be related to deer, cow, Fig.
Grouped values by structure of carbon isotope composition of stearic acid d13C The comparison with the samples ing to see that here the adipose tissues of the pig coming from Kazakhstan Outram shows overlap both with the samples of the ire structures again a displacement of the Crvena Stijena sam- and also with the sample of the sterile soil.
The ples away from the equine adipose area or the range of the isotopic values of this species in the ruminant adipose area. Only two samples, the alpine region relects the present heterogeneity in samples of ash limonite of layer XXIV and the the alimentation of this omnivore.
The samples sample from the sterile layer XXIII, fall in the of leather of wild boar Sus scrofa , chamois conidence intervals presented by Outram from Rupicapra rupicapra , red deer Cervus elaphus , adipose tissues of ruminant or equine. The well-preserved samples, Here the enriched samples of Crvena Stijena cor- which present more depleted values, are close to respond partially to pig Sus scrofa domesticus the C3 plants of this region.
But here the adipose adipose tissue or with young herbivores like calf tissue of deer and cattle seem to move away from Bos taurus and lamb Ovis aries. It is interest- the Crvena Stijena samples. Solanum tuberosum root-oil ; oat, Avena sativa seed ; wheat, Triticum aestivum seed ; and cacao butter. Our data and Spangerberg and Ogrinc ; Spangerberg and Dionisi, The work of Carrer et al. As we can see, the value esting because he has studied the adipose tissue for present-day Marmota marmota, a rodent, of the chamois Rupicapra rupicapra , the alpine is situated close to the Crvena Stijena samples.
If we compare our samples with samples com- ing from some distant areas like Japan Heron et al. When we compare our samples with the Japan reference samples we see that again the Crvena Stijena samples are situated near the samples of wild boar Sus scrofa and are distant from the samples of the wild Japanese ruminants.
Wachsman, L. Dada was given an important place in Zenit — both in the form of favourable presentation the periodical published reproductions of works of Berlin dadaists George Grosz and Rodolf Schlichter and with critical and ironic commentary.
This meant approaching geometrical abstraction and constructivist tendencies as a collective act. The peak of this editorial policy is The Russian Issue no. Poljanski did not hide his elation over the revolution carried out by Russian avant-garde artists.
For a practical application of this concept, Zenit published works of objective abstraction — by Peeters, L. Lozowick, H. The functionalisation of such ideas had already been promoted on the pages of Zenit through the works of A. Gallien, K. Teige , L. Moholy-Nagy , El Lissitzky , A. Rodchenko , K. Malevich , M. Petrov , Jo Klek.