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Therefore, future hypertension analyzes measured by the PNS may explain whether the difference reflects the bias of higher demand for services in women or if it is real. Diabetes mellitus is a global health problem, whose prevalence, estimated by the WHO in , is of 6.
Global estimates of the prevalence of diabetes for and Diabetes Res Clin Pract ; 87 1 : According to the WHO, in , diabetes was responsible for 1.
In addition, it is associated with limitations and disabilities. The PNS pointed to prevalence values that were very close to the global data Global status report on noncommunicable diseases Geneva: WHO; These data reinforce the importance of disease prevention and health promotion.
Musculoskeletal pain and problems may affect a large portion of the population, causing economic impact and impact in the quality of life of individuals. Among the chronic back problems, chronic lower back problems are the most common, affecting mainly the population of working age.
There are many population studies in the country about back pain. According to data from the Brazilian Ministry of Social Welfare, back pain has been the main reason for absence from work Methodological differences, especially in the question, here related to previous medical diagnosis, explain in part this difference. The WMSDs, characterized as painful and damaging disorders caused by overuse or excessive activity of some part of the musculoskeletal system, often resulting from physical activities related to work, also cause negative consequences for individuals and for the public expenses It is present in 2.
Depression is an emotional disorder characterized mainly by changes in mood, decreased energy, and decreased activity. It can vary between lighter and more severe episodes. Studies show sociodemographic differences in the prevalence of depression. For example, among women, depression is twice as common as in men Rev Bras Epidemiol ; Gender differences in depression in 23 European countries.
Cross-national variation in the gender gap in depression. Soc Sci Med ; The PNS first explored the subject and the data are startling: 7. Depression affects almost three times more women, and about Asthma is characterized as a chronic disease that affects the airways and other structures of the lungs. According to the WHO, asthma ranks first in the prevalence of chronic respiratory diseases, affecting million people worldwide Geneva: WHO In Brazil, it would be about 6.
Asthma is responsible for a large number of hospital admissions, resulting in a significant cost to the Unified Health System SUS Alfradique ME, et al.
CKD is characterized by kidney injury or impaired renal function for three or more months, regardless of the diagnosis that caused the injury or the reduction in function. CKD is a public health problem that impacts individuals and their families and society and the health system.
The main risk factors associated with CKD are diabetes mellitus, hypertension, family history of renal disease, and aging The prevalence and incidence increase over the progression of age The findings of PNS of 1. Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability worldwide. It is estimated that, in , about 5. Preventing stroke: saving lives around the world. Lancet Neurol ; 6 2 : One study on the mortality trends by stroke in Brazil for individuals aged 30 years or older, from to , observed an increasing trend in mortality rates by and a subsequent decline until Arq Bras Cardiol ; 98 6 : CVDs are the leading cause of death in Brazil.
In , mortality attributable to CVD was of per , people. Still, CVDs generate the highest costs in relation to hospital admissions It is estimated that, for , According to the data from ELSA-Brazil, the prevalence of coronary heart disease and stroke in people aged 35 - 74 years were of 4.
Int J Epidemiol ; It is fundamental to monitor NCDs, its morbidity and mortality burden, and risk factors. Strengthening the surveillance is a national and global priority. The Ministry of Health has invested in improving coverage and quality of data on mortality and morbidity, and the PNS completes the surveillance panel, setting an invaluable baseline. There is a strong evidence that correlates the social determinants, such as education, occupation, income, gender, and ethnicity, with the prevalence of NCDs and risk factors In Brazil, despite the existence of SUS, a free and universal health-care system, the individual cost of a chronic disease is still quite high, owing to aggregate costs, sick leave, and loss of productivity, which contributes to the impoverishment of families.
The burden and costs of chronic diseases in low-income and middle-income countries.
Lancet; Regarding the burden of morbidity and mortality from NCDs, they are huge challenges for governments, health managers, and the general public Monitoring and surveillance of chronic noncommunicable diseases: progress and capacity in high-burden countries. Global and regional mortality from causes of death for 20 age groups in and a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study Cardiac auscultatory findings included a regular rhythm, S1 and S2 audible, and a low-frequency, harsh systolic ejection murmur, most intense in the 4th left intercostal space and radiating to the 2nd left intercostal space, without thrills.
She presented no jugular distention, adenopathy, hepatomegaly, ascites, or edema in the lower limbs.
The rest of the physical examination was normal. An electrocardiogram revealed sinus rhythm and right bundle branch block. The chest radiograph was normal. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a cyst with well-defined margins, which caused a 4. The RV cavity was enlarged, but the size of the other cardiac cavities was normal.
The valves were morphologically and functionally normal. The pericardium exhibited normal, free movement of its layers. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a cystic mass Fig. This mass measured 3.
Open in a separate window Fig. B Axial magnetic resonance image shows high-intensity lesion arrow invading the myocardium of the anterior wall of the right ventricular outflow tract.