7 3/8 x 9 1/4 T echnical / Build Your Own Electric Vehicle / Leitman / / Front Matter Blind Folio PBBuild Your. Be creative and mix and match your own configuration. Electric motors are also 98% efficient so you will not need to shift as much. Many city EVers weight rating of your car to make sure the weight of your conversion will be within reason . Our mission is very simple- we will show you how to build your own electric car with detailed plans and pictures that any handyman or woman could follow.
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Electric-Vehicles-Build-Your-Ownpdf - Free ebook download as PDF File . pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online for free. - Electric tram networks MPGe – Miles per Gallon equivalent. • BEV – Battery Electric. Vehicle . Additional Resources - ruthenpress.info . Build Your Own Electric Car!: (AUTHORS NOTE, July 9, )Hi Everyone, there' been a lot of views on this project lately! Thanks for coming by to read through.
This car charges at my house through a renewable energy program. All electricity comes from wind, bio-gas, and other renewable energy sources. I kept the back seat and can carry four people total. The original driver and passenger airbags are completely intact and functional.
I mostly drive this car in third gear. Turn the car on - put it in third - drive. It's really that easy. There's no engine to kill, so you don't have to push in the clutch before coming to a stop.
The motor has so much torque that I can pull away from a dead stop in fourth gear. I still need to come up with a heater. The heat issue has been on my mind since the start of this project. The inefficiency of a gasoline engine is a blessing in a cold Wisconsin winter. I did gloss over a few steps of this project. I skipped telling you how many times I took apart, and put back together, the electric motor.
How many times I lugged it back and forth to the machinist's. A friend and I were up til 2 in the morning one night fixing the control arm mount!
Or how I had to literally shorten the motor because it was too long to fit in the car! But those things are for another story at another time!
Why Conversion Is Best. The Other Side of Conversion. How to Get the Best Deal. Keep Your Needs List Handy. download or Borrow the Manuals. Sell Unused Engine Parts. Why an Electric Motor? DC Electric Motors. Magnetism and Electricity.
Conductors and Magnetic Fields. DC Motors in General.
Series Motors. DC Motor Types. Series DC Motors.
Regenerative Braking. Shunt DC Motors. Compound DC Motors. Permanent Magnet DC Motors. Brushless DC Motors. Universal DC Motors. AC Electric Motors. AC Induction Motors. Polyphase AC Induction Motors. Wound-Rotor Induction Motors. The Advance FB Keep It Simple. Battery Overview. Inside Your Battery. Active Materials. Overall Chemical Reaction. Discharging Chemical Reaction. Charging Chemical Reaction. Electrolyte Specific Gravity.
Electrolyte Replacement. Outside Your Battery. Basic Electrical Definitions. Battery Capacity and Rating. The Gentle Art of Battery Recharging. Discharge Not in Haste. Lead-Acid Batteries. Battery Types. Battery Construction. Battery Distribution and Cost. Battery Core Deposit. Battery Installation Guidance. Five Trojan Battery Solutions. Future Batteries: The Big Picture. Charger Overview. Battery Discharging and Charging Cycle. Battery Discharging Cycle.
Battery Charging Cycle. The Ideal Battery Charger. The Real-World Battery Charger. The Zivan NG3. Rapid Charging. Induction Charging. Replacement Battery Packs. Beyond Tomorrow. Terminal Strip. Battery Indicator. Temperature Meter. Rotary Switch. Low-Voltage Protection Fuses. Low-Voltage Interlocks. DC-to-DC Converter. Auxiliary Battery Charger. Wiring It All Together. Conversion Overview. Before Conversion. Arrange for Help. Arrange for Space.
Arrange for Tools. Arrange for downloads and Deliveries. download the Chassis. download Other Components. Prepare the Chassis. Removing Chassis Parts. Mounting Your Electric Motor. Mounting and Testing Your Electric Motor. Fabricating Battery Mounts. Additional Mechanical Components. Cleanup from Mechanical to Electrical Stage. High-Current System. Low-Voltage System.
Junction Box. Battery Installation. Battery Wiring. Accessory Battery. After Conversion. System Checkout on Blocks. Neighborhood Trial Run. First Visitor Does a Second Take. Improved Cooling. Further Improved Cooling. Paint, Polish, and Sign. Onward and Upward. Put Yourself in the Picture. Licensing and Insurance Overview. Getting Licensed. Getting Insured.
Safety Footnote. Driving and Maintenance Overview. Driving Your Electric Vehicle. Caring for Your Electric Vehicle. Battery Care. Tire Care.
Checking Connections. Emergency Kit. Less Is More. Clubs, Associations, and Organizations. Electric Auto Association. Electric Utilities and Power Associations.
Manufacturers, Converters, and Consultants. Conversion Specialists. Vehicles and Components. Experienced EV Conversions and Consulting.
Conversion Kits. Conversion Plans. Other Parts. Books, Articles, and Papers. Online Industry Publications. Grassroots Electric Drive Sites. Federal Government Sites. General Electric Drive Information Sites. Other Related Web Sites. The electric vehicle EV movement has broadened to multiple levels of the public debate. Al Gore and Leonardo DiCaprio have recently made movies about the need to assist the environment and how oil and energy have created the global warming problems that our world currently faces.
Well, EVs solve a lot of problems quickly. Electric vehicles bypass high energy prices. Electric cars cost pennies to charge. Electric cars have zero tailpipe emissions. While they charge up on electricity from power plants, they can also charge on electricity from solar, wind, and any other renewable resource. Also, if you compare emissions from power plants for every car on the road versus gasoline emissions, electric cars are always always cleaner. In addition, as power plants get cleaner and our power plants reduce emissions, electric cars will only get cleaner.
Electric cars also help develop the economy. We all know that we need to increase the number of electric cars. Hybrid electrics, plug-in hybrids, and low-speed vehicles all expand electric transportation. We as a country—no, we as world—are increasing our involvement in this industry. I recently spoke with an owner of an electric car company who said that the UAW was more than excited to build electric cars since the traditional car companies were leaving Detroit in single file.
This can only increase domestic jobs in the United States and help our economy. Our world is depending on fossil fuels from countries that predominantly have not supported the best financial interests of the United States. Another way to ask the questions is: Should we be sending more money to Iran and Venezuela, or should we keep it in our own pockets? That is why I believe in a pollution-free, oil-free form of transportation. When you drive an electric vehicle, that is how you feel—free.
It also provides electric vehicle consulting services for companies needing marketing, engineering and technical expertise on their respective product lines.
In addition, I also run a blog called www. I used to own a company called Electric Transportation Solutions, LLC, which sold all forms of electric vehicles, consulted for other companies on improving their perception in the market, and helped them determine strategic partnerships. These books should be coming out in In fact, when I worked for the New York Power Authority, which powers those subways, I gained a new appreciation for electric transportation every time I took the train into and around New York City.
My interest in renewable energy and energy efficiency, however, began in graduate school at the Rockefeller College of Public Affairs and Policy in Albany, New York, where I received a master of public administration degree. I concentrated on comparative international development, which focused on the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. After I read about the World Bank funding inefficient and environmentally destructive energy projects, such as coal-burning power plants in China or dams in Brazil that had the potential to destroy the site, I decided to take my understanding to another level.
I was fortunate enough to be able to ask direct questions to project managers who oversaw billions that went to China to build coal-burning power plants. I asked them how the Bank could fund an environmentally destructive energy project when there were no traps or technologies to recapture the emissions and use that energy or recapture it back into the plant to use as energy.
The answers were not good, but since I researched the Bank, attention to environmental issues has expanded by leaps and bounds and the Bank is starting to work toward economic and environmental efficiencies. When I funded programs and realized the benefits of electric cars or hybrid electric buses versus their counterparts, I was transformed. I saw that electric transportation was the way to go. I fell so in love with electric transportation that I went to work for the New York Power Authority electric transportation group.
In total, I helped to bring over 3, alternative-fueled vehicles and buses into New York. I worked on the development, marketing, and management of electric and hybrid vehicle programs serving the New York metropolitan area. I developed programs that expanded the NYPA fleet from to over vehicles, while enhancing public awareness of these programs.
I developed an incentive program that offered commuters up-front parking at the train stations with electric charging stations. We provided insurance rebates and reduced train fares. To date, this was the largest electric vehicle station car program in the world. How about the acid part in lead-acid batteries? Manufacturers are aware of the problem but have made no pledges yet. Electric Vehicles Save the Environment EV ownership is visible proof of your commitment to help clean up the environment.
Chapter 2 will cover in detail the environmental benefits of this choice. EVs produce no emissions of any kind to harm the air, and virtually everything in them is recyclable. Plus, every electric vehicle conversion represents one less polluting internal combustion vehicle on the road. Electric vehicles are not only the most modern and efficient forms of transportation, but they also help reduce our carbon footprint today! Because the reality in each case is the degree opposite of the myth, you should know about them.
The reality is that EVs can go as fast as you want—just choose the electric vehicle model or design or build one with the speed capability you want. One example of how fast they can accelerate was when I was driving a TH!
I was at a traffic light next to a Ford cab how appropriate since Ford owned TH! NK at the time. He was more than surprised at the torque and acceleration. Other conversion companies are starting to use lithium-ion batteries; however, most still use lead acid.
The more voltage, the more batteries you have, the faster any given electric motor will be able to push the vehicle—but adding batteries adds also to the vehicle weight. If speed is important, then optimize the electric vehicle you choose for it. Electric Vehicles Have Limited Range Nothing could be further from the truth but, unfortunately, this myth has been widely accepted. The reality is that electric vehicles can go as far as most people need.
While lithium-ion batteries will expand your range dramatically and there are some people that are travelling cross country in EVs, it is not yet the best use for a massive road trip at this time.
But what is its range? An earlier study showed that 98 percent of all vehicle trips are under 50 miles per day; most people do all their driving locally, and only take a few long trips. Trips of miles and longer account for only 17 percent of total miles. This means an EV can meet more than 85 percent of the average needs.
Plus, if range is really important, optimize your electric vehicle for it. Car companies and others have complained that there is not enough recharging infrastructure across the country or that you cannot charge the car anywhere you would like as with fueling up a car. Recharging is as convenient as your nearest electrical outlet, especially for conversion cars using volt charging outlets.
Here are some other reasons: All these are potential sources for you to recharge your electric vehicle. Europe and Japan have no such places.
Electricity exists virtually everywhere; you just have to figure out how to tap into it. Except, of course, you probably want to leave a cash tip in this case.
When more infrastructure exists in the future, it will be even more convenient to charge your batteries. In the long term, future volume production and technology improvements will only make the cost benefits favor electric vehicles even more. Disadvantages Well, there had to be a downside. If any one of the factors below is important to you, you might be better served by taking an alternate course of action. Extended trips as already mentioned; the electric vehicle is not your best choice for transcontinental travel at this time, or long trips in general.
Alternate methods are just more convenient. As mentioned, this book advocates the use of the convert-it-yourself electric vehicle as a second vehicle. When you need to take longer trips, use your first vehicle, take an airplane, train, or bus, or rent a vehicle. There is a growing network of new and used electric vehicle dealers and conversion shops. However, the supply for the highest grade controllers and motors do take time to produce and will slow down your conversion process.
Although, as demand for these products increases, the supply will increase too and the time that it takes for these products to be built will get reduced. Check the Sources section at the end of the book. But plan on taking a few weeks to a few months to arrive at the electric vehicle of your choice.
Electric vehicle resale if you should decide to sell your EV will take longer—for the same reason. While a reasonably ready market exists via the Electric Auto Association chapter and national newsletters, it is still going to take you longer and be less convenient than going down to a local automobile dealer.
Although the build-it-yourself experience will enable your rapid diagnosis of any problems, replacement parts could be days, weeks, or months away—even via expedited carriers. You could just stockpile spare parts yourself, but the time to carefully think through this or any other repair alternative is before you make your electric vehicle decision.
The Force Is with You What you are seeing today in electric vehicles is just the tip of the iceberg. It is guaranteed that future improvements will make them faster, longer-ranged, and even more efficient. There are five prevailing reasons that guarantee electric vehicles will always be with us in the future.
The only one not previously discussed is technological change. All the available technology has just about been squeezed out of internal combustion engine vehicles, and they are going to be even more environmentally squeezed in the future. This will hit each downloader right in the pocketbook.
Incremental gains will not come inexpensively. Internal combustion engines are nearly at the end of their technological lifetime. Fuel economy is defined as the average mileage traveled by an automobile per gallon of gasoline or equivalent amount of other fuel consumed as measured in accordance with the testing and evaluation protocol set forth by the Environmental Protection Agency EPA Source: National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Since the fuel efficiency of an electric vehicle is more than that, an EV will always be the best approach. In addition, once lithium battery technology becomes the standard, electric vehicles will be able to go to miles depending on the technology.
Unquestionably, the future looks bright for electric vehicles because the best is yet to come. The four remaining reasons were covered in this chapter, and are summarized in Figure Spock from Star Trek, The Motion Picture B esides the fact that the consumer has been consistently interested in the electric car despite popular reporting by car companies , there is a newly sparked no pun intended excitement in either plug-in hybrid electric cars which are more electric car than hybrid and electric cars Tesla, TH!
This only means great things for the planet. Specifically, zero tailpipe emissions and greater air quality in our major metropolitan cities. And with this is a significant reduction in overall energy use. Electric vehicles are zero emission vehicles ZEVs. They do not emit toxic compounds into our atmosphere. Even the power plants that generate the power for EVs are held to a higher standard meaning a lower level of toxic emissions compared to the emissions related to gasoline-powered vehicles. The greatest of these problems include the following: Because electric vehicles use less energy then gasoline-powered vehicles, their effect on the environment is much less than vehicles powered by fossil fuels.
Because electric vehicles are more efficient than gasoline-powered vehicles, they cost less to run. Electric vehicles have existed for more than a hundred years predating internal combustion engine vehicles. The aerospace-derived technology to improve them has existed for decades. Unquestionably, EVs will be the de facto transportation mode of choice for years to come, if life on our planet is to continue to exist in its modern form with the conveniences we count on today. Figure shows the reasons why.
In direct contrast to the problems created by internal combustion engine vehicles, EVs: Even the cost advantage goes to the electric vehicle since the electric vehicle converts about 70 percent of the charging energy into motor energy, whereas a typical gasolinepowered vehicle converts only about 20 percent of the energy in gasoline into engine energy.
An automatic transmission represents another significant loss, as do auxiliaries such as power steering and air conditioning. Around town, air conditioning can consume 40 percent or more of available power. For the conversion, , BTU 1 therm 5 Fuel-Efficient Vehicles Car companies are now making an effort to develop or provide more fuel-efficient cars. The market wants them, the large organizations have responded to the market, and the car companies that are doing well Toyota and Honda are producing fuel-efficient and hybrid cars.
Now, Ford, GM, and the other car companies are either producing or developing these type of cars as well. This is to be expected in business. Much has been said about creating a new type of car that can get 35 mpg. In other countries where fuel is very expensive, such cars already exist. The cars are much smaller and have smaller engines.
What has not been said is the great extent to which drivers control the range of these vehicles. In countries where fuel is expensive, drivers tend to drive at slower speeds. Driving twice as fast requires four times the energy to overcome aerodynamic losses. To go from 50 mph to mph increases the rate fuel or electrical energy is used almost by a factor of eight. Since you get there in half the time, total energy used is increased by a factor of four.
Even if you do not have an electric car, plan on converting a car, or plan on downloading a hybridelectric car, one thing to take away from this book is that driving more efficiently will reduce your carbon footprint.
No one and everyone. The line from Dr. Applied collectively, the legacy of the internal combustion engine is greenhouse effect, foreign oil dependence, and pollution. A brief look at a few charts will demonstrate the facts see Figure Forty percent of our energy comes from petroleum, 23 percent from coal, and 23 percent from natural gas. The remaining 14 percent comes from nuclear power, hydroelectric, and renewables. The U. Problems associated with oil supply include volatile oil prices, increasing world and domestic demand, and falling domestic production.
The Arab Oil Crisis of and subsequent ones were not pleasant experiences. After each crisis, the United States vowed to become less dependent on foreign oil producers—yet exactly the opposite has happened. Energ y Use: Today we are already past that amount. No one can accurately predict what fuel prices will be this summer or next year, and whether there will be a shortage or abundance of supplies.
Everyone agrees that this is a bad situation. We need to take real steps to correct the problem. How Electric Vehicles Can Help Maintaining stringent toxic air pollution emission levels along with conforming to increasingly higher mandated corporate average fuel economy levels puts an enormous burden on internal combustion engine vehicle technology and on your pocketbook. Automotive manufacturers have to work their technical staffs overtime to accomplish these feats, and the costs will be passed on to the new downloader.
Pollution control equipment is a problem each internal combustion engine vehicle owner has to revisit every year: How can electric vehicles reduce toxic air pollution emissions? All electric vehicles are by definition zero emission vehicles ZEVs: To quote Quanlu Wang, Mark A.
DeLuchi, and Dan Sperling, who studied the subject extensively: In addition, shifting the burden to coal-powered electrical generating plants for electric vehicle electricity production has these effects: Electric vehicles generate no emissions whatsoever and reduce our reliance on imported oils.
Frankly, until you get an appreciable number of electric cars on the road today hundreds of thousands to millions , they do not impact emissions from electrical generating plants. This does not bode well for our environment, our landfills, or anything else—especially when multiplied by hundreds of millions of vehicles.
How can the electric vehicle help? The only waste elements of an electric vehicle are its batteries. For example, lead-acid batteries—the kind commonly available today—are In processing many tons per day, almost every ounce is accounted for.
This means Toxic Input Fluids Pollution Remember, almost everything going into and coming out of the internal combustion engine is toxic. On the output side, when burning coal, oil, gas, or any fossil fuel, you create more problems either by the amount of carbon dioxide or by the type of other toxic emissions produced.
Everything you pour into an internal combustion engine is toxic, but some chemicals are especially nasty. In addition to more than compounds on its initial hazardous list, the Clean Air Act of amendments said: Poisoning your own drinking water is another.
Those enormous holes in the ground near neighborhood gas stations everywhere as they rush to be compliant with federal regulations regarding acceptable levels of gasoline storage tank leakage make the point.
So does the recall of millions of bottles of Perrier drinking water where only tiny levels of benzene contamination were involved. The only substance you pour into your electric vehicle occasionally is water preferably distilled. Waste Heat Due to Inefficiency Although its present form represents its highest evolution to date, the gasoline-powered internal combustion engine is classified among the least efficient mechanical devices on the planet.
The internal combustion engine is close to 20 percent efficient. The efficiency of an Advance DC motor runs between 80 and 90 percent, sometimes lower.
In gasoline-powered vehicles, only 20 percent of the energy of combustion becomes mechanical energy; the rest becomes heat lost in the engine system. Of the 20 percent mechanical energy: In contrast to the hundreds of internal combustion engine moving parts, the electric motor has just one. Combine all these and you have an electric vehicle efficiency far greater than anything possible with an internal combustion engine vehicle.
Electric Utilities Love Electric Vehicles Even the most wildly optimistic electric vehicle projections show only a few million electric vehicles in use by early in the 21st century.
Somewhere around that level, EVs will begin making a dent in the strategic oil, greenhouse, and air quality problems. This is due to the magic of load leveling. Load leveling means that if electric vehicles are used during the day and recharged at night, they perform a great service for their local electrical utility, whose demand curves almost universally look like that shown in Figure How electricity is generated varies widely from one geographic region to another, and even from city to city in a United States region.
In , the net electricity mix generated by electric utilities was Edison Electric Institute. Energy Information Administration.
By owners recharging their electric vehicles in the evening hours valley periods they receive the benefit of an off-peak typically lower electric rate. By raising the valleys and bringing up its base-load demand, the electric utility is able to more efficiently utilize its existing plant capacity.
This is a tremendous near-term economic benefit to our electric utilities because it represents a new market for electricity sales with no additional associated capital asset expense. Summary Electric vehicle ownership is the best first step you can take to help save the planet. But there is still more you can do. Do your homework. Write your Senator or Congressperson. Voice your opinion. Get involved with the issues. Settle only for action—who is going to do what by when and why.
I leave you with a restatement of the problem, a possible framework for a solution, and some additional food for thought.
Legacy of Internal Combustion Engine Is Environmental Problems Internal combustion engine technology and fuel should be priced to reflect its true social cost, not just its economic cost, because of the environmental problems it creates: A Proactive Solution People living in the United States have been extremely fortunate for most of our nations history.
However and more now than ever, we have issues with clean air, our natural resources, instable governments, expensive energy costs, and while having a convenient and true standard of living second to no other country on the planet. But nothing guarantees our future generations will enjoy the same birthright.
For the sake of our children, we cannot walk away, we must do something. We must attack the problem straight on, pull it up by its roots, and replace it with a solution. We need to look at the results wanted in the midst century and work backward—on both the supply and demand sides—to see what we must start doing today.
No one has to be hurt by the change if they become part of the change. Automakers can make more efficient vehicles. Suppliers can provide new parts in place of the old. The petrochemical industry can alter its mix to supply less crude as oil and gas and more as feedstock material used in making vehicles, homes, roads, and millions of other useful items. Long before any of these things happen, you can do your part by building your own electric vehicle.
Experience said, it is done. The two vehicle types will coexist for some time to come. While modern technology has made electric vehicles better, there is very little new in electric vehicle technology.
As a potential EV builder or converter, you should be happy to know they have a long and distinguished heritage—you might even get some useful building ideas by looking at the earliest-vintage EVs in an automobile museum. A minimal number of trains in the MTA fleet are diesel-powered. In addition, each year I worked for the State of New York, the MTA shifted more and more from compressed natural gas to hybrid-electric transit buses.
While they are not percent electric, it proves the point that an electric drive is cleaner and more fuel efficient than just an alternative fuel.
Battery electric vehicles have also been extremely popular in some limited-range applications. Forklifts have been battery electric vehicles BEVs since the early s and electric forklifts are still being produced. BEV golf carts have been available for years. Golf carts have led to the emergence of neighborhood electric vehicles NEVs or low-speed vehicles LSVs , which are speed-limited at 25 mph, but are legal for use on public roads.
As of July , there are between 60, and 76, low-speed, battery-powered vehicles in use in the U. I believe several thousand vehicles were donated by the car companies to receive ZEV credits for the amount of electric vehicles placed on road in By the late s, the electric automobile industry had completely disappeared, with battery-electric traction being limited to niche applications, such as certain industrial vehicles.
The invention of the point-contact transistor marked the beginning of a new era for BEV technology. Within a decade, Henney Coachworks had joined forces with National Union Electric Company, the makers of Exide batteries, to produce the first modern electric car based on transistor technology, the Henney Kilowatt, produced in volt and volt configurations. Despite the improved practicality of the Henney Kilowatt over previous electric cars, it was too expensive and production was terminated in Even though the Henney Kilowatt never reached mass production volume, their transistor-based electric technology paved the way for modern EVs.
Timeline of Vehicle History Studying vehicle history is similar to looking at any economic phenomenon. The first iPod was a novelty; the one hundredth created a strong desire to own one. The same with vehicles—past events shift the background climate and affect current consumer wants and needs. The innovative Model T of the s was an outdated clunker in the s. The great finned wonders of the s and muscle cars of the s were an anachronism by the s. A vehicle that was once in great demand is now only junkyard material because consumer wants and needs change.
Figure is rather busy, but studying it gives you clues to the rise and fall of the three types of vehicles in one picture—steam, electric, internal combustion—plus the interrelationship between them during the three stages of vehicle history.
Electric vehicles —The Future How much higher? The future is bright. ZEV Mandate revised in Again, reduced incentives for ZEVs. More incentives for less fuel cell vehicles, hybrids and plug-in hybrids. While we are on the cusp of seeing electric vehicles and plug-in hybrids built, it remains to be seen how these technologies will play out politically and in the marketplace. A brief look at electric vehicle history is helpful in understanding why electric vehicles came, went away, and are back again.
The Timeline of Electric Cars Steam engines came first, followed by electric motors, and finally by internal combustion engines.
The thriving post-industrial revolution economy provided by the steam engine created the climate for electrical invention. Electrical devices made the internal combustion engine possible. Vehicles powered by them followed the same development sequence. Steam and electric offerings were overwhelmed by the dominance of cheap oil and gasoline and virtually disappeared as competitors to internal combustion engine vehicles after Huff and Puff The same phenomenon that makes the heated tea kettle on your stove whistle, when suitably harnessed, makes a steam engine go.
While the Cugnot steam tractor is a far cry from the Stanley Steamer automobiles of the early s a streamlined version of the latter set the land speed record at mph in , and still further removed from the high-performance Lear steam cars of a few decades ago, the problem with steam vehicles remains the steam. Water needs a lot of heat to become steam, and it freezes at cold temperatures.
Figure shows the steam, electric, and internal combustion vehicle population in the United States from to Steam-powered vehicles, popular in the last part of the s, declined in favor of the other two vehicle types after the early s. Electric vehicles enjoyed rapid growth and popularity until about , then a slow decline until their brief resurgence in the s. Internal combustion engine—powered vehicles passed steam and electric early in the s.
More than any other factor, cheap and nearly unlimited amounts of domestic and later foreign oil, which kept gasoline prices between 10 and 20 cents a gallon from through , suppressed interest in alternatives to internal combustion engine vehicles until more than 50 years later the s.
In the early s, steam vehicles unquestionably offered smoothness, silence, and acceleration. But stops for water were typically more frequent than stops for kerosene, and steamer designs required additional complexity and a lengthy startup sequence. While 40 percent of the vehicles sold in were steam 38 percent were electric , electrics offered simplicity, reliability, and ease of operation, while gasoline vehicles offered greater range and fuel efficiency.
Thus steamers declined, and only a handful operate today. I will debate the issue of fuel efficiency in later chapters. In one place it lights a factory, in another it conveys a message, and in a third it drives an electric vehicle. Electricity is transportable—it can be generated at a low-cost location and conveniently shipped hundred of miles to where it is needed.
A storage battery, charged from electricity provided by a convenient wall outlet, can reliably carry electricity to start a car anywhere, or power an electric vehicle. But our modern electrical heritage owes a great debt to many pioneers. Joseph Henry, building on the experiments of Han Christian Oersted in and Andre Ampere in , created the first primitive direct current DC electric motor in Michael Faraday demonstrated the induction principle and the first electric DC generator in Battery-powered electric technology was applied to the first land vehicle by Thomas Davenport in , to a small boat by M.
Tudor in —paved the way for extended electric vehicle use. By the s, DC power distribution via dynamos had been in use for a decade. Figure shows a cross-section of the more prominent United States electric vehicle manufacturers in operation from through the s.
By , the peak production year for early electrics, 34, cars were registered. The half page of magazine articles listed in the through volumes dwindled to a quarter page in —18 and disappeared altogether in the —28 volume. Early electric vehicle success in urban areas was easy to understand. Most paved roads were in urban areas; power was conveniently available; urban distances were short; speed limits were low; and safety, comfort, and convenience were primary download considerations.
The quietness, ease of driving, and high reliability made EVs a natural with the wealthy urban set in general and well-to-do women in particular. Clara Bryant Ford Mrs. Henry Ford could have any automobile she wanted, but she chose the Detroit Electric now on display at the Henry Ford Museum shown in Figure for getting around the Ford Park Lane estate and running errands. Edison had his own personal Studebaker electric vehicle, and both he and Henry Ford were strongly supportive of EVs.
Electric vehicles also dominated the commercial delivery fleets in urban areas around the world. Department stores, express delivery companies, post offices, utility, and taxicab companies in New York, Chicago, London, Paris, and Berlin used thousands of EVs.
High reliability 99 percent of the day work year availability and low maintenance characterized commercial EVs and made them fleet favorites. Half-ton trucks went 10 to 15 mph and had a 40 to 50 mile range. Ten-ton trucks went 5 to 10 mph and had a 30 to 40 mile range. An electric vehicle set the first land speed record. In , the French B. Today, with the United States and other industrialized nations substantially dependent on foreign oil, the strategic economic disadvantage of oil coupled with the environmental disadvantage of the internal combustion engine has created strong arguments for alternative solutions.
Animal oils had been used for centuries to provide illumination. Rock oils so called to indicate that they derived directly from the ground, and the original name for crude oil or petroleum were envisioned in the s only as superior alternatives for illumination and lubrication in the upcoming mechanical age.
Earlier researchers had discovered that a quality illuminating oil, kerosene, could be extracted from coal or rock oil. Coal existed in plentiful quantities. The discovery of oil in Western Pennsylvania by Edwin Drake in was the spark that ignited the oil revolution.
Almost overnight, the boom in Pennsylvania oil, with its byproducts exported globally, became vitally important to the United States economy. The promise of fabulous wealth provided the impetus that attracted the best business minds of the age to the quest. These monopolies, securely in place before the s, were all based on the markets for oil as kerosene and lubricating products. In the s, gasoline, once thrown away after kerosene was obtained, was lucky to bring two cents a gallon, but that was about to change.
Coal was the foundation for the industrial revolution, and the first internal combustion engine built in by Etienne Lenoir was fired by coal gas. Nikolaus Otto improved on the design with a four-cycle approach in Early internal combustion vehicles were noisy, difficult to learn to drive, difficult to start, and prone to explosions backfiring that categorized them as dangerous in competing steam and electric advertisements.
Only three years later, more than companies had been organized to manufacture motorcars. While DC and AC electrical distribution systems guaranteed that electric lighting would replace the kerosene lamp, cheap domestic oil, which kept gasoline prices between two and ten cents a gallon between and , guaranteed the success of internal combustion vehicles. By , Henry Ford had produced numerous designs. The four-cylinder, hp, 1,lb. Simultaneously, integration along with the political problems in Russia had consolidated the world oil market in the hands of two companies by But by , the investigation of Standard Oil launched by president Teddy Roosevelt in resulted in the United States federal court finding Standard Oil guilty of antitrust violations and ordering its breakup into the companies we recognize today: Meanwhile, other internal combustion engine vehicle innovators were busy too: Walter Chrysler, John and Horace Dodge the brothers who began as captive suppliers to Ford , and numerous others provided innovations that survive to the present day.
The internal combustion vehicles were now on their way. In , half of the 80 million people in the United States lived in a few large mostly Eastern cities with paved roads, and the other half in towns linked by dirt roads or in countryside with no roads at all. Less than 10 percent of the 2 million miles of roads were paved. More than 25 million horses and mules provided mobility for the masses. Electric lighting in the larger cities was dwarfed by the use of kerosene lamps, popularized by the discovery of plentiful amounts of oil, in the countryside.
Coal- or wood-burning steam engine locomotives were high tech. Three types of vehicles came into this turn-of-the-century United States environment. By the time World War I was over, the internal combustion vehicle had emerged as the clear victor.
After World War II, world internal combustion engine automotive growth was even more dramatic. Is it any wonder that no one cared how large the cars were in the s or how much gas they guzzled in the s? Gasoline was cheaper than water. But there were also some problems: Japanese and European auto manufacturers had smaller, more fuel-efficient internal combustion vehicle solutions as a result of years of higher gasoline prices due to higher taxes earmarked for infrastructure rebuilding.
The market share lost by the big three to foreign automakers has never been regained. By the early s, the wild oil party of the preceding 75 years was over.
Environmental problems, the need for energy conservation, and the instability of foreign oil supply all signal that the sun is setting on the internal combustion vehicle. It will not happen overnight.
In the near term the industrialized nations of the world and emerging Third World nations will consume ever greater amounts of foreign oil. Flexible, oil-powered internal combustion engine cars, trucks, tanks, and airplanes were superior to fixed, coal-powered railway transportation; and those who controlled the supply of oil won the war. The Germans did not have access to vast amounts of oil; the destruction of the Ploesti refinery in Romania and their belated, failed attempts at capturing Baku cost them the war.
Meanwhile, internal combustion engine vehicle registrations in the United States exploded from one-half million in , to 9 million in , to 27 million in , and slowed by the depression, to 33 million in More and more paved roads were built; the landscape was changed forever. Then the biggest oil find of them all was discovered in October —the giant East Texas oil reservoir that later proved to measure 45 miles long and up to 10 miles wide.
Now the problem was too much oil, and the United States government had to enter the picture to control prices. With cheap, available gasoline prevailing as fuel, and basic internal combustion engine vehicle design fixed, manufacturing economies of scale brought the price within reach of every consumer. Expansion away from urban areas made vehicle ownership a necessity. The creation of an enormous highway infrastructure culminated in completion of the interstate highway system.
This was accompanied by the destruction of urban non-internal-combustion-powered transit infrastructure by political maneuvering in the United States, and by damage during World War II in Japan and Europe. It needed the oil resources of Indonesia, Malaysia, and Indochina. After an oil embargo against Japan was set up in mid by blocking the use of Japanese funds held in the United States, Japan was desperate for oil, and did what it had to do to get it.
Farben, the huge German chemical combine, had mastered synthetic fuel recovery from coal by the early s—hydrogenation was the most popular method—and Germany had plenty of coal. Germany also lost World War II long before , but learned its oil lesson well and converted to the oil standard soon after the war despite massive reserves of coal.
What did the allies learn from World War II? They relearned the lesson from World War I: Whoever controls the supply of oil wins the war. They also learned the value of a strategic petroleum reserve. Up until , the allies nearly lost the war to the Germans in the North Atlantic—the success of submarine wolf packs made it nearly impossible for allied oil tankers to resupply England, Europe, and Africa.
While the United States provided six out of every seven barrels of allied oil during World War II, it was recognized by many in government that it would soon become a net importer of oil. Oil exploration in this period was in high gear. A nearly inexhaustible supply had apparently been found in the Middle East; gasoline prices bounced between 20 and 30 cents per gallon until the early s. Aided by the convenience of the internal combustion automobile, America moved to the suburbs, where distances were measured in commuting minutes, not miles.
Gasoline was plentiful and cheap reflecting underlying oil prices and regular local retail price wars made it even cheaper. Highway Bill signed by President Eisenhower in , authorizing a 42,mile superhighway system. Germany and Japan and most of the rest of the industrialized world rapidly converted from coal to oil economies after World War II, and underwent an unprecedented period of economic and industrial expansion as the surge in automobile registrations outside of the United States, shown in Figure , attests.
All the industrialized economies of the world were now dependent on internal combustion engine vehicles and oil. The s: The heightened environmental concerns of the s, specifically air pollution, were the first wave upon which electric vehicles rose again. While numerous s visionaries were correctly touting EVs as a solution, the manufacturing technology was, unfortunately, not up to the vision.
Figure shows a chronological summary of what was being done by the primary electric vehicle developers in the United States, Europe, and Japan during the four waves.
Unfortunately, the most available motors in the appropriate size were decades-old war surplus aircraft starter DC motors; do-it-yourself controllers were barely more sophisticated than their turn-of-the-century counterparts; and battery technology, although cosmetically improved by modern manufacturing and packaging techniques, was virtually unchanged from As the most readily available controllers came from golf carts that typically used six 6-volt batteries 36 volts , and aircraft starter motors were typically rated at 24 to 48 volts, many first-time do-it-yourself EV attempts suffered from poor performance, and contemporary internal combustion muscle car owners of the s just laughed at them.
Then someone discovered motors were actually underrated to ensure long life, and began driving them at 72 to 96 volts. Some early owners found they could make simple, non-current-limiting controllers, and create vehicles that could easily embarrass any internal combustion muscle car at a stoplight.
For a conceptual picture of this, imagine a subway traction motor in a dune buggy. In fact, these owners simply left the starting resistance out of a series DC motor, or equivalently diddled a shunt or compound motor. A series DC motor delivers peak torque at stall, and while starting currents were enormous, these early innovators just made sure they had a load attached when they switched on the juice.
The immediate result was a rush. Predictably, the longer-term results were burned-out motors and, occasionally, broken drive shafts or axles. But the sanely driven and controlled to volt EV conversions were not bad at all. This was the s, and the Electric Auto Association was founded in It was sad that numerous individuals could develop EV solutions far superior to anything put forth by the giant industrial corporations that had helped to put a man on the moon in the same decade.
The problem was not that these corporations lacked talent, money, or technology. E l e c t r i c Ve h i c l e H i s t o r y presumed their current successes would continue forever, and they were committed to maintaining the status quo to assure it.
Phoenix Rising, Quickly The late s policies of the major American automobile manufacturers put them in a poor position to respond to the crisis of the early s—the oil shock of A huge inventory of stylish but large, gas-guzzling cars, along with four- to five-year new car development cycles, made it an impossible situation. All they could do was wait out the crisis and import smaller, more fuel-efficient cars from their foreign subsidiaries.