Book of. Common Prayer. and Administration of the Sacraments and Other Rites and Ceremonies of the Church. Together with The Psalter or Psalms of David. The Book of Common Prayer (BCP) is the short title of a number of related prayer books used in the Anglican Communion, as well as by other Christian. A permanent feature of the Church of England's worship and a key source for its doctrine, the Book of Common Prayer is loved for the beauty of its language and .
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4 days ago THE BOOK OF COMMON PRAYER is one of the major works of English Literature. Since its introduction in the sixteenth century, it has had an. The Book of Common Prayer (). By the Bishops, the Clergy, and the Laity of the Protestant Episcopal. Church in the United States of America, in Convention. We, who are many and diverse, come together in Christ through our worship, our common prayer. The prayer book, most recently revised in , contains our.
Under Elizabeth I , a more permanent enforcement of the reformed Church of England was undertaken and the book was republished, scarcely altered, in The alterations, though minor, were however to cast a long shadow in the development of the Church of England.
It would be a long road back for the Church of England with no clear indication that it would retreat from the Settlement except for minor official changes. In one of the first moves to undo Cranmer the Queen insisted that the Words of Administration from the Book be placed before the words of administration in the Book thereby leaving re-opening the issue of the Real Presence.
The Book, however, retained the truncated Prayer of Consecration which omitted any notion of objective sacrifice.
However, from the 17th century some prominent Anglican theologians tried to cast a more traditional interpretation onto the text of the Rite as a Commemorative Sacrifice and Heavenly Offering even though the words of the Rite did not support such. Another move, the " Ornaments Rubric ", related to what clergy were to wear while conducting services. Instead of the banning of all vestments except the rochet for bishops and the surplice for parish clergy, it permitted "such ornaments This allowed substantial leeway for more traditionalist clergy to retain the vestments which they felt were appropriate to liturgical celebration namely Mass vestments such as albs, chasubles, dalmatics, copes, stoles, maniples et cetera at least until the Queen gave further instructions per the text the Act of Uniformity of The Rubric also stated that the communion service should be conducted in the 'accustomed place' namely facing a Table against the wall with the priest facing it.
The Rubric was placed at the section regarding Morning and Evening Prayer in this book and in the and Books. It was to be the basis of claims in the 19th century that vestments such as chasubles, albs and stoles were legal.
The instruction to the congregation to kneel when receiving communion was retained; but the Black Rubric 29 in the Forty-Two Articles of Faith which were reduced to 39 which denied any "real and essential presence" of Christ's flesh and blood, was removed to "conciliate traditionalists" and aligned with Queen's sensibilities.
Therefore, nothing at all was stated in the Prayer Book about a theory of the Presence or forbidding reverence or adoration of Christ in the Sacrament. On this issue, however, the Prayer was at odds with the repudiation of Transubstantiation and carrying about the Blessed Sacrament in the Thirty-Nine Articles of Religion.
As long as one did not subscribe publicly to or assert the latter one was left to hold whatever opinion one wanted on the former. The Queen herself was famous for saying she was not interested in "looking in the windows of men's souls. Among Cranmer's innovations, retained in the new book was the requirement of weekly Holy Communion services. In practice, as before the English Reformation, many received communion rarely, as little as once a year in some cases; George Herbert estimated it as no more than six times.
Diarmaid MacCulloch describes the new act of worship as, "a morning marathon of prayer, scripture reading, and praise, consisting of mattins, litany, and ante-communion, preferably as the matrix for a sermon to proclaim the message of scripture anew week by week.
Many ordinary churchgoers—that is those who could afford a copy as it was expensive—would own a copy of the prayer book. Judith Maltby cites a story of parishioners at Flixton in Suffolk who brought their own prayer books to church in order to shame their vicar into conforming with it: Its use was destined for the universities. The Welsh edition of the Book of Common Prayer was published in It was translated by William Salesbury assisted by Richard Davies.
However, from the 17th century some prominent Anglican theologians tried to cast a more traditional interpretation onto it as a Commemorative Sacrifice and Heavenly Offering even though the words of the Rite did not support the Prayer Book to interpret itself.
However, these Rites asserted a kind of Virtualism in regard to the Real Presence while making the Eucharist a material sacrifice because of the oblation,  and the retention of " On Elizabeth's death in , the book, substantially that of which had been regarded as offensive by some, such as Bishop Stephen Gardiner , as being a break with the tradition of the Western Church, had come to be regarded in some quarters as unduly Catholic.
This was in effect a series of two conferences: The Puritans raised four areas of concern: Confirmation, the cross in baptism, private baptism, the use of the surplice, kneeling for communion, reading the Apocrypha ; and subscription to the BCP and Articles were all touched on. On the third day, after James had received a report back from the bishops and made final modifications, he announced his decisions to the Puritans and bishops.
The business of making the changes was then entrusted to a small committee of bishops and the Privy Council and, apart from tidying up details, this committee introduced into Morning and Evening Prayer a prayer for the Royal Family; added several thanksgivings to the Occasional Prayers at the end of the Litany; altered the rubrics of Private Baptism limiting it to the minister of the parish, or some other lawful minister, but still allowing it in private houses the Puritans had wanted it only in the church ; and added to the Catechism the section on the sacraments.
The changes were put into effect by means of an explanation issued by James in the exercise of his prerogative under the terms of the Act of Uniformity and Act of Supremacy. The accession of Charles I — brought about a complete change in the religious scene in that the new king used his supremacy over the established church "to promote his own idiosyncratic style of sacramental Kingship" which was "a very weird aberration from the first hundred years of the early reformed Church of England".
He questioned "the populist and parliamentary basis of the Reformation Church" and unsettled to a great extent "the consensual accommodation of Anglicanism". With the defeat of Charles I — in the Civil War, the Puritan pressure, exercised through a much-changed Parliament, had increased.
Puritan-inspired petitions for the removal of the prayer book and episcopacy " root and branch " resulted in local disquiet in many places and, eventually, the production of locally organized counter petitions.
The parliamentary government had its way but it became clear that the division was not between Catholics and Protestants, but between Puritans and those who valued the Elizabethan settlement. How widely the Directory was used is not certain; there is some evidence of its having been downloadd, in churchwardens' accounts, but not widely.
The Prayer Book certainly was used clandestinely in some places, not least because the Directory made no provision at all for burial services. Following the execution of Charles I in and the establishment of the Commonwealth under Lord Protector Cromwell , it would not be reinstated until shortly after the restoration of the monarchy to England. John Evelyn records, in Diary , receiving communion according to the Prayer Book rite:. However, when John Knox returned to Scotland in , he continued to use the Form of Prayer he had created for the English exiles in Geneva and, in , this supplanted the Book of Common Prayer under the title of the Book of Common Order.
First used in , it was never accepted, having been violently rejected by the Scots. During one reading of the book at the Holy Communion in St Giles' Cathedral , the Bishop of Brechin was forced to protect himself while reading from the book by pointing loaded pistols at the congregation.
For liturgy they looked to Laud's book and in the first of the "wee bookies" was published, containing, for the sake of economy, the central part of the Communion liturgy beginning with the offertory. Between then and , when a more formal revised version was published, a number of things happened which were to separate the Scottish Episcopal liturgy more firmly from either the English books of or First, informal changes were made to the order of the various parts of the service and inserting words indicating a sacrificial intent to the Eucharist clearly evident in the words, "we thy humble servants do celebrate and make before thy Divine Majesty with these thy holy gifts which we now OFFER unto thee, the memorial thy Son has commandeth us to make;" secondly, as a result of Bishop Rattray's researches into the liturgies of St James and St Clement, published in , the form of the invocation was changed.
These changes were incorporated into the book which was to be the liturgy of the Scottish Episcopal Church until when it was revised but it was to influence the liturgy of the Episcopal Church in the United States.
A completely new revision was finished in and several alternative orders of the Communion service and other services have been prepared since then. Attempts by the Presbyterians, led by Richard Baxter , to gain approval for an alternative service book failed. Their major objections exceptions were: The suggested changes intent was to achieve a greater correspondence between liturgy and Scripture.
The bishops gave a frosty reply. They declared that liturgy could not be circumscribed by Scripture, but rightfully included those matter which were "generally received in the Catholic church. Thompson , p. The Savoy Conference ended in disagreement late in July , but the initiative in prayer book revision had already passed to the Convocations and from there to Parliament. Spurr , p. For example, the inclusion in the intercessions of the Communion rite of prayer for the dead was proposed and rejected.
The introduction of "Let us pray for the whole state of Christ's Church militant here in earth" remained unaltered and only a thanksgiving for those "departed this life in thy faith and fear" was inserted to introduce the petition that the congregation might be "given grace so to follow their good examples that with them we may be partakers of thy heavenly kingdom".
Griffith Thomas commented that the retention of the words "militant here in earth" defines the scope of this petition: Griffith Thomas , pp. This was achieved by the insertion of the words "and oblations" into the prayer for the Church and the revision of the rubric so as to require the monetary offerings to be brought to the table instead of being put in the poor box and the bread and wine placed upon the table. Previously it had not been clear when and how bread and wine got onto the altar.
The so-called "manual acts", whereby the priest took the bread and the cup during the prayer of consecration, which had been deleted in , were restored; and an "amen" was inserted after the words of institution and before communion, hence separating the connections between consecration and communion which Cranmer had tried to make. After communion, the unused but consecrated bread and wine were to be reverently consumed in church rather than being taken away for the priest's own use.
By such subtle means were Cranmer's purposes further confused, leaving it for generations to argue over the precise theology of the rite. One change made that constituted a concession to the Presbyterian Exceptions, was the updating and re-insertion of the so-called " Black Rubric ", which had been removed in This now declared that kneeling in order to receive communion did not imply adoration of the species of the Eucharist nor "to any Corporal Presence of Christ's natural Flesh and Blood"—which, according to the rubric, were in heaven, not here.
Unable to accept the new book, ministers were deprived. Edwards , p. With two exceptions, some words and phrases which had become archaic were modernised; secondly, the readings for the epistle and gospel at Holy Communion, which had been set out in full since , were now set to the text of the Authorized King James Version of the Bible.
The Psalter , which had not been printed in the , or books—was in provided in Miles Coverdale 's translation from the Great Bible of It was this edition which was to be the official Book of Common Prayer during the growth of the British Empire and, as a result, has been a great influence on the prayer books of Anglican churches worldwide, liturgies of other denominations in English, and of the English people and language as a whole.
Between and the 19th century, further attempts to revise the Book in England stalled. James wished to achieve toleration for those of his own Roman Catholic faith, whose practices were still banned. This, however, drew the Presbyterians closer to the Church of England in their common desire to resist 'popery'; talk of reconciliation and liturgical compromise was thus in the air.
But with the flight of James in and the arrival of the Calvinist William of Orange the position of the parties changed. The Presbyterians could achieve toleration of their practices without such a right being given to Roman Catholics and without, therefore, their having to submit to the Church of England, even with a liturgy more acceptable to them. They were now in a much stronger position to demand changes that were ever more radical.
John Tillotson , Dean of Canterbury pressed the king to set up a commission to produce such a revision Fawcett , p. The so-called Liturgy of Comprehension of , which was the result, conceded two thirds of the Presbyterian demands of ; but, when it came to convocation the members, now more fearful of William's perceived agenda, did not even discuss it and its contents were, for a long time, not even accessible Fawcett , p.
This work, however, did go on to influence the prayer books of many British colonies. By the 19th century, pressures to revise the book were increasing. Adherents of the Oxford Movement , begun in , raised questions about the relationship of the Church of England to the apostolic church and thus about its forms of worship. Known as Tractarians after their production of Tracts for the Times on theological issues, they advanced the case for the Church of England being essentially a part of the "Western Church", of which the Roman Catholic Church was the chief representative.
The Act had no effect on illegal practices: One branch of the Ritualism movement argued that both "Romanisers" and their Evangelical opponents, by imitating, respectively, the Church of Rome and Reformed churches, transgressed the Ornaments Rubric of " These adherents of ritualism, among whom were Percy Dearmer and others, claimed that the Ornaments Rubric prescribed the ritual usages of the Sarum Rite with the exception of a few minor things already abolished by the early reformation.
Following a Royal Commission report in , work began on a new prayer book. It took twenty years to complete, prolonged partly due to the demands of the First World War and partly in the light of the constitution of the Church Assembly, which "perhaps not unnaturally wished to do the work all over again for itself" Neill , p.
In , the work on a new version of the prayer book reached its final form.
In order to reduce conflict with traditionalists, it was decided that the form of service to be used would be determined by each congregation. With these open guidelines, the book was granted approval by the Church of England Convocations and Church Assembly in July However, it was defeated by the House of Commons in The effect of the failure of the book was salutary: Instead a different process, that of producing an alternative book, led to the publication of Series 1, 2 and 3 in the s, the Alternative Service Book and subsequently to the Common Worship series of books.
Both differ substantially from the Book of Common Prayer, though the latter includes in the Order Two form of the Holy Communion a very slight revision of the prayer book service, largely along the lines proposed for the Prayer Book. Order One follows the pattern of the modern Liturgical Movement. With British colonial expansion from the 17th century onwards, Anglicanism spread across the globe. The new Anglican churches used and revised the use of the Book of Common Prayer , until they, like the English church, produced prayer books which took into account the developments in liturgical study and practice in the 19th and 20th centuries which come under the general heading of the Liturgical Movement.
This prayer book is still in use in some churches in southern Africa, however it has been largely replaced by An Anglican Prayerbook and its translations to the other languages in use in southern Africa. After the communists took over mainland China, the Diocese of Hong Kong and Macao became independent of the Chung Hua Sheng Kung Hui, and continued to use the edition issued in Shanghai in with a revision in The Church of South India was the first modern Episcopal uniting church, consisting as it did, from its foundation in , at the time of Indian independence, of Anglicans, Methodists, Congregationalists, Presbyterians and Reformed Christians.
Its liturgy, from the first, combined the free use of Cranmer's language with an adherence to the principles of congregational participation and the centrality of the Eucharist, much in line with the Liturgical Movement.
Because it was a minority church of widely differing traditions in a non-Christian culture except in Kerala , where Christianity has a long history , practice varied wildly. The initial effort to compile such a book in Japanese goes back to when the missionary societies of the Church of England and of the Episcopal Church of the United States started their work in Japan, later joined by the Anglican Church of Canada in In the fifty years after World War II, there were several efforts to translate the Bible into modern colloquial Japanese, the most recent of which was the publication in of the Japanese New Interconfessional Translation Bible.
It also used the Revised Common Lectionary. The Diction of the books has changed from the version to the version. As the Philippines is connected to the worldwide Anglican Communion through the Episcopal Church in the Philippines , the main edition of the Book of Common Prayer in use throughout the islands is the same as that of the United States. This version is notable for the inclusion of the Misa de Gallo , a popular Christmastide devotion amongst Filipinos that is of Catholic origin.
An Irish translation of the revised prayer book of was effected by John Richardson — and published in A Portuguese language Prayer Book is the basis of the Church's liturgy. In the early days of the church, a translation into Portuguese from of the edition of the Book of Common Prayer was used.
In the church published its own prayer book based on the Anglican, Roman and Mozarabic liturgies. The intent was to emulate the customs of the primitive apostolic church.
It was founded in and since has been an extra-provincial church under the metropolitan authority of the Archbishop of Canterbury. Previous to its organization, there were several translations of the Book of Common Prayer into Spanish in  and in In the church combined a Spanish translation of the edition of the Book of Common Prayer with the Mozarabic Rite liturgy, which had recently been translated. This is apparently the first time the Spanish speaking Anglicans inserted their own "historic, national tradition of liturgical worship within an Anglican prayer book.
This attempt combined the Anglican structure of worship with indigenous prayer traditions. The Church in Wales began revising the book of Common Prayer in the s. The first material authorised for experimental use was a lectionary in , followed by a baptism and confirmation service in , an order for Holy matrimony in , and an order for the burial of the Dead in These did not however enjoy widespread use.
In an experimental order for the Holy Eucharist was authorised. This was the first to enjoy widespread use. Revision continued throughout the 60s and 70s with an experimental version of morning and evening prayer in In a definitive version of baptism and confirmation was authorised replacing the equivalent in the book of Common Prayer. This was followed in with a definitive order for the burial of the Dead and in with a definitive order for Holy matrimony.
It was hoped that a new book of Common Prayer for the church in Wales would be produced in This hope suffered a major setback in when a definitive version of the Holy Eucharist failed to gain a two-thirds majority in the house of clergy and the house of laity at the Governing Body.
A light revision of the experimental Eucharist did get through the Governing Body and the Book of Common Prayer for use in the Church in Wales was authorised in This Prayer Book is unique in that it is in traditional English. The Church in Wales first considered a modern language Eucharist in the early 70s but this received a lukewarm reception.
A modern language Eucharist The Holy Eucharist in modern language was authorised alongside the new prayer book in but this did not enjoy widespread use. In new initiation services were authorised followed in by an alternative order for morning and evening prayer in by an alternative order for the holy Eucharist and in by the alternative calendar lectionary and collects.
These enjoyed widespread use. In a new calendar and collects was made part of the Book of Common Prayer for use in the Church in Wales.
This was followed in by an order for the holy Eucharist, Services for Christian initiation in and in by daily prayer. Experimental services continued with an ordinal was produced in , Ministry to the sick and housebound in , healing services in , Funeral services in , and in marriage services which became part of the Book of Common Prayer in The ordinal was made part of the prayer book the following year.
In prayers for a child were produced which are only available online. A more successful "New Version" by his successor Mark Hiddesley was in use until when English liturgy became universal on the island. The Book was first translated into Maori in , and has gone through several translations and a number of different editions since then. The translated BCP has commonly been called Te Rawiri "the David" , reflecting the prominence of the Psalter in the services of Morning and Evening Prayer, as the Maori often looked for words to be attributed to a person of authority.
This book is unusual for its cultural diversity; it includes passages in the Maori, Fijian, Tongan and English languages. In other respects it reflects the same ecumenical influence of the Liturgical Movement as in other new Anglican books of the period, and borrows freely from a variety of international sources. The book is not presented as a definitive or final liturgical authority, such as use of the definite article in the title might have implied.
The book has also been revised in a number of minor ways since the initial publication, such as by the inclusion of the Revised Common Lectionary and an online edition is offered freely as the standard for reference.
The Anglican Church of Australia , known officially until as the Church of England in Australia and Tasmania, became self-governing in Its general synod agreed that the Book of Common Prayer was to "be regarded as the authorised standard of worship and doctrine in this Church". After a series of experimental services offered in many dioceses during the s and 70s, in An Australian Prayer Book was produced, formally as a supplement to the book of , although in fact it was widely taken up in place of the old book.
The AAPB sought to adhere to the principle that, where the liturgical committee could not agree on a formulation, the words or expressions of the Book of Common Prayer were to be used The Church of England in Australia Trust Corporation , if in a modern idiom.
The result was a conservative revision, including two forms of eucharistic rite: A Prayer Book for Australia , produced in and again not technically a substitute for , nevertheless departed from both the structure and wording of the Book of Common Prayer , prompting conservative reaction.
Numerous objections were made and the notably conservative evangelical Diocese of Sydney drew attention both to the loss of BCP wording and of an explicit "biblical doctrine of substitutionary atonement". The Diocese of Sydney has instead developed its own prayer book, called Sunday Services , to "supplement" the prayer book which, as elsewhere in Australia, is rarely used , and preserve the original theology which the Sydney diocese asserts has been changed.
The Anglican Church of Canada , which until was known as the Church of England in the Dominion of Canada, or simply the Church of England in Canada, developed its first Book of Common Prayer separately from the English version in , which received final authorization from General Synod on April 16, Armitage The revision of was much more substantial, bearing a family relationship to that of the abortive book in England.
The language was conservatively modernized, and additional seasonal material was added. As in England, while many prayers were retained though the structure of the Communion service was altered: More controversially, the Psalter omitted certain sections, including the entirety of Psalm After a period of experimentation with the publication of various supplements, the Book of Alternative Services was published in This book which owes much to Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican and other sources has widely supplanted the book, though the latter remains authorized.
As in other places, there has been a reaction and the Canadian version of the Book of Common Prayer has found supporters. The first Book of Common Prayer of the new body, approved in , had as its main source the English book, with significant influence also from the Scottish Liturgy see above which Bishop Seabury of Connecticut brought to the USA following his consecration in Aberdeen in The preface to the Book of Common Prayer says, "this Church is far from intending to depart from the Church of England in any essential point of doctrine, discipline, or worship For example, in the Communion service the prayer of consecration follows mainly the Scottish orders derived from Shepherd , 82 and found in the Book of Common Prayer.
The compilers also used other materials derived from ancient liturgies especially Eastern Orthodox ones such as the Liturgy of St. Shepherd , 82 An epiclesis or invocation of the Holy Spirit in the eucharistic prayer was included, as in the Scottish book, though modified to meet reformist objections. Overall however, the book was modelled on the English Prayer Book, the Convention having resisted attempts at more radical deletion and revision.
The insertion undid Cranmer's rejection of the Eucharist as a material sacrifice by which the Church offers itself to God by means of the very same sacrifice of Christ but in an unbloody, liturgical representation of it.
This reworking thereby aligned the church's eucharistic theology more closely to that of the Roman Catholic and Orthodox churches. Further revisions occurred in and , in which minor changes were made, removing, for instance, some of Cranmer 's Exhortations and introducing such innovations as prayers for the dead.
In , a more substantial revision was made under the influence of the Liturgical Movement. Its most distinctive feature may be the presentation of two rites for the Holy Eucharist and for Morning and Evening Prayer. The Rite I services keep most of the language of the and older books, while Rite II uses contemporary language and offers a mixture of newly composed texts, some adapted from the older forms, and some borrowed from other sources, notably Byzantine rites.
The Book also offers changed rubrics and the shapes of the services, which were generally made for both the traditional and contemporary language versions. Article X of the Canons of the Episcopal Church provides that "[t]he Book of Common Prayer, as now established or hereafter amended by the authority of this Church, shall be in use in all the Dioceses of this Church," which, of course, is a reference to the Book of Common Prayer.
It is located between John F. The book's development began in the early s for former Anglicans within the Anglican Use parishes in the US. It was published in a single volume, primarily for their own use, in Since , the Book of Divine Worship has undergone additional revision to bring it more coherently in line with the language of the American BCP, while also incorporating elements of the English Missal and the Anglican Missal.
The updated edition was mandated for use in all personal ordinariates for former Anglicans in the US from Advent , although further revision is expected to incorporate most of the BCP propers as well. The Book of Common Prayer has had a great influence on a number of other denominations. While theologically different, the language and flow of the service of many other churches owe a great debt to the prayer book. In particular, many Christian prayer books have drawn on the Collects for the Sundays of the Church Year—mostly freely translated or even "rethought" Neill , p.
John Wesley , an Anglican priest whose revivalist preaching led to the creation of Methodism wrote in his preface to The Sunday Service of the Methodists in North America , "I believe there is no Liturgy in the world, either in ancient or modern language, which breathes more of a solid, scriptural, rational piety than the Common Prayer of the Church of England. In the United Methodist Church , the liturgy for Eucharistic celebrations is almost identical to what is found in the Book of Common Prayer , as are some of the other liturgies and services.
A unique variant was developed in in Boston , Massachusetts when the historic King's Chapel founded left the Episcopal Church and became an independent Unitarian church. Together with the King James Version of the Bible and the works of Shakespeare , the Book of Common Prayer has been one of the three fundamental underpinnings of modern English.
As it has been in regular use for centuries, many phrases from its services have passed into everyday English, either as deliberate quotations or as unconscious borrowings. They have often been used metaphorically in non-religious contexts, and authors have used phrases from the prayer book as titles for their books. References and allusions to Prayer Book services in the works of Shakespeare were tracked down and identified by Richmond Noble Noble , p.
Derision of the Prayer Book or its contents "in any interludes, plays, songs, rhymes, or by other open words" was a criminal offence under the Act of Uniformity , and consequently Shakespeare avoids too direct reference; but Noble particularly identifies the reading of the Psalter according to the Great Bible version specified in the Prayer Book, as the biblical book generating the largest number of Biblical references in Shakespeare's plays. Noble found a total of allusions to the Psalms in the plays of the First Folio , relating to 62 separate Psalms—all, save one, of which he linked to the version in the Psalter, rather than those in the Geneva Bible or Bishops' Bible.
In addition, there are a small number of direct allusions to liturgical texts in the Prayer Book; e. Henry VIII 3: As novelist P. Eliot and even Dorothy L. In England there are only three bodies entitled to print the Book of Common Prayer: Cambridge University Press holds letters patent as The Queen's Printer and so two of these three bodies are the same. The Latin term cum privilegio with privilege is printed on the title pages of Cambridge editions of the Book of Common Prayer and the King James Version of the Bible to denote the charter authority or privilege under which they are published.
The primary function for Cambridge University Press in its role as Queen's Printer is preserving the integrity of the text, continuing a long-standing tradition and reputation for textual scholarship and accuracy of printing.
Cambridge University Press has stated that as a university press, a charitable enterprise devoted to the advancement of learning, it has no desire to restrict artificially that advancement, and that commercial restrictiveness through a partial monopoly is not part of its purpose.
It therefore grants permission to use the text, and license printing or the importation for sale within the UK, as long as it is assured of acceptable quality and accuracy. In accordance with Canon II.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the musicians, see Common Prayer band. For the novel, see A Book of Common Prayer. Prayer book used in most Anglican churches. Ministry and worship. Background and history. Anglican Communion. Continuing Anglicanism. Anglican realignment Bartonville Agreement Congress of St. I was once a groomsman in a Unitarian wedding that used it—though with all Trinitarian references gently excised. So all in all, the BCP's influence on Christian worship is kind of a big deal.
You show how Thomas Cranmer and the evangelicals of his day made some substantial changes to the existing Catholic liturgies. What makes the Book of Common Prayer a distinctively evangelical form of worship? Well, I'm not sure it is, at least in its liturgies. Cranmer strove to maintain as much continuity with traditional forms of worship as he could, given his commitments to the Reformation.
So in the liturgies themselves there is little that a medieval Catholic Christian could find fault with—except that they are in English, which traditionalists thought would distract the congregation from the private devotions they customarily pursued during Mass. The key differences, I think, lie in two other areas.
First, in what Cranmer took away: for instance, the whole panoply of devotion to the saints was cut back tremendously, leaving the saints' days still in place but emphasizing that they are examples to be followed rather than intercessors.
Second, and for Cranmer most important, is the strong emphasis on a lectionary that took people through the whole Bible—and, if people went to Morning and Evening Prayer, read through the whole of the books of Psalms each month. Cranmer wanted the literate to read the Bible thoroughly and faithfully, and for the illiterate to hear it read every day. Thus also his emphasis in the prayer book rubrics on the importance of the priests reading the liturgy itself and the Bible readings "in a loud voice.
What about some of the problems that evangelicals have had with the BCP over the years? For instance, you show in your book how some evangelicals have viewed the prayer book as a kind of rote formalism that quenches revival and the free movement of the Spirit.
The evangelical suspicions of the prayer book have been varied over the years. Some of them are linguistic: Why do you call that table an "altar"? Why do you call that minister a "priest"?
Some involve gestures and objects, even those that are not prescribed by the BCP but are not forbidden by it: Why do you light all those candles? Why do you ask people to kneel to receive Communion? The general suspicion seems to be that if it looks like Papistry and sounds like Papistry and smells like Papistry e.
But many of these people could be satisfied by relatively minor changes in wording in the BCP, some of which were made in various revisions.
The more intractable protestors have always been those who prefer "free" unscripted worship, who disdain all set forms. One of the more hard-core in this group was the great poet John Milton, who not only rejected all liturgy but did not even believe that Christians were permitted to say the Lord's Prayer he saw it merely as a template which we should adapt for the needs of our own hearts.
For people like Milton, the very existence of any kind of prayer book is offensive. To take up another issue that people have had, you begin the first chapter of your book by writing that the "Book of Common Prayer came into being as an instrument of social and political control," and you show that it stayed that way for a long time.
Is that all it was, or was there more to it? Well, certainly Cranmer would have said that there's more to it, and being an Anglican myself I would agree. But it's easy to understand that those people who were compelled against their will and conscience to worship according to the words and rubrics of the BCP wouldn't have been inclined to take so generous a view of the matter.
What would you say are the strengths of the historic prayer book tradition?