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𝗣𝗗𝗙 | John Leslie King and others published Automotive informatics: Information technology and enterprise transformation in the automobile industry. PDF | 30 minutes read | With the development of society, and the sharp This paper introduces the main automotive safety technology at. Foreword. This report presents the results of the Office of Technology Assessment's analysis of the prospects for developing automobiles that offer significant.
View via Publisher. Save to Library. Create Alert. From This Paper Figures, tables, and topics from this paper. Explore Further: Citations Publications citing this paper. Mapping extended technological trajectories: Rockmore , Chen Fang , Nicholas J. Foti , Tom Ginsburg , David C. One consequence is an increase in the number of mergers and acquisitions, as well as collaborations in the industry to take advantage of the economies of scale and scope. The financial crises during the last decade put enormous strain on the global transport industry because of plummeting car sales, tighter access to credit and higher input cost across countries for several successive periods.
Except for the UK, all major European markets posted negative growth figures with sales particularly weak in the most financially affected economies of Spain, France and Italy. Four years earlier General Motors filed for one of the largest bankruptcies in the history of corporate America.
This led to an array of stimulus packages and corporate reorganizations putting additional financial stress on the global economy. In order to maintain its competitive advantage in low-emissions engine technology, Europe has repeatedly given signals to car manufactures that they will have to adhere to fuel efficiency and emission targets by The rest of the article is structured in the following way. The next section describes the challenges—environmental and health-related—which the industry currently faces.
Recent developments in developing countries such as China and India are also highlighted. Section three lays emphasis on the environmental regulations pertinent to the automotive industry and, lastly, section four explores in detail selected technological innovations in emission-reducing and fuel-saving automotive technologies.
Environmental and Health Challenges Five months after the June Rio Summit on green economy and sustainable development an agreement was reached to extend the Kyoto Protocol.
Originally signed in to impose binding restrictions on developed countries to reduce emissions, this Protocol was due to expire in This landmark agreement has two deadlines— a for the development of an extended Kyoto Protocol, and b for its implementation.
Unfortunately, global emissions could not be curbed in the run up to Emissions picked up again after an initial decline during the economic downturn between and This is despite the fact that transport fuel at least in most industrialized economies is taxed more than the fuel for electricity or heating.
Reducing demand for energy and curbing vehicular emissions have become major global challenges. Making improvements in fuel efficiency and emission reduction are therefore crucial to address these challenges. Increases in vehicle emissions, particularly in the big cities where cars have emerged as the main contributor to air pollution, are evident.
The problem is exacerbated in the developing countries because of the inefficient public transportation system, lax emission norms and slow penetration of clean automotive technologies. According to the Global Burden of Disease Study , outdoor air pollution was responsible for 1. The study also found that the ambient particulate matter PM in emission from vehicles was the fourth leading risk factor for deaths in China. Air pollution ranked seventh on the list of global risk factors according to the same study.
The resulting alarm bells renewed efforts to deploy stricter environmental standards, to focus on cleaner transport technologies and to revitalize efforts to kick-start the electric car industry in China. Another developing country example is of India which had , premature deaths in because of the similar untenable levels of outdoor air pollution.
Despite a higher tax on cars with large engine displacements, the preference of Chinese consumers is gradually shifting away from fuel sipping, midsize compact cars and sedans to fuel guzzling, large sport utility vehicles SUVs and hatchbacks. As expected, automobile companies are responding by committing to open new assembly plants and engine factories to satiate growing local demand in such a huge automobile market.
Use of biofuels is another contentious area. This is because of a lack of clarity on the exact amount of ethanol a derivative of corn which needs to be blended with gasoline to increase the octane rating of the fuel. Maize farmers in the US have been pushing hard to get the amount of ethanol to be diluted in gasoline to increase.
Powertrain developers and fuel distillers claim that this will likely damage car engines. Manufacturers, therefore, continue to focus and invest in enhancing the efficiency of the conventional automotive technology—the internal combustion IC engine. In terms of performance, innovations in turbo-charging and direct fuel injection, for instance, have made gasoline powered engines a tough competitor for the hybrid and electric variants.
The ushering green movement and environment legislations are certainly driving the car industry to become more environmentally responsible.
It is claimed that deploying incentive schemes for biofuels to help meet this strict target would result in inadequate land being available for growing food crops thereby threatening the right to food in parts of EU. Environmental Regulation in the Automotive Industry The automotive industry is evolving rapidly on multiple dimensions technological innovation, adoption of stricter government regulations and structural shifts with changing consumer preferences.
Several countries have put in place policies to address transport issues including emission norms and fuel efficiency standards. Fuel economy programmes and emission targets mandatory or voluntary are one of the most cost-effective instruments to tackle oil demand and vehicular emissions [ 6 ].
These regulations have, directly and indirectly, directed advancements in environment friendly technologies emission reducing and fuel saving and novel non-conventional technologies particularly in the passenger and commercial vehicle segments.
The automotive industry is one of the fastest growing global economic sectors and faces big environmental challenges. Unger et al. To add to these worries, the rising demand for oil and vehicles in developing countries will continue to fuel the growth of this sector over the next decade.
This has added more vehicles on roads than ever before. From to , the share of global passenger car production in BRIC countries increased from 7.
This highlights the technological and environmental imbalance witnessed in the world today and the critical role of policies concerning emissions and technology development. There is a divergence in the consumption of gasoline fuel used for transport between developed and developing countries. While consumption is rising in developing countries like Brazil and China, the decline in developed countries could be due to reliance on cleaner fuels or slowing down of their economies.
A V-type engine could have how many cylinders? All of the above 6. What component regulates the temperature of the coolant in an engine?
Cooling water jackets c. Cooling fan s b. Thermostat d. Check engine c. MIL b. Service vehicle soon d. MAL 9. Drive shaft c. Transaxle b. U-joint d. Transfer case 8. Paper clip b. Desktop computer c. Wireless connection to an electronic tester d. Scan tool Automotive service systems are generally separated into how many content areas? The number of service technicians needed is increasing due to more vehicles on the road. A good service technician can find work in almost any city or town in the country, making the career as a professional service technician an excellent choice.
Every year, vehicles are being driven farther than ever before. It used to be in the s that the life of a vehicle was considered to be , miles or 10 years.
However, even the amount of needed routine service has been reduced due to changes in the vehicles, such as radial tires that now last 40, miles instead of older tires which were worn out and needed to be replaced every 15, miles. The warranty covers the quality and performance of the product and states the conditions under which the warranty will be honored.