Feb 23, a complete English translation of the. Rhetorica ad Herennium published in the Loeb Classical Library, The text is in the public domain. Jul 5, Orientation page to the complete work, on this site in an English translation. Part of a large site The Rhetorica ad Herennium on LacusCurtius. Ad C. Herennium de ratione dicendi (Rhetorica ad Herennium). byCaplan, Harry, Publication LanguageLatin; English. Bibliography: p. xli-xliv
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The Rhetorica ad Herennium (Rhetoric: For Herennius), formerly attributed to Cicero or . External links. Rhetorica ad Herennium on the Internet Archive. Latin text with English translation by Harry Caplan. Harvard University Press, Cambridge. QTUDENTS of rhetoric find frequent. _ v references to the Rhetorica ad Heren- nium, but nowhere can they read any part of it in English. This paper is intended. Aug 1, Ad C. Herennium de ratione dicendi (Rhetorica ad Herennium) by, , Heinemann, Harvard University Press edition, in Latin.
These are Figures of Diction, which are identiable in the language itself, and Figures of Thought, which are derived from the ideas presented. Although these gures have been in use in rhetoric throughout history, the Rhetorica ad Herennium was the rst text to compile them and discuss the eects they have on an audience.
Many of the following gures described in Book IV are still used in modern rhetoric, though they were originally intended specically for use in oral debate.
Denition is the concise statement of a person or objects characteristic traits, transition restates a previous statement to set up the presentation of a new one, and correction is the deliberate retraction of a statement in order to replace it with a more tting one. Paralipsis is best used as an indirect reference in a debate, it occurs when a speaker pretends to be passing or ignorant of points that are not relevant, when he is actually addressing them as points relevant to the discussion.
The Figures of Diction include: Epanaphora, when the same word starts successive sentences, antistrophe, when the same word ends successive sentences, interlacement, when the previous two occur simultaneously, transplacement, when the same word is reused frequently.
The repetition of the same word in these four gures produces an elegant and pleasant sound for the listener, rather than simply being repetitive. Disjunction happens when two or more clauses end in verbs with similar meanings, conjunction when the clauses are connected by one verb between them, and adjunction when the verb connecting the clauses is located at the beginning or end. The author groups these three gures together, stating that disjunction is best suited for limited use to convey elegance while one should use conjunction more frequently for its brevity.
Antithesis is when the structure of the sentence is built upon contraries. Apostrophe expresses grief or resentment by addressing a specic person or object. Interrogation reinforces an argument by asking the opposition a series of rhetorical questions after they have presented their case, while reasoning by question and answer involves asking and answering oneself the reasoning behind every statement made.
These gures use conversational style to hold the audiences attention. A maxim is a saying that concisely shows what happens in life and therefore ought to happen as it applies to the situation the speaker is talking about.
Reasoning by contraries uses one statement to prove an opposite statement. Reduplication is the repetition of words for emphasis or an appeal to pity. Synonymy or Interpretation is similar to reduplication, only instead of repeating the same word it replaces it with a synonym. Reciprocal change is when two diering thoughts are arranged so that one follows the other despite the discrepancy example: I do not write poems, because I cannot write the sort I wish, and I do not wish to write the sort I can.
Surrender evokes pity by submitting to anothers opinion on the topic. A speaker uses indecision by asking rhetorically which of two or more words he should use. Elimination lists multiple options or possibilities, and then systematically removes all except one of them, the point the speaker is arguing.
Asyndeton is the presentation of concise clauses connected without conjunctions, which the Rhetorica ad Herennium claims creates animation and power in the speech. Aposiopesis occurs when a speaker deliberately does not nish a statement about his opponent, allowing suspicion of his opponent to settle in the audience.
Conclusion identies the necessary consequences or results of a previous statement. Colon or clause is when a series of up to three brief but complete clauses are strung together to communicate an entire thought.
All these faculties we can acquire by three means: Theory, Imitation, and Practice. Imitation stimulates us to attain, in accordance with a studied method, the effectiveness of certain models in speaking. Practice is assiduous exercise and experience in speaking. The Narration or Statement of Facts sets forth the events that have occurred or might have occurred.
Proof is the presentation of our arguments, together with their corroboration.
The kinds of causes are four: There are two kinds of Introduction: Its purpose is to enable us to have hearers who are attentive, receptive, and well-disposed. If our cause is of the petty kind, we shall make our hearers attentive. But if we do not wish to use the Direct Opening, we must begin our speech with a law, a written document, or some argument supporting our cause.
We shall have attentive hearers by promising to discuss important, new, and unusual matters, or such as appertain to the commonwealth, or to the hearers themselves, or to the worship of the immortal gods; by bidding them listen attentively; and by enumerating the points we are going to discuss.
From the discussion of the person of our adversaries we shall secure goodwill by bringing them into hatred, unpopularity, or contempt. We shall make our adversaries unpopular by setting forth their violent behaviour, their dominance, factiousness, wealth, lack of self-restraint, high birth, clients, hospitality, club allegiance, or marriage alliances, and by making clear that they rely more upon these supports than upon the truth.
We shall bring our adversaries into contempt by presenting their idleness, cowardice, sloth, and luxurious habits. From the discussion of the person of our hearers goodwill is secured if we set forth the courage, wisdom, humanity, and nobility of past judgements they have rendered, and if we reveal what esteem they enjoy and with what interest their decision is awaited.
From the discussion of the facts themselves we shall render the hearer well-disposed by extolling our own cause with praise and by contemptuously disparaging that of our adversaries. If the cause has a discreditable character, 28 we can make our Introduction with the following points: Next, when we have for a time enlarged upon this idea, we shall show that nothing of the kind has been committed by us. Or we shall set forth the judgement rendered by others in an analogous case, whether that cause be of equal, or less, or greater importance; then we shall gradually approach our own cause and establish the analogy.
The same result is achieved if we deny an intention to discuss our opponents or some extraneous matter and yet, by subtly inserting the words, 29 do so. Or we shall promise to speak otherwise than as we have prepared, and not to talk as others usually do; we shall briefly explain what the other speakers do and what we intend to do.
But though this three-fold advantage — that the hearers constantly show themselves attentive, receptive, and well-disposed to us — is to be secured throughout the discourse, it must in the main be won by the Introduction to the cause. In the Introduction of a cause we must make sure that our style is temperate and that the words are in current use, 36 so that the discourse seems unprepared.
That Introduction, again, is faulty which the opponent can turn to his own use against you. And again that is faulty which has been composed in too laboured a style, or is too long; and that which does not appear to have grown out of the cause itself in such a way as to have an intimate connection with the Statement of Facts; and, finally, that which fails to make the hearer well-disposed or receptive or attentive.
But it is in practice exercises that these types will be worked out. Furthermore, we must guard against repeating immediately what we have said already, as in the following: Here we must see that our language is not confused, 56 involved, or unfamiliar, that we do not shift to another subject, that we do not trace the affair back to its remotest beginning, nor carry it too far forward, and that we do not omit anything pertinent.
If the matter is true, all these precautions must none the less be observed in the Statement of Facts, for often the truth cannot gain credence otherwise.
And if the matter is fictitious, these measures will have to be observed all the more scrupulously. When The Statement of Facts has been brought to an end, we ought first to make clear what we and our opponents agree upon, if there is agreement on the points useful to us, 61 and what remains contested, as follows: But did he have the right to commit the deed, and was he justified in committing it?
That is in dispute. The number ought not to exceed three; for otherwise, besides the danger that we may at some time include in the speech more or fewer points than we enumerated, 66 it instils in the hearer the suspicion of premeditation and artifice, 67 and this robs the speech of conviction.
The Exposition consists in setting forth, briefly and completely, the points we intend to discuss.
Others make these Types of Issue four. The Issue is determined by the joining of the primary plea of the defence with the charge of the plaintiff. Conjectural, Legal, and Juridical. In the forest Ajax, after realizing what in his madness he had done, fell on his sword. Ulysses appears, perceives that Ajax is dead, draws the bloody weapon from corpse.
Teucer appears, sees his brother dead, and his brother's enemy with bloody sword in hand. He accuses Ulysses of a capital crime. Here the truth is sought by conjecture. The controversy will concern the fact. Suppose a law which decrees that whoever have abandoned their ship in a storm shall lose all rights of title, and that their ship, if saved, and cargo as well, belong to those who have remained on board.
By sheer chance the ship was driven safely to harbour. The invalid has come into possession of the ship, and the former owner claims it. The father of a family, when making his son his heir, in his will bequeathed silver vessels to his wife: The following is an example: The Senate decreed that if Saturninus should propose that law before the people he would appear to be doing so against the common weal.
Saturninus proceeded with his motion. His colleagues interposed a veto; nevertheless he brought the lot-urn down for the vote. Caepio, when he sees Saturninus presenting his motion against the public welfare despite his colleagues' veto, attacks him with the assistance of some Conservatives, destroys the bridges, 89 throws down the ballot boxes, and blocks further action on the motion.
Caepio is brought to trial for treason. For example, if some one is accused of embezzlement, alleged to have removed silver vessels belonging to the state from a private place, he can say, when he has defined theft and embezzlement, that in his case the action ought to be one for theft and not embezzlement. For example, a law reads: Immediately after he had received sentence, his head was wrapped in a bag of wolf's hide, the "wooden shoes" were put upon his feet, and he was led away to prison.
His defenders bring tablets into the jail, write his will in his presence, witnesses duly attending. The penalty is exacted of him. His testamentary heirs enter upon their inheritance. Malleolus' younger brother, who had been one of the accusers in his trial, claims his inheritance by the law of agnation. Here no one specific law is adduced, and yet many laws are adduced, which for the basis for a reasoning by analogy to prove that Malleolus had or had not the right to make a will.
It is a Legal Issue established from Analogy. The Middle style's purpose is to please or entertain an audience. Simple, a style using ordinary speech common to everyday conversation It uses colloquialisms and informal language, and is best suited for instruction and explanation.
These are Figures of Diction, which are identifiable in the language itself, and Figures of Thought, which are derived from the ideas presented. Although these figures have been in use in rhetoric throughout history, the Rhetorica ad Herennium was the first text to compile them and discuss the effects they have on an audience. Many of the following figures described in Book IV are still used in modern rhetoric , though they were originally intended specifically for use in oral debate.
The Figures of Diction include the following: Epanaphora, when the same word starts successive sentences Antistrophe, when the same word ends successive sentences Interlacement, when the previous two occur simultaneously Transplacement, when the same word is reused frequently The repetition of the same word in these four figures produces an elegant and pleasant sound for the listener, rather than simply being repetitive.
Antithesis is when the structure of the sentence is built upon contraries. Apostrophe expresses grief or resentment by addressing a specific person or object. Interrogation reinforces an argument by asking the opposition a series of rhetorical questions after they have presented their case, while reasoning by question and answer involves asking and answering oneself the reasoning behind every statement made.
These figures use conversational style to hold the audience's attention. A maxim is a saying that concisely shows what happens in life and therefore ought to happen as it applies to the situation the speaker is talking about. Reasoning by contraries uses one statement to prove an opposite statement. Colon or clause is when a series of up to three brief but complete clauses are strung together to communicate an entire thought; it is called isocolon when the clauses have an equal number of syllables.
Similar to this is the comma or phrase, where single words are split up in a sentence to give it a halting, staccato sound. Both these figures create emphasis on the independent words or clauses within the entire thought; Period is the opposite, in which words in a sentence are close-packed and uninterrupted to form a complete thought.
Homoeoptoton occurs when two or more words in the same sentence are in the same case with the same ending; in contrast, homoeoteleuton features words without inflection that have the same ending.
Paronomasia a term often treated as a formal term for a pun changes a sound or a letter in a word to make it sound similar to another word with a different meaning; these three figures are most relevant in highly inflected languages with cases like Latin, and the Rhetorica ad Herennium states they are best used in speeches of entertainment. Hypophora occurs in debate when the speaker asks himself or his opponent what points can be made against his case or in favor of the opponent's, then uses the response whether his own or his opponent's to attack the position of the opponent.
Climax is the repetition of a preceding word in the process of moving on to a new one. An example is "The industry of Africanus brought him excellence, his excellence glory, his glory rivals. Paralipsis is best used as an indirect reference in a debate, it occurs when a speaker pretends to be passing or ignorant of points that are not relevant, when he is actually addressing them as points relevant to the discussion.
Disjunction happens when two or more clauses end in verbs with similar meanings, conjunction when the clauses are connected by one verb between them, and adjunction when the verb connecting the clauses is located at the beginning or end.