Request PDF on ResearchGate | On Apr 20, , Michaela Sabová and others published Konec reklamy, jak jsme ji dosud znali / Psychologie reklamy. PDF | The theoretical part of this study aims at psychology of advertising from Article (PDF Available) in Ceskoslovenská psychologie. /id/55gb6i/_xbinzpdf: Wrong address within IS or you are not Keywords: psychologie reklamy, emoce, negativní, Nemyslíš, zaplatíš, reklama, strach.
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problém, t.j. čo chce propagovať – predmet reklamy a čo chce ak- ciou dosiahnuť Bez psychológie si nevieme predstaviť prieskum trhu, bez sociológie. Psychologie reklamy. Praha: Grada. Ward, S. (). Consumer Socialization. Journal of ConsumerResearch, 1 (2), Weinreich, N. K..(). Hands-on. Available from: ruthenpress.info 8 Bauer Media Praha () .. Psychologie reklamy. (3rd ed.). Praha: Grada. Windahl, S.
It provides updates on cultural events, deals with political topics, family issues, career or relationships. It targets women aged between 20 and 35 who are single, educated, ambitious and financially secured.
According to its publisher, Elle is the second largest-selling and most popular lifestyle magazine for women in the Czech Republic. Marianne is here to be the best friend who does not care about celebrities but looks for inspirational personalities, interesting places and life stories, traditional fashion and cosmetics.
It is interesting to see that this is a national project of the publisher Burda Media This is not the case for Cosmopolitan and Elle as they have international cover versions.
Marianne targets women aged between 30 and 50 who, according to the publisher, know what they want and who have very high earnings. Media projekt [online]. Note: Details about a target group, particularly age, differ in various sources. This research was based on issues from April, July, October and December and it covers quantitative and qualitative analysis of Cosmopolitan, Marianne and Elle.
Various statistical tests have been used within the statistical analysis. This research is unique as there is no such study that would deal with these types of issues in the Czech Republic. However, the most of them analyse topics that are published in advertising sections or they compare differences in adverts for men and women. Consterdine, K. Beane analysed press advertising in three magazines for women.
She mainly explored ways how advertising influences women. She examined products and services that were advertised and looked into marketing communication. In her study she used the content analysis. Her aim was to analyse segments that were used in advertising. She ignored subliminal advertising in his research. It questions this type of advertising and identifies differences between subliminal advertising and the actual editorial content.
It also deals with legal aspects. A combination of the content analysis and in-depth interviews was used in this research. The study analyses 4 lifestyle magazines and 3 ads of Slovenian newspapers. Strategy, Types of Communication and Advertising of Dermacol, Astor, Rimmel and Gabriella Salvete First of all, it is necessary to divide press advertising into 3 groups: editorial content, visual adverts traditional advertising that is specified and advertorials. The term "advertorial" is a blend of the words "advertisement" and "editorial.
In all three magazines advertorial represents a small part of their advertising content. However, advertorials does not usually contain a statement that they are adverts.
Publishers also use advertorials when they are not prepared to follow strict rules and parameters of traditional advertising. The objective of advertorials is to simulate the publication and they can have a form of either an article 11 Currently, advertisement has many forms which have different names.
Sometimes, it is not even clear if the purpose of the text is to promote services or products. Overall, it is an incoherent form of marketing which is not clear to readers, sometimes it can be perceived as subliminal advertising. The aim of our research is to identify typology of advertisement in the chosen magazines. This should provide an overview of commercial adverts and PR communication based on their persuasive potential.
Therefore, it is necessary to write the advertorial in a specific form and locate it in a suitable part of the magazine. These factors are also important for traditional advertisement as the aim of any advert is to attract visually. Advertising visuals should not blend with the editorial content. Results from our research also show that the most of advertorials is not clearly marked in magazines. However, it should be a good practise to name the advertorials as a commercial ad or a special advertising project, etc.
Sometimes, they are called PR articles. However, this title is used incorrectly as it combines PR and commercial advertising. Some publishers started using this title in 90s when PR agencies offered advertorials to their clients. However, advertorials are included in the advertising space15 in all three magazines which can be viewed as a positive approach. Cosmopolitan also has a section called a Special Advertising Project. It is not easy to compose advertorials; however the results of our research show that this type of advertising is regularly used by the selected cosmetic brands.
This means that the aim of cosmetic firms is to apply marketing communication efficiently onto the targeted group of readers.
Their adverts blend with the content of the analysed magazines. They do not support traditional visual advertising as their design changes rapidly. This leads to a suggestion that there is a co-operation between Rimmel and Cosmopolitan. It is written in a similar style in a form of an article with frequent interpunction such as exclamation marks and direct addressing the readers.
There are also photos of products, product description and his rating. Table 2. Advertorial a jak na nej. Triad advertising blog. Cambridge dictionaries online. There are also other international brands in the same advertising formats16 that have similar marketing and communication strategies as the researched brands.
However, it is usually very difficult to establish if the story is genuine or if it was written for commercial reasons. This could be in a form of cosmetic samples or other presents. It was followed by Dermacol and then Astor refer to table 5. In our research we have also included brand Gabriella Salvete as it is promoted by a small Czech firm.
However, we could not find any advertising of this brand.
This suggests that this brand cannot compete with the other brands in the chosen magazines. It seems that adverts in all three magazines follow seasonal trends the bikini diet weight loss, holidays or Christmas.
Some theories state that adverts on right pages are more effective. Adverts of the chosen brands are illustrated on both pages, sometimes they are even presented double sided Rimmel Visual advertising is only focused on promotion of new products. It combines a direct message with neologism combination of these two elements is very common in advertising.
Readers are also directly approached by a person who represents a friend who tries to help Stay matte! This is a common approach that indicates that Rimmel is a worldwide brand. The advert also describes advantages of the product and its positive effects on skin. Sales interview training and sales activities.
Psychology and promotion. Special foreign markets. The most commonly used psychological methods and techniques of market research. Advertising and Psychology - past and present. Psychic phenomena and advertising. Methods of psychology of advertising. Creating of effective advertisings. Gender role, gender identity and gender stereotypes create a set of illusions about how women and men in a particular culture and a social environment should behave, express themselves, what they should wear, how they should think and, therefore, what exactly they expect of advertising and how they perceive it.
The links between gender and advertising may be analyzed also from the viewpoint of defining gender as a process and characteristics of an individual person Wharton, A dominant position in the context of gender is taken by the cultural, political and social conditions of a particular society. In this sense, Connell claims that the issue of gender has a key dimension in personal life, social relations and culture but at the same time it is a topic which carries along certain prejudice, ideologies, myths and disinformation.
Krook and Childs briefly describe that sex is exclusively about the biological differences on the basis of which human beings can be categorized into men and women. Gender refers to the social meanings given in relation to the gender in question. Gender points to differences between men and women and deals with the development of gender identities. Gender is attributed to social roles, prejudices, behaviors, ratings and stereotypes, social construction and ideas about what is right or wrong for a man and woman.
Historically, it is changing and has different forms within individual cultures but it is also intercultural. It is transmitted and reproduced with the process of social learning. The following study aims to enrich the area of knowledge of the advertising effects management. The attention is paid to the perception of advertising and expectations of advertising with an emphasis on the gender context. Interconnections between the expectations of advertising and the perception of advertising are specified in two research stages, highlighting the differences between men and women in terms of assessment of expectations of advertising and advertising perception factors.
Advertising and Gender There are a large number of definitions of advertising. The basic attributes of advertising were characterized by Stanton as a presentation which has an audio or visual form, is paid, impersonal, promoting a product, service or an idea.
Advertising is also a form of mental influence that leads to voluntary acceptance, self- fulfillment, and pursuit of the goal Seyffert, There is a high chance that advertising will gradually start to transform and use more and more communication tools. Toscani examined advertising in today's society, and even compares it to the "bruised line", and concluded that the ads are selling just a fake feel of happiness rather than products.
Barker argues that advertising has become an integral part of the culture and its effects are re-transmitted to shape the culture itself. It extends to all subsystems of the social and cultural space and is echoed even in those parts of the social structure which are seemingly unrelated to it.
Such approach represents the concept of broader understanding of advertising with its impact on values and norms of the society. In connection to the subjective perception of advertising, it is necessary to emphasize the role of emotions that can significantly affect individual creation of the mental advertising image.
Abrams and Keren state that emotions, particularly in terms of intensity and duration, strongly influence the subjective mental image of reality. Another important factor associated with the image of advertising can be specified in terms of expectations of advertising. According to Newell and Simon , creation of this image sometimes deviates from the criteria of objective rationality, is tinged with emotion and uses various schemes.
The above-mentioned factors of perception of advertising are complemented by expectation that the ad will be engaging, truthful, funny, easy to understand, but also credible, informative and intelligent. The gender context may also be considered in various ways such as perception of the surrounding world without excluding the advertising effects. Gender specifics in the perception of advertising are manifested in products and services as male and female ones Owolabi, Several studies e.
Stereotypical roles in advertising often reinforce the gender-stereotypical attitudes of the society. McKay and Covell found that gender stereotypes in advertising strengthen and reproduce the prevailing myths about gender differences. Eckert and McConnell-Ginet add that the questions about the issue of gender are discussed almost in every scientific discipline which deals with human behavior, cognition, society and culture. Method The main objective of the research was to examine the advertising effects management by means of observing the perception of advertising and the expectations of advertising in relation to gender.
The research was conducted in two stages, each using an individual research sample. The first research sample consisted of 99 respondents, of which 58 were women The average age of the respondents participating in the first research stage was The minimum age was 14 years; the maximum age was 60 years.
The questionnaire identifies advertising at a general level and includes items that track the emotional, cognitive and behavioral aspects of advertising perception. The second research stage was conducted by means of two original scales: 1.
Results The aim of the first research stage was to detect whether there were any statistically significant differences between men and women in assessing the selected advertising perception attributes.
However, the results of analyses did not confirm the existence of such differences between men and women in the assessment of the factors of advertising perception Tables 1 and 2. This is evidenced by the fact that both men and women have presented a very cautious approach in terms of cognitions, emotions, and their own behavior towards advertising.
Due to these results, we have decided to conduct another research project on a larger sample, using more detailed methodologies. The second research stage was therefore carried out on the second research sample.
The results are shown in Table 3. The examined indicators of expectations of advertising significantly correlated with perception of advertising.
A high correlation coefficient above 0. Thus, it can be assumed that producers of ads should focus precisely on these aspects of advertising. Highly significant were also expectations of funny advertisement and perception of the element of surprise, then expectations of understandable advertising and perception of a good slogan or the element of surprise, and expectations of originality and perception of good visualization, or the element of surprise.