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Essential English for Medical Students. Microchip Mathematics: Number Theory for Computer Users. English for Students of Mathematics. Word Games with English Plus: Students' Book. Living English Structure: For example, a bit bus can transmit 64 bits of data. Expansion slots allow users to install expansion cards, adding features like sound, memory and network capabilities. RA M and RO M The programs and data which pass through the processor must be loaded into the main memory in order to be processed.
Therefore, when the user runs 3 5 a program, the CPU looks for it on the hard disk and transfers a copy into the RAM chips.
RAM random access memory is volatile - that is, its information is lost when the computer is turned off.
G ive a lte rn a tive op tions if possible. Put brackets round th e relative pronouns you can leave out. I'd like to download. A webmaster is a person A bus is an electronic pathway Last night I met someone Defining relative clauses We can define people or things with a defining restrictive relative clause.
We use the relative pronoun who to refer to a person; we can also use that. We use the relative pronoun which or that to refer to a thing, not a person. Relative pronouns can be left out when they are the object of the relative clause.
How memory is measured Read th e text and then answ er these questions. What is a bit? What is a collection of eight bits called? Bits and bytes Computers do all calculations using a code made of just two numbers - 0 and 1. This system is called binary code. The electronic circuits in a digital computer detect the difference between two states: ON the current passes through or OFF the current doesn't pass through and represent these states as 1 or 0.
Each 1 or 0 is called a binary digit, or bit. Bits are grouped into eight-digit codes that typically represent characters letters, numbers and symbols. Eight bits together are called a byte. Thus, each character on a keyboard has its own arrangement of eight bits. For example, for the letter A, for B, and forC. In order to avoid complex calculations of bytes, we use bigger units such as kilobytes, megabytes and gigabytes. We use these units to describe the RAM memory, the storage capacity of disks and the size of a program or document.
Com plete these descriptions w ith th e correct unit of m em ory. Look at U nits 1,2 and 3 to help you. PC system. In pairs, com pare your answers.
Your ideal computer system M ake notes about th e features of th e com puter th at you w ould most like to have. Think about th e features in the box. Useful language It's g o t It's very fast. It runs a t The standard RAM m em ory i s The hard disk can h o ld I need a large, fiat LCD screen because As for the Internet, Choose five things th at w o uld im pro ve yo ur dig ital life. In pairs, com pare yo u r choices. Think o f th ree basic features that w ill m ake a big difference to yo ur choice.
In pairs, com pare yo ur choices. Listen to tw o p eo p le m aking en qu iries in a com p uter shop. Listen again and com p lete the product descriptions. Mac Processor speed 2. Hard drive capacity DVD drive included? MacBook Processor speed Operating system Includes internet software Price 1, Um, yes, we're looking for a Mac computer.
Have you got any fairly basic ones? Yes, sure. If you'd like to come over here. At the moment we've got these two models: Core Duo technology actually means two cores, or processors, built into a single chip, offering up to twice the speed of a traditional chip.
So they're both very And which one has more memory? I mean, which has more RAM? Well, the Mac has two gigabytes of RAM, which can be It all depends on your needs. The Mac is The MacBook is mope Language functions in a computer shop Look at th e lang uage functions in th e H ELP box and then correct one m istake in each of th ese sentences.
D ecide w hich functio ns are being expressed in each sentence. Where's the storage capacity of the hard drive? I'm looking a desktop PC that has good graphics for games. Do you need the help? And how many does the PDA cost? The MacBook has a processor running at 2. The Mac has two gigabytes o f RAM. They feature a camera built into the display. The MacBook is more practical if you travel a lot. PDAs are cheaper than laptops but laptops are more powerful. Language functions useful to a customer Explaining what you are looking for.
We're looking for a personal computer. Asking for technical specs. What's the storage capacity of the hard drive? Do they have a DVD drive? Asking the price. Role play - downloading a computer W o rk in pairs.
O ne of you w ants to b u y a com puter, th e other is the shop assistant. Use th e prom pts and product descriptions belo w to role p lay the conversation.
Shop assistant Greet the customer and offer help. Explain what you are looking for. Show the customer two possible models.
Ask for some technical specs. Give technical specs describe the processor, RAM and storage capacity. Compare the two different models. Ask about any further technical specs DVD drive, monitor, communications, etc. Give the information required. Compare the two models. Ask the price. Answer, and mention any final details that might persuade the customer to download the computer. Decide which computer to download or leave the shop.
Tosh ib a S a te llite 2. Wi-Fi compliancy. B Listen to four peo p le talkin g ab o u t th eir com p uter needs and take notes. In pairs, read th e descriptions from th e co m p uter shop w eb site and choose the m ost suitab le co m p uter for each person. G ive reasons for yo u r choices. Speaker 3. Speaker 4. Two AMD Opteron processors at 3. Look at th e notes you m ade ab o u t yo u r ideal com p uter system in U nit 3 task 6 page Look again at the descriptions o f the com puters ab o ve and choose th e one th at is closest to yo ur ideal.
In pairs, discuss yo u r choices. Vocabulary tree D esigning w ord trees and spidergram s can help you build up yo u r ow n m ental 'm aps' o f v o c a b u la ry areas.
Look at th e list of term s in th e box and put each one in an ap p ro p riate place on the w ord tree below. The first one has been done for you. Recommending a computer E H A friend has asked you to recom m end a com p uter th at suits his needs. He needs to be ab le to access th e Internet, p lay gam es and w o rk w ith graphics, music and vid e o files. W rite an em ail describing its technical features and saying w h y you recom m end it.
Learning objectives In this module, you will: Interacting with your computer Read the description of in p u t devices and then label th e pictures w ith words from th e text. Input devices are the pieces of hardware which allow us to enter information into the computer. The most common are the keyboard and the mouse. We can also interact with a computer by using one of these: Describing input devices A f e ] Listen to a com p uter technician describing three input devices.
W rite w hich devices he's talk in g about. It detecting light from the computer screen and is used by pointing it directly at the screen display. Itthe user answer multiple-choice questions and This is a device for controlling the cursor and selecting items on the screen. There are other ways of describing a device's function: Sony PlayStation 3 controller Functions control video games hold it with both hands, use thumbs to handle directional sticks and face buttons.
Features six-axis sensing system capable of sensing motion in six directions: Describing features We can describe features like this: An optical mouse has an optical sensor instead of a ball underneath. It usually features two buttons and a wheel.
You can connect it to a USB port. In pairs, choose one of these inp ut devices and describe its functio ns and features. Try to guess w hich d evice yo u r p artn e r is describing. The keyboard Label th e p icture of a standard keyb o ard w ith th e groups of keys 1 Function keys appear at the top of the keyboard and can be programmed to do special tasks.
Dedicated keys are used to issue commands or to produce alternative characters, e. A numeric keypad appears to the right of the main keyboard. The Num Lock key is used to switch from numbers to editing keys.
M atch the descriptions w ith th e nam es of the keys a- h. T h en find them on th e keyboard. Each time it is pressed, it produces a blank space. It is also used to confirm commands. It works in combination with other keys. For example, you press this key and C to copy the selected text.
It removes the character to the left of the cursor or any selected text. It moves the cursor horizontally to the right for a fixed number of spaces in tabulations and data fields.
They are used to move the cursor, as an alternative to the mouse. Mouse actions Com plete this text ab o u t the m ouse w ith verbs from the box.
Mouse actions A mouse allows you to Making the same movements with the arrow keys on the keyboard would take much longer. The pointer usually looks like an l-bar, an arrow, or a pointing hand, depending on what you are doing.
A mouse has one or more buttons to communicate with the computer. You can highlight text to be deleted, copied or edited in some way. The mouse is widely used in graphics and design. Similarly, the mouse is used to change the shape of a graphic object. The mouse is also used to start a program or open a document: Speech recognition systems A f e ] Listen to an in te rvie w w ith A n n e Sim pson, an expert in voice input techno log ies and tick the features she m entions.
Speech recognition systems: I I need a good sound card and a microphone. I I can take dictation with accuracy. I I allow you to create and compile a computer program. I I allow you to execute programs and navigate around menus using voice commands. I I allow you to surf the Web by speaking. I I allow you to design graphics. How do you get the best results from speech recognition software? What rate of accuracy is possible with the software?
How can you train the software to be more accurate? What kinds of words aren't in the software's dictionary? IW J In groups, discuss these questions. What are the benefits of speech recognition software? Do you think it will ever be possible to control your computer using only your thoughts? Capture your favourite image The eyes of your computer In pairs, discuss ho w m any w ays there are of capturing an im age on a com puter. C Read the text ag ain and an sw er these questions. How do digital cameras store photographs?
What feature allows mobile phone users to take pictures? Which device would you use to take digital video? What kind of software is used to manipulate video clips on the computer? The eyes of your computer W h at does a scanner d o? A scanner'sees'images and converts the printed text or pictures into electronic codes that can be understood by the computer.
With a flatbed colour scanner, the paper with the image is placed face down on a glass screen, as with a photocopier. Beneath the glass are the lighting and measurement devices. Once the scanner is activated, it reads the image as a series of dots and then generates the digitized image that is sent to the computer and stored as a file. The scanner operates by using three rotating lamps, each of which has a different coloured filter: The resulting three separate images are combined into one by appropriate software.
Photographs are stored in the camera's memory card before being sent to the computer. Some cameras can also be connected to a printer or a TV set to make viewing images easier.
This is usually the case with camera phones - mobile phones with a built-in camera. A camcorder, or digital video camera, records moving pictures and converts them into digital data that can be stored and edited by a computer with special video editing software. Digital video cameras are used by home users to create computer art and video conferencing. They are also used to send live video images via the Internet. In this case they are called web cameras, or webcams. A digital camera takes photos electronically and converts them into digital data binary codes made up of 1s and O s.
It doesn't use the film found in a traditional camera; instead it has a special light-sensitive silicon chip. Scanners Listen to a conversation b etw een V ick y Cam eron, an Inform ation Technology IT lecturer, and one of her students, and com p lete th e student's notes. Facts and opinions W h a t is the difference b etw een facts and o p in io n s? Com plete these definitions. Just think of the possibilities. You can enter data and graphic images directly into your applications word processors or databases.
You can get crisp, clean scans for colour compositions, video and animation work. The ColourScan XR comes complete with its own image-capture software, which allows for colour and grey retouching. And it's easy to use. What more could you want for only 79? It couldn't be cheaper. In the field of flatbeds, the ColourScan XR is the clear winner.
You can scan everything from black and white to bit colour. The package includes a hardware accelerator for JPEG compression and decompression. JPEG technology saves disk space by compressing images by up to 50 to 1.
In creating the ScanPress DF, we have chosen the most advanced technology to give you the best scans with the least effort. It produces images with high colour definition and sharpness.
And it comes with O C R software and Adobe Photoshop, so you can manipulate all the images you capture. The ScanPress DF is a fantastic machine that you will love working with.
And at only , an excellent investment. In sm all groups, com pare yo u r answ ers and decide ab o ut the follow ing. Read th e fo llo w in g exam ples from ad vertisem en ts for inp ut devices. W h a t can you say from these exam ples ab o u t how sup erlatives are fo rm ed? Look at th e H EL P box to check yo ur answers. Com plete th ese sentences w ith the su p erlative form o f th e ad jectives in brackets. They have created the revolutionary FotoFinish is the easy This scanner gives you the good Our university has bought the modern Note the irregular forms: In som e cases, you can m ake m ore than one w ord.
Use a d ictio n a ry to help you. I ' j Suffixes Suffixes change the class of the root word. For example, by adding the suffix -al, the noun digit is changed into the adjective digital.
Suffixes can help you tell if a word is a noun, an adjective or a verb. Common adjectival suffixes are: Com plete these sentences w ith the w ord in brackets and one of these noun suffixes: Use a d ictio n ary to help you. Kodak is a manufacture To avoid red eyes, use the camera's red eye reduce feature. Press release: Kodak has introduced the EasyShare M digital camera, with 7. It is the first camera to incorporate proprietary Kodak Perfect Touch Technology. At the touch of a button, this innovative feature creates better, 3 pictures by bringing out detail in shadows without affecting lighter areas.
Its ideal for underexposed pictures caused by shooting beyond the flash range or in adverse lighting conditions. The M uses the exclusive Kodak Colour Science chip for phenomenal image quality with rich Seventeen programmed scene modes e. Other features include cropping, auto picture rotation, digital red-eye 6 , and blurry picture alert.
For capturing more than just still pictures, the camera also features high-quality VGA 7 capture and playback. Think about these questions. What do you use the device for?
What are your favourite functions? What improvements would you make to the device? I In pairs, discuss these questions. How can you change the picture using the controls? Can you watch TV on your PC monitor? How screen displays work C om plete these definitions w ith w ords from the box. Then read the text on p age 33 and check yo u r answers. Read the text ag ain and an sw er these questions. What technology is used by active-matrix LCDs?
Which unit of frequency is used to measure the brightness of a display? What substance produces light and colour when hit by electrons in a CRT monitor? What are the three advantages of OLED displays? How screen displays work Displays, often called monitors or screens, are the most-used output device on a computer. They provide instant feedback by showing you text and graphic images as you work or play. Because of their slimmer design and lower energy consumption, LCD monitors also called flat panel or flat screen displays are replacing CRTs.
Inside the computer there is a video adapter, or graphics card, which processes images and sends signals to the monitor. CRT monitors use a VGA video graphics adapter cable, which converts digital signals into analogue signals.
Colour depth refers to the number of colours a monitor can display. This depends on the number of bits used to describe the colour of a single pixel. Monitors with a bit depth are used in digital video, animation and video games to get certain effects. Basic fe a tu re s Resolution refers to the number of dots of colour, known as pixels picture elements , contained in a display.
It is expressed by identifying the number of pixels on the horizontal and vertical axes. A typical resolution is x D is p la y te c h n o lo g ie s An LCD is made of two glass plates with a liquid crystal material between them. The crystals block the light in different quantities to create the image. It contains millions of tiny red, green and blue phosphor dots that glow when struck by an electron beam that travels across the screen and create a visible image. PCs can be connected to video projectors, which project the image onto a large screen.
They are used for presentations and home theatre applications. Two measurements describe the size of your display: Historically, computer displays, like most televisions, have had an aspect ratio of 4: For widescreen LCD displays, the aspect ratio is Highdefinition TV also uses this format. The viewable screen size is measured diagonally, so a 19"screen measures 19" from the top left to the bottom right.
In a plasma screen, images are created by a plasma discharge which contains noble non-harmful gases. Plasma TVs allow for larger screens and wide viewing angles, making them ideal for movies.
The material emits light when stimulated by an electrical current, which is known as electroluminescence. They consume less energy, produce brighter colours and are flexible - i. Choosing the right display device a E Listen to five custom ers in a co m p uter shop describing th eir disp lay device needs.
W h ich d evice a-e w o u ld you recom m end to each p erson? In pairs, discuss yo ur choices and g ive reasons for them. CambridgeHitachi interactive whiteboard Allows interaction with a projected computer image Board size: Pioneer 50" Plasma TV Resolution: B [ W J In pairs, discuss w hich o f th e disp lay devices you w o u ld m ost like to ow n.
G ive reasons for yo ur choice. Ergonomics A b J Listen to Tony Clark, an expert in com p uter ergonom ics, talking to some office w orkers ab o u t health and safety. W h a t health problem s associated with com p uter use do th e office w orkers m entio n?
B E Listen again and com p lete these extracts. Position the keyboard Ergonomics - the study of how people interact safely and efficiently with machines and their work conditions. If you decide to build your own PC, protect yourself from electric shocks. Get an adjustable chair. Don't put your monitor in front of a window. You should look down at the monitor, not up.
You shouldn't use a monitor that's fuzzy or distorts the image. The best position is between the screen and the keyboard, or at the same height as the screen; this can reduce neck, back and eyestrain. Irresponsible disposal of electronic waste can cause severe environmental and health problems. Look at these guid elin es for help. It's dangerous. Position the monitor at eye level or just below. Leave enough space behind the monitor for unobstructed movement. Don't sit near the sides or back of CRT monitors.
Use LCD screens instead - they're free from radiation. Keep the screen clean to prevent distorting shadows. An ergonomic school or office You have been asked to w rite a list of g uid elines for m aking yo u r school or office m ore ergonom ic.
Consider below. Location and features of telephones Layout of cables and switches for a wired network Wireless internet access and wireless network Maintenance and technical repairs. M ake a list. Read th e article on page 38 and then label the typ es of p rinter W h ich typ e s of p rinter aren 't p ictured? Laser printers produce output at great speed and with a very high resolution of 1,, dpi. They scan the image with a laser beam and transfer it to paper with a special ink powder called toner.
They are constantly being improved.
In terms of speed and image quality, laser printers are preferred by experts for various reasons; for instance, they have a wider range of scalable fonts than inkjets, can emulate different language systems, and can produce highquality graphics; however, they are still expensive for home users.
Printing is the final stage in creating a document.
Therm al transfer printers are used to produce Since the results you can obtain with different types of colour images by transferring a wax-based ink printer will vary substantially, here is a guide to help onto the paper.
They are popular for printing bar you decide which one is most suitable for your needs. To begin with, you should take into account that Imagesetters produce very high-resoludon output printers vary in cost, speed, print quality, and other up to 3, dpi on paper or on the actual film for factors such as noise or printing method. Technology making the printing plates.
In addition, they are is evolving so quickly that there is always a printer for extremely fast. Imagesetters are most often used in every application or need. Although they produce Dot-matrix printers use pins to print the dots the highest quality output, they have one important required to shape a character.
They can print text disadvantage: They In modern lithographic printing, images are are used to print multi-part forms, self-copying paper created on a DTP computer and then output and continuous-form labels. They are slower than laser directly to the printing plates, without requiring printers see below but much cheaper. This technology is Inkjet printers operate by projecting small ink called com puter to plate, or CTP, and the droplets onto paper to form the required image.
Colour and hues are created by the precise mixing Finally, we have plotters. Plotters use ink and fine of cyan, magenta, yellow and black inks. Inkjets pens held in a carriage to draw very detailed designs are fairly fast, quiet, and not as expensive as laser on paper.
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